Course:APBI200/Lecture Notes

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APBI200
Introduction to Soil Science
SOIL 200 teaching team for 2017W2.
Course Info
Instructor: Dr. Sandra Brown
Email: sandra.brown@ubc.ca
Office: MCML 229
Sandra's Office Hour: Wed 10-11 am
Classroom: Forest Sciences Centre 1005
Lab: MCML 102A
TAs: TA Info
' PASS Info
Syllabus: | Syllabus
Course Material
Lecture Notes Lab Manual
Problem Sets Exams
Lab Assign. My Grades
Bonus Assign.
Course Discussion


Here you will find all the APBI 200 Lecture Notes and some additional information, including student questions.

Contents

Lecture Jan 2: Introduction to Soil Science

Welcome to the APBI 200 - Introduction to Soil Science course!


Please note that there will be NO labs during the 1st week of this course. Labs are planned to start on week of Jan 14th. Announcement about labs will be made on Jan 7


As a follow-up to some topics mentioned in today's lecture, pls check a video clip "Soils Sustain Life" at http://youtu.be/vDL6F6GkAzI . Also, you might want to read this SSSA blog https://soilsmatter.wordpress.com/2016/12/15/the-soil-provides-services-to-me/ about soil ecosystem services.

Lecture Jan 4: Soil in Perspective

Topics covered in this lecture: A. What is soil?; B. Some special terms used in soil science - pedon; polypedon; soil horizons; solum; soil profile; C. Soil components

Lecture Jan 7: Weathering and soil formation

Topics covered in this lecture: A. Weathering processes (physical, chemical and biological); B. Five factors of soil formation


Lecture Jan 9: Soil Physics - Solids (1)

Topics covered in this lecture: A. Soil as a 3-phase system; B. Mass and volume relationships; C. Soil particles and texture


Important announcements/reminders:
-Pls note that for this course, all material is (or will be) posted here - Canvas is only used for the Gradebook and mid-term feedback
-All assignments for this course are to be submitted as hard copies, either in class or in the drop box outside of the MCML102A room (your lab room). First problem set is due on Jan 18, 2019
-There will be lots of hints re. the problem set no.1 in today's lecture........

Lecture Jan 11: Soil Physics - Solids (2)

Topics covered in this lecture: Particle mineralogy and its effects on physical properties: A. Some properties of soil particles; B. Phyllosilicate clay minerals

-Pls note that Sandra's office hour is on Wednesdays 10:00-11:00 a.m. TAs' office hours are posted at http://wiki.ubc.ca/Course:APBI200/Teaching_Assistants

Lecture Jan 14: Soil Physics - Solids (3), continued

Topics covered in this lecture: Particle mineralogy and its effects on physical properties: A. Phyllosilicate clay minerals – cont. B. Inter-particle forces, flocculation and dispersion
Pls note that for this lecture we will use the same lecture notes as for the previous lecture

Lecture Jan 16: Soil Physics - Solids (4)

Topics covered in this lecture: Soil consistency and structure: A. Soil structure: formation, stabilization, classification and significance; B. Soil consistency; plastic and liquid limits; soil strength, puddling


To read more about recent mudslide in California that occurred on Jan 9, 2018 go to https://crusaderjournal.com/2018/01/10/death-toll-rises-to-17-in-california-mudslides-17-missing/

Lecture Jan 18: Soil Physics - Water (1)

Topics covered in this lecture: A. Energy concepts B. Water potential

Lecture Jan 21: Soil Physics - Water (2)

Topics covered in this lecture: A. Soil matric potential and its relationship to soil water content; B. Water retention characteristics and air entry value

Lecture Jan 23: Soil Physics - Qualitative description of soil wetness

Topics covered: A. Max. retentive capacity; B. Field capacity, C. Permanent wilting point, D. Available water storage capacity, E. Hygroscopic coefficient

Lecture Jan 25: Soil Physics - Water (3)

Topics covered in this lecture: Soil water flow - A. Inferring the direction of water flow; B. Water potential gradient, C. Soil hydraulic conductivity

Lecture Jan 28: Soil Physics - Heat

Topics covered: Soil thermal behavior and properties - A. Thermal behavior (Fourier’s Law); B. Soil thermal properties (conductivity, capacity, admittance, diffusivity)


If you would like to read more about soil thermal properties, pls check the attached pdf file. The file contains more information than is needed for our course, but definitions and data for sand, clay, and peat (organic material) might be usefully to clarify differences among thermal properties covered during today's lecture.

http://lfs-sw.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2014/01/Soil-thermal-propeties.pdf

Lecture Jan 30: Practice exam session 1

We will have 3 practice exam sessions during this course, which will provide you with an opportunity to review material covered up to that point in the course.
Students are divided (based on their last names) into 5 groups. Each group is then further divided into smaller groups of 4-6 students and each group receives a question to answer. You are are allowed to use any kind of material you wish – textbook, notes, Internet, etc. to help you answer the question. You should write an outline of your answer on a large notepad paper. One student from each group presents the answer to the rest of students. The best answers are now posted on a wall across from Sandra's office (i.e. MCML229).

Division of students for the Exam practice session no.1 is as follows:
Students with last names starting with A - D please go to SCRF 1004
Students with last names starting with E - K please go to SCRF 208
Students with last names starting with L - M please go to SCRF 209
Students with last names starting with N - S please go to SCRF 204
Students with last names starting with T - Z please go to FRST 1005

Lecture Feb 1: Soil Physics - Soil aeration, solute transportation

Topics covered: A. Nature of soil aeration; B. Diffusion (Fick’s Law); C. Solute transport processes (mass flow and diffusion, diffuse double layer)


Lecture Feb 4: Midterm #1

The APBI 200 exams are all a closed-book type of exam and no formula sheets or cheat-sheets will be allowed

Please bring a calculator, since cell phones will NOT be allowed for calculations during the exam

Lecture Feb 6: Soil Chemistry - Soil reaction

Topics covered: A. Soil pH and acidity; B. Soil salinity; C. Ion adsorption and ion exchange reactions


Lecture Feb 8: Soil Chemistry - Ion exchange

Topics covered: A. Cation exchangeable capacity, B. Base saturation, C. Exchangeable Al, D. Anion exchange capacity; E. Introduction to soil organic matter (SOM)


Lecture Feb 11: Soil organic matter - SOM (1)

Topics covered: A. Components of SOM; B. Chelates; C. Chemical properties of SOM

Lecture Feb 13: Soil Chemistry - Soil organic matter - cont.

Topics covered: A. Mineralization and immobilization; B. Significance of C/N ratio; C. Significance of SOM

Lecture Feb 15: Soil Chemistry - Soil organic matte - cont.

Topics covered: A. Organic soils; B. Organic horizons in soils; C. Forest humus forms


Lecture Feb 25: Soil Biology - Soil Organisms

Topics covered: Major groups of soil organisms and their roles


Lecture Feb 27: Soil Biology - Soil food web

Topics covered: A. Abundance of soil organisms; B. Soil food web;

Lecture Mar 1: Soil Biology - Biochemical transformations; Interaction of microbes with roots

Topics covered: A. Biochemical transformations (biological N fixation; mineralization/immobilization, denitrification); B. Interactions of soil microbes with plant roots (rhizosphere and mycorrhizae)



Lecture Mar 4: Soil Fertility - Nutrients

Topics covered: A. Plant Nutrients; B. Retention and release of nutrients; C. Transport to roots and nutrient uptake by roots; D. Nutrient cycles: N, S


Lecture Mar 6: Practice exam session 2

Division of students for the Exam practice session no.1 is as follows:
Students with last names starting with A - D please go to SCRF 1004
Students with last names starting with E - K please go to SCRF 208
Students with last names starting with L - M please go to SCRF 209
Students with last names starting with N - S please go to SCRF 204
Students with last names starting with T - Z please go to FRST 1005

Lecture Mar 8: Soil Fertility - Nutrients - cont.

Topics covered: A. Nutrient cycles: P, K


Lecture Mar 11: Midterm #2


Lecture Mar 13: Soil Fertility - Nutrients - cont.

Topics covered: A. Nutrient cycles: Ca and Mg

Lecture Mar 15: Pedology - Classification concepts

Topics covered: A. Soil forming processes; B. Soil classification; C. Soil horizons


Lecture Mar 18: Pedology - Canadian System of Soil Classification

You should view video clips of 10 soil orders posted at this website

Soil Classification Canadian Soil Orders.jpg


Lecture Mar 20: Pedology - Canadian System of Soil Classification, continued

Pls note that for this lecture we will use the same lecture notes as for the previous lecture

To learn more about how knowledge of Vertisols helped Saracens in their battle against Crusaders on July 3-4, 1187, pls read the attached pdf file http://lfs-sw.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2014/03/Vertisols-and-military-history.pdf

Lecture Mar 22: Urban soils

Lecture on urban soils

Lecture Mar 25: Soil degradation

Humans cause erosion one hundred times faster than normal Experts have long linked deforestation and intensive farming to worsening erosion rates around the world. Although studied extensively, increasing erosion rates due to human-induced activities have rarely been quantified by scientists. However, new research conducted by geologists finds that erosion rates in the southeastern United States increased one hundred times after the arrival of European colonists in the 1700s due to tree clearing and unsustainable agricultural practices. Read more: http://news.mongabay.com/2015/0306-montoro-humans-cause-erosion.html#ixzz3U4873dug

Lecture Mar 27: Practice exam session 3

Division of students for the Exam practice session no.1 is as follows:
Students with last names starting with A - D please go to SCRF 1004
Students with last names starting with E - K please go to SCRF 208
Students with last names starting with L - M please go to SCRF 209
Students with last names starting with N - S please go to SCRF 204
Students with last names starting with T - Z please go to FRST 1005

Lecture Mar 29: Undergraduate Research


Lecture Apr 1: Component interactions


Lecture Apr 3: Course summary

This will be the last class for this course during which Sandra will present a fun summary of the course .......

Soil Trivial Pruisuit with answers

Beyond APBI 200

In preparation for the final exams (Apr 15 or 26), two review sessions will be held:

Review session 1 - Friday April 12th at 12:00 noon - 2:00 pm in McMl 166

Review session 2 - Wednesday April 24 at 12:00 noon - 2:00 pm in WOOD1

During these sessions I will answer any content related questions you have.