Introduction to Soil Science
|Instructors:||Dr. Maja Krzic; Dr. Sandra Brown|
|Office:||MCML 227 (Maja); MCML 229 (Sandra)|
|Instructors' Office Hr:||Wed 12-1 pm|
Lab: MCML 102A
|Lecture Notes||Lab Manual|
|Lab Assign.||My Grades|
Here you will find all the APBI 200 Lecture Notes and some additional information, including student questions.
Lecture Jan 6: Introduction to Soil Science
Welcome to the APBI 200 - Introduction to Soil Science course!
Please note that there will be NO labs during the 1st week of this course. Labs are planned to start on week of Jan 13th. Announcement about labs will be made on Jan 10
As a follow-up to some topics mentioned in today's lecture, pls check a video clip "Soils Sustain Life" at http://youtu.be/vDL6F6GkAzI . Also, you might want to read this SSSA blog https://soilsmatter.wordpress.com/2016/12/15/the-soil-provides-services-to-me/ about soil ecosystem services.
Lecture Jan 8: Soil in Perspective
Topics covered in this lecture: A. What is soil?; B. Some special terms used in soil science - pedon; polypedon; soil horizons; solum; soil profile; C. Soil components
Lecture Jan 10: Weathering and soil formation
Topics covered in this lecture: A. Weathering processes (physical, chemical and biological); B. Five factors of soil formation
Lecture Jan 13: Soil Physics - Solids (1) - Background and terminology
Topics covered in this lecture: A. Soil as a 3-phase system; B. Mass and volume relationships; C. Soil particles and texture
-Pls note that for this course, all material is (or will be) posted here - Canvas is only used for the Gradebook and mid-term feedback
-All assignments for this course are to be submitted as hard copies, either in class or in the drop box outside of the MCML102A room (your lab room)
-There will be lots of hints re. the problem set no.1 in today's lecture........
|Lecture Jan 15|
|UBC was closed on this day; hence, there were no lectures|
Lecture Jan 17: Soil Physics - Solids (2) - Particle mineralogy and its effects on physical properties
Topics covered in this lecture: A. Some properties of soil particles; B. Phyllosilicate clay minerals
TAs' office hours are posted at http://wiki.ubc.ca/Course:APBI200/Teaching_Assistants
Lecture Jan 20: Soil Physics - Solids (3) - Particle mineralogy and its effects on physical properties, continued
Topics covered in this lecture: A. Phyllosilicate clay minerals – cont. B. Inter-particle forces, flocculation and dispersion
Pls note that for this lecture we will use the same lecture notes as for the previous lecture
Lecture Jan 22: Soil Physics - Solids (4) - Soil consistency and structure
Topics covered in this lecture: A. Soil structure: formation, stabilization, classification and significance; B. Soil consistency; plastic and liquid limits; soil strength, puddling
Lecture Jan 24: Soil organic matter (SOM)
Topics covered in this lecture: A. Introduction of basic terms. B. Components of SOM. C. Properties and importance of SOM
Lecture Jan 27: Soil Physics - Soil water (1) - Energy concepts
Topics covered in this lecture: A. Energy concepts B. Water potential
Lecture Jan 29: Soil Physics - Soil water (2) - Soil water retention
Topics covered in this lecture: A. Soil matric potential and its relationship to soil water content; B. Water retention characteristics and air entry value
Lecture Jan 31: Soil Physics - Soil water (3) - Soil water flow
Topics covered in this lecture: Soil water flow - A. Inferring the direction of water flow; B. Water potential gradient, C. Soil hydraulic conductivity
Lecture Feb 3: Soil Physics - Soil water (4) - Qualitative description of soil wetness
Topics covered: A. Max. retentive capacity; B. Field capacity, C. Permanent wilting point, D. Available water storage capacity, E. Hygroscopic coefficient
Lecture Feb 5: Practice exam session 1
We will have 3 practice exam sessions during this course, which will provide you with an opportunity to review material covered up to that point in the course.
Students are divided (based on their last names) into 5 groups. Each group is then further divided into smaller groups of 4-6 students and each group receives a question to answer. You are are allowed to use any kind of material you wish – textbook, notes, Internet, etc. to help you answer the question. You should write an outline of your answer on a large notepad paper. One student from each group presents the answer to the rest of students. The best answers will be posted on a wall across from Sandra's & Maja's office (i.e. MCML229 & 227).
Division of students for the Exam practice session no.1 is as follows (true for both sections 001 & 002):
Students with last names starting with A - H please go to MCML166
Students with last names starting with I - R please go to MCML358
Students with last names starting with S - Z please go to MCML260
Lecture Feb 7: Midterm #1
The APBI 200 exams are all a closed-book type of exam and no formula sheets or cheat-sheets will be allowed
Please bring a calculator, since cell phones will NOT be allowed for calculations during the exam
Lecture Feb 10: Soil Physics - Soil thermal behavior and properties (Heat)
Topics covered: A. Thermal behavior (Fourier’s Law); B. Soil thermal properties (conductivity, capacity, admittance, diffusivity)
If you would like to read more about soil thermal properties, pls check the attached pdf file. The file contains more information than is needed for our course, but definitions and data for sand, clay, and peat (organic material) might be usefully to clarify differences among thermal properties covered during today's lecture.
Lecture Feb 12: Soil Physics - Soil aeration, solute transportation
Topics covered: A. Nature of soil aeration; B. Diffusion (Fick’s Law); C. Solute transport processes (mass flow and diffusion, diffuse double layer)
Lecture Feb 14: Soil Chemistry (1) - Soil reaction
Topics covered: A. Soil pH and acidity; B. Soil salinity; C. Introduction to Ion adsorption and exchange reactions
Lecture Feb 24: Soil Chemistry (2) - Ion adsorption & exchange
Topics covered: A. Cation exchangeable capacity, B. Base saturation, C. Exchangeable Al, D. Anion exchange capacity
Lecture Feb 26: Soil Chemistry (3) - Soil organic matter
Topics covered: A. Mineralization & immobilization; B. Significance of C/N ratio; C. pH dependent charge; D. Chelates; E. Significance of SOM
Lecture Feb 28: Soil Classification - Organic soils
Topics covered: A. Organic soil order; B. Organic horizons in soils
Lecture Mar 2: Soil Biology & Nutrients - Soil Biology (1) - Soil Organisms
Topics covered: Major groups of soil organisms and their roles
Lecture Mar 4: Soil Biology & Nutrients - Soil Biology (2) - Soil food web
Topics covered: A. Abundance of soil organisms; B. Soil food web; C. Inroduction to biochemical transformations
Lecture Mar 6: Soil Biology & Nutrients - Soil Biology (3) - Biochemical transformations; Interaction of microbes with roots
Topics covered: A. Biochemical transformations (biological N fixation; mineralization/immobilization, denitrification); B. Interactions of soil microbes with plant roots (rhizosphere and mycorrhizae)
Lecture Mar 9: Soil Fertility - Nutrients
Topics covered: A. Plant Nutrients; B. Retention and release of nutrients; C. Nutrient cycles: N, S
Lecture Mar 11: Soil Fertility - Nutrients - cont.
Topics covered: A. Nutrient cycles: P, K, Ca & Mg
Lecture Mar 13: Practice exam session 2
Division of students for the Exam practice session no.2 is as follows (true for both sections 001 & 002):
Students with last names starting with A - H please go to MCML342
Students with last names starting with I - R please go to MCML102A
Students with last names starting with S - Z please go to MCML166
Here are today's questions & ANSWERS https://wiki.ubc.ca/images/c/c1/Disc_q2_2020_Mar19_2020_notes.pdf
Lecture Mar 16: Midterm #2 - moved to Mar 20
As per UBC’s official announcement on March 13, all UBC courses are to transition online as of March 16, 2020. Consequently, our midterm no.2 will be postponed until Friday (March 20) and it will be online.
Please note that the exam will occur during your regular class time (i.e., 10:00 - 10:50 am for section 001, and 11:00 - 11:50 am for section 002). Your exam will be 50 minutes long, and you will need internet access. Details to follow next week.
Lecture Mar 18: Soil Fertility - Nutrients - cont.
Topics covered: A. Nutrient cycles: P, K, Ca & Mg ..... NOTE that the PDF notes for this lecture are in the file that is posted under March 11
Please note that for APBI200 online lectures, you do NOT have to attend online lecture in real time. Staring with March 18th, we will be posting videos of our lecture slides with either Maja's or Sandra's narration.
Here are 2 video clips of Maja's lecture for Mar 18:
Alternatively, you can access this video at https://www.dropbox.com/s/zeyc5uvlfwlojd6/Video_Lecture_Mar18_2020.mp4?dl=0
Lecture Mar 20 - online midterm#2
Sandra & Maja are working on setting up the online midterm in Canvas to be held on Mar 20 during your regular class times (ie 10:00-10:50 am for section 001 and 11:00-11:50am for section 002). Pls stay tuned for further details (Maja & Sandra)
Topics that were originally planned for Mar 20 are moved to Mar 23 (see below under March 23)
Lecture Mar 23: Pedology - Soil classification & soil horizons
A. Soil forming processes; B. Soil classification; C. Soil horizons
Video clips of Maja's lecture for Mar 23:
- Mar 23 Lecture - Part 1 (soil forming processes)
- Mar 23 Lecture - Part 2 (soil classification)
- Mar 23 Lecture - Part 3 (soil horizons)
In order to watch videos that are longer than 15 min (sorry there are several of them), you have following 2 options:
- Watch it on a computer, since computers have more memory than phones, or
- Download (free) DropBox app to your phone, and watch the video through the app. Without DropBox app, one can only get a 15-min preview.
Please refer to the APBI200 lab manual (lab #7) to read about relevant information about soil classification, soil horizons and 10 orders in the Canadian soil classification system.
And last but not least, pls check out these SOIL BLOOPERS at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEo9bJiVikY&list=PLuu2Q20AUo4epGmJebjsUfyqqNH20ReyV&index=7 .... you might even recognize some of the characters ;-)
Lecture Mar 25: Pedology - Canadian System of Soil Classification
Topics covered: A. Canadian soil classification system; B. Soil orders
Video clips of Maja's lecture for both Mar 25 & 27:
- Mar 25-27 Lecture - Part 1
- Mar 25-27 Lecture - Part 2
- Mar 25-27 Lecture - Part 3
- Mar 25-27 Lecture - Luvisolic order, that was skipped by mistake
You should view video clips of 10 soil orders posted at this website
To learn more about how knowledge of Vertisols helped Saracens in their battle against Crusaders on July 3-4, 1187, pls read the attached pdf file http://lfs-sw.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2014/03/Vertisols-and-military-history.pdf
Lecture Mar 27: Canadian System of Soil Classification - cont.
Pls note that for this lecture we will use the same lecture notes as for the previous lecture
Lecture Mar 30: Urban soils
Humans cause erosion one hundred times faster than normal
Experts have long linked deforestation and intensive farming to worsening erosion rates around the world. Although studied extensively, increasing erosion rates due to human-induced activities have rarely been quantified by scientists. However, new research conducted by geologists finds that erosion rates in the southeastern United States increased one hundred times after the arrival of European colonists in the 1700s due to tree clearing and unsustainable agricultural practices.
Read more: http://news.mongabay.com/2015/0306-montoro-humans-cause-erosion.html#ixzz3U4873dug
Lecture Apr 1: Soil ecosystem services
Lecture Apr 3: Practice exam session 3
Practice exam session #3 questions
Here are details how will this session be organized:
- On April 3 (at 10 am), Sandra & Maja posted the practice exam questions here (see file above) & setup threads for each of the 6 questions "Discussion forum".
- You can work individually or in groups (remotely of course ;-) ) to collectively answer these questions.
- Pls remember that, to post your discussion or clarification questions, you will need to login to wiki using your CWL.
- At each of the question threads, by replaying, you can post your answers and modify the answers posted by others
- Maja & Sandra will moderate the wiki discussion, but will NOT answer questions if there are no posts by students.
- Students will be able to provide their input in "Discussion forum" staring as of 10 am on April 3rd until midnight on April 5.
Lecture Apr 6: The lighter side of soil science
In this time of social distancing, we thought you might enjoy... Memes 2020
Note: Course evaluations are open. Please take a few minutes to give us your feedback, we really do read and use the input you provide.
Lecture Apr 8: Course summary - Soil Science Trivial Pursuit game
This will be the last virtual (or otherwise) class for the APBI 200 course.
Note: Course evaluations are open until April 13, 2020. Please take a few minutes to give us your feedback, we really do read and use the input you provide.
Study tips for the final exam