Science:Math Exam Resources/Courses/MATH101/April 2006/Question 05
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Question 05 

FullSolution Problems. Justify your answers and show all your work. Simplification of answers is not required. The vertical crosssections of a bathtub perpendicular to its long axis have the shape shown below. They are squares of side length 50cm surmounting a semicircle. Assuming the tub is full of water, find the hydrostatic force on one of its vertical ends (which also has the shape below). For the density of water, use the value 1000 kg/m^{3} and for the acceleration due to gravity, use the value 9.8 m/s^{2}. 
Make sure you understand the problem fully: What is the question asking you to do? Are there specific conditions or constraints that you should take note of? How will you know if your answer is correct from your work only? Can you rephrase the question in your own words in a way that makes sense to you? 
If you are stuck, check the hints below. Read the first one and consider it for a while. Does it give you a new idea on how to approach the problem? If so, try it! If after a while you are still stuck, go for the next hint. 
Hint 1 

It helps to break this problem up into two shapes and deal with the force on each shape. Put a coordinate system on this figure so that 0 is on top. Then choose a sample point first only in the square then next only in the semicircle. 
Hint 2 

For the semicircle, at a sample point, draw a horizontal line and connect a radius from the centre of the semicircle to the intersection point with the horizontal line and the semicircle. Then use Pythagorean theorem to determine lengths. A picture is included in the solution and might make this hint clearer. 
Hint 3 

Recall that the hydrostatic pressure at a depth h measured from the top of a surface is given by, where is the density of the substance exerting the force (water in this case) and is the acceleration due to gravity. 
Checking a solution serves two purposes: helping you if, after having used all the hints, you still are stuck on the problem; or if you have solved the problem and would like to check your work.

Solution 

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Please rate my easiness! It's quick and helps everyone guide their studies. Start by placing a coordinate system on your picture with 0 on top. We break the problem up into two parts. First, we take care of the square. Choose a sample point somewhere between 0 and 50 on your picture. Draw the horizontal line across at this point. A picture is included below. The area of this horizontal strip is given by . The pressure on this strip is given by . where is the density of water and is the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, the force on this strip is . The total force is . This can be expressed as the following integral
Now we compute the force on the semicircle and add it to this force to get the total force. To make the notation easier, I will reuse some of the letters from above. Choose a sample point somewhere between 50 and 75 on your picture. Draw the horizontal line across at this point. A picture is included below. To compute the length of the horizontal line, draw the radius as shown in the picture. Then the Pythagorean theorem tells us that the length across is double . Thus, the area of this strip is given by . The pressure on this strip is given by . Thus, the force on this strip is . The total force is . This can be expressed as the following integral
Adding the two integrals together, we get
The last integral can be recognized as the [scaled] area of a quarter circle of a circle with radius 25. The first integral we can let . When x = 0, then u= 625 and when x = 25 then u=0 and . Hence,
which is our final answer. 