Course:FNH200/Projects/2022/Whipping Cream

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Dairyland Liquid Whipping Cream

Whipping cream (synonymously, crème Chantilly) is a fatty milk food product used in many contemporary foods, including, but not limited to caffeinated beverages (i.e. coffee, iced caffeinated drinks, bubble tea), desserts (i.e. cupcakes, cakes, pies), soups, and pudding.[1] Whipping cream mainly comes in pre-made aerosol cans, tubs, or are whipped from liquid whipping cream. Its fat content ranges from approximately 32-36%, which is a crucial property in whipping cream products as it contributes to the final aerated product.[2] The final aerated product is a colloidal dispersion; it is more specifically a foam, which is possible due to the fat contents trapping air within the cream.[3] See the Chemical Composition section for details on this phenomenon.


Whipped cream was made by mixing several ingredients such as fresh cream, sugar, and rosewater using a small whisk to give it an airy texture and a snow-like appearance. It was widely enjoyed in Italy in the 16th century. An Italian cook named Bartolomeo Scappi was known for the recipe.[4]

Ingredients & Chemical Composition

15 millilitres of whipped cream contains 33% fat, 20% being saturated fat and no trans fat. It contains no carbohydrates or iron, 2% protein, and minute amounts of cholesterol, sodium, potassium, and calcium. Ingredients such as cellulose gel, carrageenan, and cellulose gum present in Dairyland whipping cream are used as stabilizers and thickening agents. They increase the viscosity of the aqueous phase which slows the process of creaming or syneresis[5]. Additionally, carrageenan improves the stability of the cream when whipped.[6]

Dairyland Liquid Whipping Cream (Nutrition Facts and Ingredient List)

Whipping cream is an oil-in-water emulsion that changes to a foam when whipped which is stabilized by its own milk fat. Milk fat is composed of many lipids and triglycerides. The phospholipids surrounding the triglycerides allow the aqueous phase to only interact with the hydrophilic head of the phospholipid while the triglycerides are facing the hydrophobic tail of the phospholipid.[7] When mechanically whipping the cream, air is forced into the mixture, and eventually the fat globules are destabilized and denatured by the act of disrupting the membranes of the phospholipids which cause the fat globules to stick together. Some fat globules are unable to stick and are aligned with air pockets, forming the peaks of whipped cream.[8]

Production & Processing

Typical non-imitation (traditional) whipping cream is made from whole milk as its starting material.[7] The milk itself should contain minimal to no heat-resistant bacteria as its presence could disrupt the emulsion, ultimately compromising the manufacturing process. Raw milk is usually collected over the span of 2 days where it is cooled and stored at 0-4°C before pasteurization,[9] it should not be refrigerated for long periods of time because this can lead to growth of psychrotrophic bacteria (growth temperature -5 to 35°C). These bacteria can create proteins that are resistant to temperatures of pasteurization and diminish quality of the final product. Whipping cream is pasteurized at 80°C or higher for 15 seconds in a plate heat exchanger and separated from the milk at 55°C. When it is time to cool the whipping cream, it should is not cooled to lower than 8°C. This control over the rate of cooling allows for better management over the fat crystal network that forms as cream cools. The cream is then moved to a cold storage at 5°C for at least 5-6 hours (can go up to 24 hours) with a gentle agitator during which crystallization, for the most part, is completed.[10]

Labelling Requirements[11]

The Food and Drug Regulations (FDR) and the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations (SFCR) require a common name of "Whipping Cream" on the main panel surface of the carton. This label must be in boldface type and be written in both English and French when being sold in Canada. Whipping cream, a prepackaged product, must also state the animal source from which it comes. In carton above, it states " Made with Canadian Milk" on the main panel surface beneath the common name. Dairy products such as whipping cream also must declare their ingredients and components as a list on the product packaging.[12] The net quantity is 473mL and must be present on the panel of the carton using metric units. The carton must state the name and principal place of business. For Dairyland whipping cream, Saputo Inc. in Port Coquitlam (BC), Edmonton (AB), and Saskatoon (SK) are the places of business which are all located in Canada as Dairyland whipping cream is a product of Canada. This whipping cream is 33% milk fat and is labelled on the main panel surface where it is required. Storage instructions for prepackaged products with a less than 90 day shelf life are shown on the side surface panel under the ingredients stating to keep the product refrigerated. Also included is a best before date of Aug 16, 2022 on the top panel of the carton. The nutritional label and serving size are listed on the side panel.


Following the pasteurization process, whipping cream, such as that sold by Dairyland, is commonly packaged in refrigerated cartons, also known as gable top cartons. This packaging is made from paperboard (80%) with a layer of polyethylene on both the inner and outer layer (20%) to protect the paper from deterioration caused by both products on the inside and the outside environment. The benefits of using cartons include being recyclable, lightweight, transportation efficient, and have a good product (roughly 94%) to package (roughly 6%) ratio.[13]

Exam Question

Which of the following is true about the pasteurization of whipping cream?

a) prevents the growth of spoilage causing bacteria

b) eliminates pathogenic micro-organisms

c) increases the shelf life

d) a and b

e) b and c

Answer: E


This question should be on the final exam because this question checks the understanding of pasteurization which was covered in lesson 6 under methods used for thermal preservation. Whipping cream is a low acidic food that undergoes pasteurization in order to kill the pathogenic micro-organisms and viruses that may be present in the product. The pasteurization process is not sufficient to eliminate all psychrotrophic spoilage-causing bacteria, therefore storage at refrigerated temperatures (4°C or lower) allows for whipping cream to maintain its shelf life.


  1. "Cream: Types of Cream". Retrieved August 5, 2022.
  2. "Milk Products". Understanding Ingredients for the Canadian Baker.
  3. "Colloids". Chemistry LibreTexts.
  4. Scully, Terence (2008). The Opera of Bartolomeo Scappi (1570): L'arte et prudenza d'un maestro Cuoco. ISBN 0-8020-9624-7.
  5. Haisman, D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. pp. 1380–1383. ISBN 978-0-12-227235-6.
  6. Kováčová, R., Štětina, J., Čurda, L. (2010). "Influence of processing and κ-carrageenan on properties of whipping cream". Journal of Food Engineering. 99: 471–478.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Whipped Cream". SafeFood Factory.
  8. Fangshuai, Peng; Shenghua, He; Huaxi, Yi; Weili, Xu; Rongchun, Wang; Ying, Ma; Qi, Li (2018). "Physical, textural, and rheological properties of whipped cream affected by milk fat globule membrane protein". International of Food Properties. 21: 1190–1202. line feed character in |title= at position 47 (help)
  9. "Food Safety & Production Standards". Dairy Farmers of Canada.
  10. Hoffman, W (2016). "Cream: Manufacture". Reference Module in Food Science – via Elsevier.
  11. "Labelling requirements for dairy products". Government of Canada. 2022-07-06. Retrieved August 05 2022. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  12. "List of ingredients and allergens on food labels". Government of Canada. 2022-07-06.
  13. "Cartons 101". Carton Council.