From genes to proteins

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From genes to proteins
Biology Tutoring Wiki
Welcome to the tutoring wiki for BIOL 200. Here is where you'll find learning objectives and explanations for Unit 4 of BIOL 200.
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Nuclear Function - RNA Transcription

Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription and translation, including TEM image interpretation.

Interpret an electron micrograph of eukaryotic transcription unit.

Explain with diagrams how different transcription units can be transcribed in different directions relative to the chromosome.

Discuss the importance and specificity of macromolecular interactions involved in transcription regulation by interpreting experimental evidence in eukaryotes.

Nuclear Function - RNA Processing

Compare and contrast the processing of mRNAs, transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes.

Discuss experimental evidence for RNA splicing, e.g. evidence for intron removal from mRNA, specificity of splicing events as related to splice junction sequences and alternate splicing.

Describe the biosynthesis of ribosomes and the relation of these processes to nucleolar structure and function.

Genetic Code and Translation

Review the features of the genetic code and explain how they are related to the mechanisms of transcription and translation.

Explain the tRNA adapter systems - the role of coupling of tRNA to amino acids by amino acyl tRNA synthetases and the role of these enzymes in establishing the specificity of the genetic code.

Review (self-study) the events of translation including binding of mRNAs to ribosomes and protein factors in initiation, elongation and termination of translation.