Documentation:Open Case Studies/FRST522/2020/An assessment of the Fisheries Resources Reconciliation Agreement between the Federal Government of Canada and the BC Coastal First Nations

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Background

BC Coastal First Nations (CFN) is an alliance of eight nations located on north and central coast of British Columbia and Haida Gwaii. These eight nations are the Heiltsuk Nation, Kitasoo/Xai’xais First Nation, Metlakatla First Nation, Nuxalk Nation, Wuikinuxv Nation, Gitga’at First Nation, Haista Nation and Haida Nation.[1] They have been the custodians of their territories, including both the marine environment and the land environment for millenniums[2]. As part of their traditions, they have inherited the responsibility of custodians from past hundreds of generations and they are carrying these responsibility on today but also into future[2]. They aim to protect their lands, water, and air but also try to care about well-beings on their territories and maintain their original lifestyles. As a unity, CFN has declared three commitments and eight principles:

Three Commitments[3]

  • to making decisions that ensure the well-being of our lands and waters
  • to preserving and renewing our territories and cultures through our tradition, knowledge, and authority
  • to be honest with each other and respectful of all life

Eight Principles[3]

  • Recognition of the rights of the original people
  • Affirmation of those rights
  • Respect for decisions and traditional knowledge
  • Activities must enhance or complement existing cultures
  • Results must be shared
  • Benefits must be negotiated
  • Common permits developed
  • To operate within First Nations territory a protocol is required

History

Geographic Distribution of BC Coastal First Nations

Community members on North and Central Coast and Haida Gwaii have thousand years of history managing natural resources of Great Bear Rainforest and surrounding marine ecosystem. They observe natural cycles and rely on traditional knowledge generated and passed orally by their ancestors through generations. However, increasing scale of commercial activities in 1990s such as commercial fishing and logging rapidly deplete terrestrial and marine resources and harm ecosystem sustainability[4]. Local economy is also at low points and needs new measures to revitalize it. Thus, in 2000, leaders from various communities gather together and recognize the benefits and importance of collaboration to develop a conservation-based economy system for their communities[4]. They signed the Declaration of First Nations of the North Pacific Coast in 2000 [5]. Afterwards, the Turning Point Initiative Society was formed which is now recognized as the Great Bear Initiative Society[4]. During that time, the Turning Point Initiative has three main goals: 1) to determine land and marine use plans on a government-to government basis with Canada and the Province of British Columbia; 2) to find economic measures to diversify First Nations' economies based on their land and marine resources; 3) to establish First Nations interests in the ongoing management of land and resources[5]. In 2003, BC Coastal First Nations were formally established to strength their self-determination right against multiple forces challenging their governance on their own territories[4].

Geographic Information

BC North Coast is south of Alaska, including the municipalities of Prince Rupert and Kitimat[6]. Three CFN members including Metlakatla, Gitga'at, and Haisla have their communities located in the Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District and the Kitimat-Stikine Regional District of North Coast[6]. The Central Coast area includes Bella Bella and Bella Coola community as well as four CFN members including Nuxalk, Heiltsuk, Wuikinuxv and Kitasoo/Xai'xais[6]. Their community territories are all located in the Central Coast Regional District. Haida Gwaii includes the municipalities of Queen Charlotte City and Masset and has one CFN member the Haida Nation[6]. The Haida Nation is in two villages of Old Massett and Skidegate and located in the Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District[6]. The surrounding marine environment of the North and Central Coast of British Columbia and Haida Gwaii is recognized as the Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA) by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada[7].

Economy

Subsection

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Section 2

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Section 3

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References

  1. "Coastal First Nations". British Columbia.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Reconciliation Framework Agreement". Government of Canada.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Coastal First Nations Great Bear Initiative".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Why A Coastal Alliance". Coastal First Nations Great Bear Initiative.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Lynne, Davis. "The High Stakes of Protecting Indigenous Homelands Coastal First Nations' Turning Point Initiative and Environmental Groups on the B.C. West Coast". International Journal of Canadian Studies. 39-40: 137–159.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Thomas, Gunton Sean Broadbent. "A Review of Potential Impacts to Coastal First Nations from an Oil Tanker Spill Associated with the Northern Gateway Project". Coastal First Nations.
  7. Lucas, Verrin, Brown, B.G.; Verrin, S.; Brown, R. "Ecosystem Overview: Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area". Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2667.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)


Seekiefer (Pinus halepensis) 9months-fromtop.jpg
This conservation resource was created by Course:FRST522.