Course:FRST370/2021/Logan Lake Community Forest’s Wildfire Management - British Columbia, Canada

From UBC Wiki

The Logan Lake Community Forest Corporation (LLCF) operates and manages a Community Forest Agreement on behalf of the community.  Its objective is to keep the local economy prospering by offering opportunities for current and future generations through sustainable forest management and community resiliency. The Logan Lake Community Forest's wildfire management is the focus of the following wiki page.

Keywords: Community Forests, Logan Lake, Fuels Mitigation Treatments, Wildfire, Community Resilience

Introduction to Fire

Ecological Aspects

Historically, fire is an important ecological function in taking care of forests. Surface fires were common in Canada’s valley bottom and montane elevation zones. However, these fires were virtually eliminated after the colonization of western Canada occurred. Due to this fire suppression, in recent years fire has become so severe that native plants cannot adapt to high severity crown fires (rather than ground fires) repeatedly occurring. Additionally, the overcrowding of understory trees from fire suppression has made it easier for pests and pathogens like mountain pine beetle to spread.[1]

Fire is expected to drastically increase due to the greenhouse effect; fire potential is supposed to increase throughout North America. The burned area of the western United States is expected to increase by over 50% in the next 30 years. From 1997 to 2009 fire emissions made up one-third of the total carbon emissions, this effect is enhanced as forests make up a very large carbon sink and when they burn this is returned to the atmosphere. With climate change rapidly advancing, large scale fire events are not going to slow down.[2] Logan Lake Community Forest is a prime example of a forest that is combatting fire from a preventative standpoint to nourish ecological development and community safety. It is also an excellent example of a CFA holder which has prioritized wildfire risk reduction activities within its tenure.[3]

Social Aspects

A description of changing worldviews of fire, as well as differences in governance decision-making and actors involved. (Copes-Gerbitz et al. 2022 Regional Environmental Change)

Numerous community forests face challenges as local residents are, at times, opposed to fire management such as fuels mitigation treatments.[4] Logan Lake has historically faced issues such as residents opposed to wildfire mitigation efforts and tree removal. However, this community is now an example to others, as it prioritizes building connections and working with the locals to maximize collaboration and fire management success.

Wildfires burning near Logan Lake raised awareness of risk and impacts, and urgency of developing and implementing wildfire mitigation measures. Moreover, as mountain pine beetles attacked trees and wildfires frequency increased, the awareness of risks and impacts increased in the community, along with the urgency to further implement mitigation measures.[5] It was a former Logan Lake mayor which initiated the wildfire mitigation process, bringing the issues to public attention as well as the attention of council members, and continuously providing information on wildfire mitigation efforts.[5] Fire was originally thought to have to be controlled by communities, with prevention and suppression being maximized, that which has let to current extensive fuel buildup in British Columbia's forests. This ideology eventually progressed to the belief that fire is now inevitable, that we must coexist with it, that which has lead to reimagined stewardship.

Economic Aspects

Fire is known to highly impact community forests' economy, as their main source of income is often timber harvesting and fire highly affects harvesting capabilities.[3] Furthermore, the fire that occurred in Logan Lake Community Forest in the summer of 2021 has had major impact on the community forest’s revenue. This is due to charred trees not being accepted at any pulp mills - Logan Lake Community Forest has lost its pulp market. Moreover, approximately 18% of the community forest has burnt at a high severity this summer. The Senior Planning Forester for Logan Lake Community Forest has informed us that this is about ten times the annual harvest the community forest undergoes. As a result, annual cuts will have to be altered such that salvage harvesting can occur, and harvesting will have to significantly decrease in years to come, in order to reach a long run sustainable level of harvesting once again.[6]

Logan Lake Community Forest

An Introduction to Logan Lake Community Forest

Google Maps location of Logan Lake Community Forest, British Columbia, Canada

Logan Lake is located in the heart of the Highland Valley in Interior British Columbia.[7] Its elevation is 1,067m and it is about 60km South of the city of Kamloops.[8] Logan Lake's forests are dominated by Douglas fir, Pine, and are categorized as forests found under very flammable conditions.[5] Logan Lake’s current population is of just over 2,000 individuals.[9]

The history of Logan Lake involves mining prospectors, as they were common around the Highland Valley area starting in 1871. In 1970, the construction of housing and supporting facilities began, as the goal was to develop an organized town for the miners and their respective families.[7] In November of the same year, the village of Logan Lake was incorporated in this project, becoming a District Municipality in 1983.[8] It was constructed as a means of easy access to community services, containing the municipal building, fire hall, R.C.M.P detachment, and health services in a compact area.[7] Historically, Logan Lake was one of the many regions subject to fire suppression once colonization occurred and First Nations burning regimes were inhibited. Currently we see dangerous fuel loads in these forests, resulting in yearly megafires.[10] Development of wildfire mitigation activities in Logan Lake is dependent on: the presence of a window of opportunity, public and political support, issue champions, funding, and partnerships and collaboration. Innovative wildfire mitigation measures found in a 2017 study conducted in Logan Lake included vegetation management, structural changes to buildings, ecological interventions, and action which is considered collaborative amongst stakeholders.[5]

Tenure Arrangements Over Time

A Community Forest Agreement (CFA) is a license granted on Crown land that only allows for timber harvesting within the CFA area. It is a long-term, 25-year renewable forest license managed for the benefit of the entire community. The tenure area for the Logan Lake Community Forest is a shared land base (collaborative management arrangement) with numerous users and resources, including local government, community group and First Nations. Between 2013 and 2018, there was an increase in AAC (Annual Allowable Cut) from 20,000m3/yr to 32,000 m3/yr. The AAC has been 24,000m3/yr from 2018 onward, as a means of managing timber affected by mountain pine beetle.[11]

Institutional and Administrative arrangements

The board of directors is in charge of implementing the company's policies, courses of action, and goals. The LLCF board of directors is made up of nine members (the Mayor, Logan Lake Councillors, and community members). The Logan Lake Community Forest's operations are overseen by a Forest Management Team that reports to the board of directors called Forsite. Forsite is in charge of the Community Forest license's planning, harvesting, silviculture, and other post-harvest activities. Additionally, they are in charge of recreational trail expansion, First Nations engagement and road construction/maintenance. The initial term of the Forsite is one year, and it is renewable annually if approved by the board of directors.[11]

Affected Stakeholders

The Logan Lake Community Forest Locals

Despite not everyone in the community always agreeing to fuels mitigation treatments, the community’s main objectives are to support the community forest in the creation of a fire resilient and FireSmart community which is able to support numerous simultaneous objectives (ecosystem services, a successful economy, timber harvesting, forests resilient to wildfires, amongst others). These locals hold a relatively large quantity of power as they work closely with the community forest managers and local foresters and experts to reach common goals.

Local Foresters and Experts

Given that these are often people that live in the community forest, their objectives tend to be to better the forest, they often find their job rewarding as they can work towards a more wildfire resilient ecosystem and see the results in their own home. These individuals are not as powerful as the community forest manager, they are inferior to the manager. These individuals have to follow the protocol that they are given for their workplace, but some experts do possess the power to influence decision-making such as GIS experts that study fire models.

Community Forest Manager

The community forest manager is directly reliant on community forest’s success for their individual wellbeing, making them directly affected by, and reliant on what happens to the forest. The manager’s objectives include overseeing community management activities and implementing practices which will be most beneficial to the community. These are relatively powerful individuals, as they are often the ones to make the calls when the stakes are high, and the ones who will organize relationships with other groups, oversee projects, amongst others.

The Logan Lake Board of Directors

The Logan Lake board of directors is made up of community members and councillors from Logan Lake District. Its objectives are to govern the Logan Lake Community Forest Corporation. The board of directors has high relative power. It comes up with policies, holding the power of policy implementation and monitoring.[12] Its purpose is to establish the Corporation's courses of actions, policies, and goals. [13]

Logan Lake Community Forest Corporation

Logan Lake has developed and implemented its own Community Forest Corporation, governed by the Logan Lake board of directors. The Community Forest Corporation holds timber rights for public forest which border the community. Its objectives are to enable selective thinning and wildfire prescriptions in the forest adjacent to the community - making the community in control of wildfire risk and management. Any profit from sale of commercial timber as a result of selective thinning is returned to the community.[5] The Community Forest Corporation holds high power in fire management decision making.

Local Fire Chief

The local fire chief is the head of the fire department. Their objectives are to keep the community safe and to guide and assist the local fire department in fighting fires as needed, creating fuel breaks, as well as other tasks to decrease fire severity and intensity. They possess high relative power, as they are given the role of decision-making.

Local Fire Department

The local fire department’s objectives are to keep the community safe - systematically and strategically fighting fires as needed, and protecting the communities. The fire department will also create fuel breaks, as well as be present for prescribed burn treatments and others. This department possesses medium relative power, as it can collaborate with other groups on projects but is at the hand of the local fire chief making the calls.

First Nations Groups

When doing referrals, Logan Lake works with upwards of 20 First Nations groups, including:

  • Neskonlith Indian Band Okanagan
  • Indian Band Ashcroft Indian Band
  • Esh-kn-am Cultural Resource
  • Management Services
  • Coldwater Indian Band
  • Nooaitch Indian Band
  • Siska Indian Band
  • Cook’s Ferry Indian Band
  • Okanagan Nation Alliance
  • Lower Similkameen Indian Band
  • Penticton Indian Band
  • Upper Nicola Band
  • Boston Bar First Nation
  • Skeetchestn Indian Band
  • Tk’emlups Band
  • First Nation Consultative Areas Database
  • Stk’emlupsemc to Secwepemc Nation
  • Nlaka’pamux Nation Tribal Council
  • Nicola Tribal Association
  • Lower Nicola Indian Band
  • Oregon Jack Creek Band
  • Lytton First Nation
  • Secwepemc Nation

This involvement is, as described by one of the community forest's senior planning foresters, “critical to community forest management activities.” These groups' relative power have recently increased as Logan Lake Community Forest is constantly expanded communication and discussions with these groups such that deeper partnerships and relationships can be fostered. First Nations groups are consulted during project conception, development and implementation - with the goal of integrating First Nations management practices, values, and further developing partnership opportunities. The three First Nations groups directly involved are [6]:

Tk’emlúps te Secwepemc (Kamloops Indian Band)

This band inhabits the area by the coquihalla highway. Their objective is to enhance and guarantee the mental, spiritual, physical and emotional well-being of our community and people.[14] They have high relative power, as they own and operate a Forestry Development Corporation to increase value from timber resources.[15]

The Lower Nicola Indian band

This band has a reserve just South of town. Its objectives are to continue to pass its values and traditions throughout generations, as well as to revive its mother language.[16] It has high relative power, as it possesses strong traditional territory rights and title to area.[6]

Skeetchestn Indian Band

Its objectives are land and resource management, as well as reassertion of fishing rights at Tunkwa Lake, and hunting rights.[17] This band has high relative power, also possessing strong traditional territory rights and title to area. Furthermore, Logan Lake is named after a Skeetchestn Indian Band member.[6]

These three are key groups which Logan Lake engages with most often for field reviews, ARC assessments, preliminary field reconnaissance, crews go out with them to work with them in the field.[6]

Interested Stakeholders

The District of Logan Lake

The district’s objectives are to ensure the continuous support from the Community Forest in the district’s wildfire protection plan initiatives. It ensures municipal services are provided, with goals that combine high quality services and good governance. The district has high relative power, as it can prohibit, regulate or impose requirements on activities, people and properties.[18]

Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resources Operations

The Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resources Operations partners with First Nations groups and rural communities to strengthen and diversify these groups’ economies. Its objectives include sustainable forest management (as well as wildlife, water and other resources). It is also in charge of crown land stewardship.[19] The Ministry has high relative power. It is responsible for the establishment of use and access of provinces’ natural resources, land, and forests.[20]

BC Wildfire Response (Emergency Response Organization) and BC Wildfire Service

BC Wildfire Response (Emergency Response Organization) and BC Wildfire Service’s objectives are to assist the local fire department in the suppression of large fire events that put the community in danger.[21] This group holds relatively high power in the face of high intensity fires, as local fire department is likely insufficient and will rely on BC branches for assistance.

First Nations Emergency Services Society of BC

The First Nations Emergency Services Society of BC Works closely with First Nations communities to assist in wildfire prevention activities, increase fire protection, and increase successful implementation of Emergency Management for Indigenous communities.[22] Its objectives are to provide programs and services which help First Nations in the development and sustainment of communities which are healthier and safer.[23] This group has low relative power, as it provides assistance but its authority does not go beyond that.

Strategic Wildfire Prevention Initiative

The Strategic Wildfire Prevention Initiative is a group of funding programs which is administered by the Union of BC Municipalities. Their objective is to support communities in fuels mitigation practices in the wildland-urban interface.[24] They hold low relative power, does not go beyond supporting power.

Neighbouring Municipalities

Neighbouring Municipalities’ objectives are the occurrence of continuous collaborations such that other regions can benefit from the knowledge acquired at Logan Lake. [5] The senior planning forester stated numerous calls are received from numerous other regions asking about information on how Logan Lake Community Forest has achieved so much in the last decade. [6] They hold low relative power as these municipalities' capabilities do not go much further than collaboration.

Partners in Protection

Partners in Protection is a Canadian non-government organization which developed a FireSmart guide in the year of 1999.[25] Its objectives include the facilitation of interagency cooperation in education and awareness promotion directed towards reducing property and lives loss in the wildland-urban interface (increase safety).[5] Partners in Protection holds medium relative power, as social outreach and education is highly important in increasing community acceptance to fuels mitigation treatments.

The Union of British Columbia Municipalities

The Union of British Columbia Municipalities will at times provide funding for treatments. Its objectives are to represent and serve BC’s local governments to the best of the Union’s capabilities.[26] It possesses high relative power - the recognized advocate for local BC governments in relation to external communications, liaison with other groups, government relations, and both policy implementation and development. [27]

Major Tenure Holders

Major Tenure Holders’ objective is to buy from the Logan Lake Community Forest. These groups possess large relative power - they have purchasing power as these are powerful companies that determine prices. Relevant major tenure holder companies include: West Fraser, Tolko, Interfor, and Aspen Planers. These will share costs with the Logan Lake Community Forest on matters such as roads construction to better things for both parties, and collaborate.[6]

BC Timber Sales

Logan Lake also works closely with BC Timber Sales in watershed assessments and other collaborations that benefit both parties. [6] BC Timber Sales’s objective is to generate economic prosperity for residents of British Columbia (via sustainable, safe development, as well as crown timber auctioning).[28] They hold low relative power - being owned by the government, but setting the market pricing system. Further, stumpage paid to the crown is based on BC timber sales. [6]

Forsite Consultants Ltd

Forsite plays a major role in sperheading all of the FireSmart activities funded through the Union of BC Municipalities Strategic Wildfire Prevention Initiative Program. This is roughly an annual amount of $250,000 within a 2km radius of the community - including strategic planning, spacing, pruning, piling and burning. [29] Forsite is in charge of the Community Forest licence's planning, harvesting, silviculture, and other post-harvest activities. As well as recreational trail expansion, First Nations engagement and road construction/maintenance.[11] They provide professional guidance which is crucial for the board of directors, and hold significant power as they can guide the community in their decisions.

Power Analysis

Balances of Power

Logan Lake Community Forest has a balanced power structure that ensures that the voices of many community members are heard. The community has direct influence over what happens within the forest by establishing a board of directors comprised of community members to run the Community Forest Corporation. When decisions about the forest were first being made, the mayor strongly supported the community forest. This resulted in the development of trust between forest managers and community members. Logan Lake residents have collective decision-making power, which makes them one of, if not the, largest stakeholders in the forest.

Table 1: Power Analysis of Stakeholders
High Importance Low Importance
High Influence
  • Logan Lake Community Forest Locals (hold collective power)
  • First Nations groups with traditional authorities
  • Community Forest Manager
  • District of Logan Lake
  • Logan Lake Board of Directors (made up of community members, amongst others)
  • Logan Lake Community Forest Corporation (governed by board of directors)
  • Forsite
  • Ministry of forests
  • The Union of British Columbia Municipalities
  • Major Tenure Holders
Low Influence
  • Local Fire Chiefs/Local Fire Department
  • Local Foresters and Experts
  • Neighbouring Municipalities
  • Communities around Canada, US, Australia affected by wildfires
  • BC Wildfire Service (high influence low importance during severe wildfires)
  • First Nations Emergency Services of BC
  • Strategic Wildfire Prevention Initiative
  • BC timber sales

Discussion - A Successful Community Forest

Aims of Logan Lake Community Forest

This map shows the effect of the Tremont Creek Fire (outlined in red) on Logan Lake Community forest (outlined in black). This map also shows the varying severity of the burn from pink representing high severity and green representing low severity.

Following the 2003 wildfires that displaced many community members and destroyed many homes, the Logan Lake community forest began to focus on wildfire fuel mitigation. Since 2003, Logan Lake community forest has been quite successful in wildfire fuel mitigation treatments, and this has become a major goal in the community.

  • Most prominently, Logan Lake was the first FireSmart community in British Columbia and has acted as an example for all the FireSmart communities which followed in its steps.
  • Recently, after the 2021 summer fires, 14% of Logan Lake’s community forest was ravaged by wildfires. However, due to the wildfire treatments, the fires equivocally dropped from the crown to the ground before reaching the town of Logan Lake.[6]
  • Due to their fire treatment efficacy many communities in the United States and Australia have begun reaching out to Logan Lake as an example of a community with successful pre-emptive treatment against wildfires.[6]

Community Forest Successes

The Community Forest Corporation was created by the Logan Lake Community Forest and holds timber rights for the forest bordering the community (17,000 acres).[5]

  • This allows for selective thinning and wildfire prescriptions in the forest next to the community to control wildfire risk.
  • All profit from the sale of commercial timber as a result of selective thinning is returned to the community.
  • Forest placement: Logan Lake community forest is situated between many major mills, making it a prime place to sell timber to various neighboring companies.

Community Receptiveness

  • A large portion of the success of Logan Lake is attributed to the receptiveness of the community to wildfire mitigation.
    • One of the main issues when it comes to wildfires and neighboring communities is evacuation capability. In many cities, there is a strong resistance to evacuating from communities until the last possible moment.[30]
    • Throughout the history of Logan Lake, one of the main priorities has been outreach to communities. Due to this outreach, there was little resistance to evacuation and the community was able to get out successfully.[6]

Developing as a FireSmart community

Logan Lake

Logan Lake was the first recognized FireSmart community in Canada.[5] Some of the most prominent contributions to this recognition were: the installation of rooftop sprinklers, wildfire fuel mitigation treatments,[5] and establishing the FireSmart High School Program.[31] The installation of rooftop sprinklers helps address and combat the home ignition zone, a main goal of the FireSmart program. Rooftop sprinklers not only help put out dangerous embers from surrounding wildfires, but they also help prevent in-home fires from spreading into the surrounding forests.[32]

Seven Pillars

The FireSmart program achieves its goals for community safety under seven different pillars: education, emergency planning, vegetation management, legislation, development, interagency cooperation and cross training. In Logan Lake, the FireSmart High School Program is a prime example of community education and outreach. Through FireSmart employment of Logan Lake high school students, the community became actively involved in learning how to mitigate fire.[31] Wildfire fuel mitigation treatments are an example of vegetation management as well as legislation. Through implementation of legislation surrounding a community forest agreement, Logan Lake was able to successfully complete fuel mitigation treatments within their CFA territory.[3] Emergency planning is another pillar Logan Lake has exceeded on throughout the years. Through improving local roads for evacuation and educating citizens on how to respond to wildfire, Logan Lake has created an Emergency Response Plan that ensures community safety as a priority.[6]


Past conflicts

  • There were challenges as some local residents opposed wildfire mitigation efforts and tree removal.
    • This was minimized when public support increased as mountain pine beetle attacks affected the aesthetic value of the forest. Dead trees were not considered pleasant for the community and they were an even higher fire risk.[5]
  • In 2001/02, Logan Lake had no formal emergency plan, mitigation measures, mitigation policies, or Community Wildfire Protection Plan.
  • 2003 was a record breaking fire season, with 15 major fires, 334 homes lost and 45,000 individuals evacuated.[5]
    • After 2003, Logan Lake Community Forest was established and they begun working on a community wildfire protection plan on their way to becoming a FireSmart community.

Current conflicts

Balancing ecological management: a rare bird has built a nest in the aspens of Logan Lake community forest. Many community members are passionate about preserving Logan Lake's biodiversity, but others are more concerned with the timber industry's economic profit.

  • The community forest has decided to protect the bird as long as there is a nest there. This decision came to be through community town hall meetings and meetings with the board of directors.

Due to the recent forest fires, there is a debate among the community as to how the forest will be managed in the future and the economic outputs considering the damage to the forest space.

  • The annual allowable cut is likely to be reduced, and the community is working on a plan to continue treatments in the coming years.


Tremont Creek Wildfire burning at high severity 18km NW of Logan Lake

Logan Lake and the Tremont Creek Wildfire (2021)

The Tremont Creek Wildfire recently had a significant impact on Logan Lake (2021). As a result of the recent wildfires, they will incur financial losses in the future. To combat this, a combination of external and internal revenue projects will be required.

Annual Allowable Cut

As a community forest that has been successful in battling this wildfire, applying for governmental and individual grants is especially important right now. These wildfires burned 18% of Logan Lake's community forest; due to the char, this wood will not be accepted at any pulp mills.[6] As a result, the community forest should lower the annual allowable cut. The funds generated by the annual allowable cut should be used to fund additional future forest restoration and fuel mitigation treatments. Another suggestion is that less funds be spent on community responsiveness in the future, as the community has proven to have a positive response thus far. However, continual outreach surveys for monitoring community response are recommended. This funding allocation may help the forest reach sustainable harvesting once again without suffering much economic damage.

Watershed Recovery

Logan Lake also must reassess watershed damage from wildfires, the wildfires are likely to cause adverse effects on the soil drainage capacity and nutrient cycling. The Logan Lake watershed is very important to the community of Logan Lake as well as neighbouring communities.[33] Therefore, the boards responsible for these communities should assess damages to water quality and begin to to invest in watershed recovery and future protection of the watershed.

Future Modeling Techniques

Wildfire simulation in Logan Lake currently maps wildfire risk across a landscape using deterministic modelling. Recently, it was demonstrated that stochastic modelling, which does not rely on prior knowledge and includes randomization, is as effective as deterministic modelling.[1] It would be advantageous if they began to incorporate stochastic forms of modelling to account for some randomness.

Potential Future Fire Treatments

In Logan Lake the forest managers rely on commercial thinning as the main form of fire mitigation. Moving forward we are seeing a larger push for prescribed burns across landscapes.[1] In order to combat fire faster, Logan Lake may need to consider prescribed burns on the landscape.


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  2. Liu, Yongquiang (2014). "Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildfire–climate interactions". Forest Ecology and Management. 317: 80–96.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Gunter, Jeniffer (2021). "British Columbia Community Forestry Association (BCCFA), Canada: challenges, successes and lessons learned". Handbook on Community Forestry. line feed character in |title= at position 66 (help)
  4. Schindler, Bruce (2003). "Fuel reduction strategies in forest communities". Journal of Forestry. 101.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 Labossière, Léanne (2017). "Innovative wildfire mitigation by municipal governments: Two case studies in Western Canada". International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 22: 204–210 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 Interview with Logan Lake Community Forest's Senior Planning Forester, conducted via zoom on November 16th, 2021
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Logan Lake, BC, Community Profile" (PDF).
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Logan Lake: Gold Country: Thompson Okanagan".
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  10. Prichard, Suzan (2021). "Adapting western North American forests to climate change and wildfires: 10 common questions". Ecological Applications.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Logan Lake Community Forest – Management Plan Update" (PDF).
  12. "Logan Lake Community Forest Board of Directors Nomination Package - 2021" (PDF).
  13. "Logan Lake - About Us".
  14. "Tk'emlúps te Secwe̓pemc Home".
  15. "Tk'emlúps Forestry Development Corporation (TFDC)".
  16. "Cultural Revival - Lower Nicola Band".
  17. "Skeetchestn Indian Band Comprehensive Community Plan" (PDF).
  18. "Local Government Governance & Powers".
  19. "Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development".
  20. "Kootenay Conservation Program - The Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations (FLNRO)".
  21. "Wildfire Response - Province of British Columbia".
  22. "FNESS Mandate".
  23. "FNESS - About".
  24. "Strategic Wildfire Prevention Initiative".
  25. "About FireSmart".
  26. "UBCM - Mission Statement".
  27. "Who We Are - Union of BC Municipalities".
  28. "BC Timber Sales".
  29. "Logan Lake Community Forest & FireSmart Activities".
  30. Moritz, Max (2014). "Learning to coexist with wildfire". Nature (London). 515: 58–66.
  31. 31.0 31.1 "Supporting Our Community". Logan Lake Community Forest. 2021. Retrieved November 28th, 2021. |first= missing |last= (help); Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  32. FireSmart (2021). "FireSmart Canada". FireSmart Canada. Retrieved November 28th, 2021. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  33. British Columbia Lake Stewardship Society (2017). "BC Lake Stewardship and Monitoring Program, Logan Lake 2005 - 2010: A partnership between the BC Lake Stewardship Society and the Ministry of Environment" (PDF). British Columbia Lake Stewardship Society.