Science:Math Exam Resources/Courses/MATH100/December 2018/Question 09
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Question 09 

A can of soda was placed in the refrigerator which operates at the constant temperature of degrees Celsius. Originally, the can has temperature degrees Celsius, but then at 1:00 p.m., the temperature of soda can is degrees Celsius, while at 1:45 p.m., the temperature of the soda can is degrees Celsius. At what time was the soda can put in the refrigerator? 
Make sure you understand the problem fully: What is the question asking you to do? Are there specific conditions or constraints that you should take note of? How will you know if your answer is correct from your work only? Can you rephrase the question in your own words in a way that makes sense to you? 
If you are stuck, check the hints below. Read the first one and consider it for a while. Does it give you a new idea on how to approach the problem? If so, try it! If after a while you are still stuck, go for the next hint. 
Hint 1 

Recall that Newton's law of cooling is
where is the body's temperature at time , is the ambient temperature, and is a constant. 
Hint 2 

To solve a differential equation of the form
we can make the substitution . 
Hint 3 

It is convenient to measure the time relative to 1 p.m. Thus, for instance, (where is the temperature in degrees Celsius of the can). 
Checking a solution serves two purposes: helping you if, after having used all the hints, you still are stuck on the problem; or if you have solved the problem and would like to check your work.

Solution 

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Please rate my easiness! It's quick and helps everyone guide their studies. We denote by the temperature function (with respect to time , which is measured in minutes, while the temperature is measured in degrees Celsius) for the soda can. The initial time is when we made the first reading of the temperature of the soda can (i.e., 1 p.m.). So, we know that and . According to Newton's Law of Cooling, we have the following equation: for some negative constant . We let ; then and therefore, we have , which means that , where . So, and therefore, . Because , we get that and so, , which means that and so, . Thus, and we need to find the time when the can was put in the refrigerator, i.e., when ; note that will be negative since the soda can was placed in the refrigerator prior to time , represented by 1 p.m. So, we have and thus , which yields and so, and so, . Therefore, the soda can was placed in the refrigerator minutes prior to 1 p.m. 