Documentation:Digital Tattoo Case Studies Project/Education/Case Study Development

From UBC Wiki

The information here is meant to assist anyone working on future projects similar to the Case Studies for Student Teachers created by the Digital Tattoo Project in 2017. The information and tips here were written by Emily Fornwald, the Digital Tattoo Graduate Assistant responsible for research, writing case studies, and creating surveys for the project. It is our intention that providing this information would help others in a similar position conduct their work.

The information below should provide a sense of understanding regarding the different aspects of the case studies project and help others carry out the same tasks on future iterations of the project.


Before writing any of the actual case studies, research into the area I was writing about was an essential first step. The research I did to prepare for writing case studies fell into three primary categories:

1. Research about writing effective case studies

  • The resources that I used are compiled here.

2. Research about teachers' and teacher candidates' digital identities

  • This included a search for information related to issues including social media use and ethics, digital technology use and ethics, social media and technology policies, data ownership, privacy concerns. professional vs. personal/public vs private uses of technology and social media, and other issues as they pertain to teachers and teacher candidates.
  • Although a great deal of the research used was scholarly in nature, I also gathered information from news stories, blog posts, discussion boards, policy manuals, and popular teaching websites. All of these resources were valuable for providing context about teacher, administrator, and community concerns related to teachers' use of social media and technology, and helped to form the themes around which the case studies were shaped.
  • It is important at this stage of research to find resources that create a balanced point of view. Although I found many resources that helped me understand the dangers and downsides of teachers using social media and digital tools, I also made sure to find sources that made clear some of the professional and personal benefits of social media for teachers. Writing effective case studies was much easier with a complete understanding of the issue, and this was made possible by having multiple perspectives included in the research.

3. A search for valuable resources that could be included with the case studies

  • In some cases, the resources I found in the second phase of research were used as part of the resources provided to students with the case study discussion questions. In other cases, once I had a draft of a case study scenario, I conducted another search for resources specific to the themes and context in that specific case study.
  • Occasionally I found resources that had a great deal of useful information, but were far too long to reasonable expect students to read while discussing the case studies. In these instances, I would either find the most relevant sections and provide instructions with the resource about reading only those parts, or I would look for an alternative resource that discussed the issue more concisely. I found that resources like news stories, blog posts, and policies were typically useful resources as they can be relevant to the case study, but are often still fairly brief.
  • I discuss selecting resources for case study discussion questions more below in "Discussion Questions & Resources".

While researching, it's important to takes note of any ideas you have for potential case studies and keep track of any specific research/resources that relate to that potential case study. Keeping track and organizing your ideas, as well as finding ways that some of your ideas for potential case studies can be brought together to create a more complex scenario, will make writing your initial drafts much easier.

It's important to note that, despite research being presented here as the first stage, I found my research to be continuous and ongoing throughout the project. This was important, in part, because useful resources were being written later in the project that were not available at the time of my initial research.

Writing Case Studies

In creating each case study, we decided to include the following components: a short url, learning outcomes, a theme, instructions, a personal reflection questions, the case study scenario, discussion questions, and resources. Notes on each are provided below.


  • To help students quickly and easily find the published case studies on the UBC Wiki, each case study was given a shortened URL, made with the UBC Library URL Shortener Service:

Learning Outcomes

  • Including learning outcomes at the outset of the case studies serves two major purposes. First, predetermined learning outcomes remind the writer of the overall goal of the individual case studies as they write. Second, learning outcomes engage the workshop participants, focus their thinking, and help them to understand the value of the case studies even before they've begun to read them.
  • Our team decided that, regardless of the case study being discussed, we wanted all participants to ultimately develop the same level of confidence in decision-making as a general goal. For this reason, we created learning outcomes that applied to all participants, regardless of the case study an individual was assigned and we listed the learning outcomes on the general case study page.
  • For reference, these were the learning outcomes we created and provided for students to see:
Workshop participants should:
  • build their confidence for decision making about posting and sharing content online.
  • practice using guidelines and resources to support decision making.
  • reflect on and discuss the multiple perspectives at play in each scenario and the implications for themselves as beginning teachers.


  • Including a theme at the beginning of each case study focuses the participants' thinking onto one aspect of the general topic in order to prepare them for the scenario they are going to be discussing.
  • Although each case study addresses multiple themes, only one was included with each case study in order to better direct the students' focus.
  • Creating a large list of general themes based on research prior to writing any of the actual case studies can guide the writing process, helping the writer to create authentic, realistic scenarios. These themes can be created based on research into the subject, or by holding a focus group to gauge the concerns and experiences of stakeholders.
  • For example, this theme was provided for the "Snapchat Mishap" case study: "Teachers should assume that anything they post online can be found and shared, whether their social media accounts are public or private."
  • For reference, a full list of the themes compiled as a result of research into teachers' digital identities is available here. These were the themes used to shape our case study scenarios for the Case Studies for Student Teachers project.


  • Including instructions about process for students to refer to during the workshop can help them gain clarity regarding their tasks and ensure that they use and incorporate all questions and resources in a way that will enhance their discussion.
  • This is how we formatted the instructions for our case studies:
Table Discussion: in groups of 3-4:

1. Read the case study and consider your response to the personal reflection question as you read.

2. Discuss each question below with your group, using the resources to support your responses.

3. Take notes on your discussion to share when the large group reconvenes.

Personal Reflection

  • By including a personal reflection question at the beginning of the case studies, students can guide their reading in a way that will help them meet the learning outcomes.
  • Asking students to reflect on the case study from a personal standpoint before they begin a group discussion can contribute to a more varied range of responses in the group as a whole.
  • Because the overall goal of the workshop is to empower students to make decisions about their own digital identities in the future, it is important that we encourage them to examine their personal reactions and responses during the workshop.
  • For reference, this is one the personal reflection questions we created:

While reading the case study, consider your personal response to the following question:

Teachers can use social media accounts as a way to effectively communicate with students, but this type of communication also poses risks. How would I manage school-designated social media accounts?

Case Study Scenario

  • For reference, here is one of the case study scenarios written for the Digital Tattoo Case Studies for Student Teachers Project:

"After being encouraged to take advantage of communication apps commonly used by her students as a teaching tool with her high school Social Studies classes during her practicum, Jessica decided to make teaching accounts on a few different apps and websites in order to engage her students. Her school advisor mentioned at the beginning of her practicum that he had looked her up online and suggested that, if she wanted to use social media, she should probably make her current accounts private and consider creating new accounts to use with students. After discussing the idea and getting permission to create school-related social media accounts on Facebook, Twitter, and Snapchat with the school administrator, Jessica made the accounts under her name Ms. Yu and advised students and their parents that, though it was not a requirement, they could all add and follow her teaching accounts on these apps instead of her personal accounts. Doing so meant that she could send out links for news articles that were relevant to their class material, communicate with parents and students about assignments and other classroom news, and get in touch with students even outside of class hours when they had quick questions or wanted to share images and other items they found relevant to their schoolwork. Thus far, Jessica has found her students to be engaged in their work and has received positive comments from her supervising teacher, who has found that her incorporation of social media adds creativity to her lessons.

While teaching a unit about BC elections, Jessica was determined not to share her personal political views with students, despite her being politically active outside of school, as she did not want to impress her views on anyone or upset any students, parents, or other teachers who felt differently. Instead, she was focusing on the ways in which elections were conducted in BC and decided to run a mock election with her students. As a part of the unit, she wanted students to study and create political campaigns, encouraging them to take and share photos of real campaign strategies they found with her school-designated social media accounts so that they could discuss them in class. She advised them to check the accounts, as she would also share images she found outside of school.

One day, after taking pictures of some political flyers and posters she found on her way home and sharing them with the class account, she decided to post one of the posters that she particularly disagreed with to her personal Snapchat story, captioning it “How could anyone possibly vote for this f&#%ing moron?!?” A short time later, she received a Snapchat message from one of her students that said, “Tell us what you really think Ms. Y!” Realizing that she had accidentally sent the message from her school account instead of her personal account, Jessica quickly removed the image from the account's story feature, but could see that multiple students and some of their parents had already opened it and she had a notification indicating that someone had taken a screenshot of the post.

The next day, her school advisor informed her that he had received complaints from some of the parents of her students. They were upset after seeing the image and felt that it was inappropriate for a teacher to express political opinions to students, especially with that type of language. Jessica was told she would have to meet with her facilitator and the school administrator to decide how to handle her mistake. She is now trying to figure out how she can discuss this with her students and their parents, and she is also concerned that this could jeopardize her practicum, as she has heard stories of other teachers being disciplined for political posts on social media. She also thinks it may be best to delete all of her school-related social media accounts in order to avoid having anything like this happen again."

Here are some suggestions for writing effective case studies:

  • Include in each case study a decision maker and at least one clear decision point.
  • Each case study should address multiple themes and have layers that create complexity.
  • Effective case studies do not have easy or predetermined answers. If a workshop participant could respond to a case study by saying "[Character] just shouldn't have done that," then the case study is too simple.
  • Case studies should be complex enough to generate discussion and allow for varied points of view without being too lengthy for the allotted workshop time.
  • Consider writing style when creating case studies. For instance, determine if there is a preference for first, second, or third person narration, as well as past or present tense. Keep this style consistent for all case studies.
  • Readers should be able to identify and empathize with the characters in the case study. Relatable and realistic scenarios can be more engaging and encourage students to refer to personal experiences as they discuss.
  • Ending a case study at a decision point can allow for participants to envision multiple possible outcomes to a given scenario.
  • We created a list of criteria for our case studies that you can see here.

Discussion Questions and Resources

  • For reference, our discussion questions and resources were presented in the following way:

1. Does Jessica's use of Snapchat violate any social media policies and/or the Teacher Education Office’s practicum guidelines? Could this be grounds for discipline?

Consider these resources as you answer:

  • Read the "Staff Guidelines" section on page 3.
  • Read the “Respect for Others” and “Responsibility” sections on pg. 11-12.

2. How should Jessica approach this situation with students, parents, and school administrators? Can she turn this into a positive experience? Would you recommend that she continue using social media in her teaching despite this incident?

Consider these resources as you answer:

  • Read "Making Connections" on pg. 45.

3. Do you plan to utilize social media as a tool in your classroom? How would you incorporate social media into your instruction while managing the associated risks?

Consider these resources as you answer:

4. What do you consider before sharing your personal beliefs and opinions on social media? Would you share more on a private account than you would on an account that your students see? Are there any beliefs or opinions that you would avoid sharing on social media altogether?

Consider these resources as you answer:

  • Read the section titled "Social Media."

Tips for writing discussion questions:

  • Consider the ways in which the wording of a question impacts the potential answers students would provide. For instance, beginning a question with the phrase "Would you...?" allows for students to provide a yes/no answer, whereas introducing a question with "How would you...?" requires more complex answers and, potentially, a broader range of answers. The same could be said for beginning a questions with "How does this...?" as opposed to "Does this...?"
  • When formulating questions, it helps to simplify the wording as much as possible. Getting to the heart of the question as directly as possible, without the inclusion of jargon, will be more helpful for students participating in the case study.
  • Focus more on the depth and complexity of discussion questions than the breadth. Having a few complex discussion questions can be more valuable than having a large number of simple questions.
  • If you have a large number of questions, try to group together questions that address similar themes as one more complex question instead.
  • Try to create questions that address more than one theme or point of discussion.
  • It is important to check the links for resources prior to using the case studies with students, in order to catch any broken links. If one of the resources has a broken link and that resource is no longer available anywhere online, you can replace the resource with one from the "Additional Resources" page on the Case Studies for Student Teachers Wiki.

Tips for selecting and presenting resources:

  • Instead of providing a large number of resources, find a few resources that will enrich the discussion in the most meaningful ways.
  • The resources are not intended to provide clear answers to the case study or the discussion question. Rather, they should provided more information, a new perspective, a real-life example, or some helpful insight into an issue that students could use to fuel or deepen their discussion.
  • Use resources that are easily accessible and digestible for workshop participants.
  • By connecting the resources to specific discussion questions, students may be more likely to read them and involve them in the discussion. This is also a way to draw out the most important elements of the resources for participants to focus on. You can do this by adding a note with the resource indicating which section(s) to refer to as they read.
  • Use the resources to present a balanced point of view. We wanted to provide real world examples of social media being used both poorly and effectively in order to give students more to consider when making their own decisions.
  • It is important when using resources developed by outside parties to regularly check links to ensure that they are working. If you find that one of the resources has a broken link, you can try finding a new url for the resource or select a new resource to take its place.


We included images with each case study as a way of creating a more visually engaging presentation for each scenario. When using images, it is important to either choose images in the public domain, or provide appropriate attribution for the creator. All of the images used in our case studies were in the public domain, and were found on

Post-Workshop Resources

As a way of encouraging students to continue asking questions related to their digital identities following the presentations, a list of additional resources was created and provided for them to engage with following the workshop. The resources page included policies related to teachers' use of technology and social media, tips and guidelines for teachers, and lesson plans and strategies for teaching K-12 students about their digital identities.

When presenting about a challenging topic, workshop participants are likely to still have questions at the end of the workshop--they may even find that they have more questions following the presentation than they did at the start. Providing additional resources can help them to learn more about the topic and can be useful as they seek answers to the questions they still have.

Presenting Case Studies

A new Wiki portal was created for the Think Before You Ink presentations. This is where the finalized case studies were kept and the link was provided to all participants in the workshop prior to the presentation to ensure that they could follow along and access the case studies and resources on their own devices. Links for pre- and post-workshop surveys, as well as the page for additional resources were also included here as a way of keeping everything relevant to the workshop in one place. The Wiki portal can be viewed here.

Leading Focus Groups

To prepare the case studies for the Digital Tattoo: Think Before You Ink presentations, three focus groups were held.

Two of the focus groups involved running through case studies with students working on the Digital Tattoo project, in order to get a better sense of how the case studies could be used by students and to get information regarding the type of discussion that could take place. Ultimately, we wanted to determine whether these case studies were helping students meet the learning outcomes. At the end of each run-through, we had students discuss the following questions for feedback and were able to make adjustments to the case studies and discussion questions based on their answers:

  • How did the scenario, discussion questions, and resources help you meet the goal of the case study?
  • Do you feel more prepared to handle this scenario, and similar scenarios, as a result of this case study?
  • How did this case study help you think about your social media presence?
  • Do you have any other feedback regarding the case study itself, the discussion questions, or the provided resources?

Because the overall goal of the Digital Tattoo workshops for teacher candidates is to help them feel more confident making effective decisions regarding their digital identities, the feedback questions were worded in a way that would evaluate the effectiveness of the case studies in meeting that goal.

One other focus group was held for this project, which involved a question and answer period with teacher candidates. Questions were asked that gauged their concerns about their digital identities and uses of social media in order to inform the types of issues we wanted to address in the case studies.

For reference, here are the questions I prepared for this focus group:

1. Which social media platforms, if any, do you currently use? Are there any that you have decided not to use? How has your decision to become a teacher factored into your choice of social media platforms?

2. Do you think that a teacher's use of social media is viewed differently than the use of social media by people in other professionals? Why or why not? What are the differences?

3. What are your biggest concerns regarding social media use as a teacher? Do you see any potential risks in using social media as a teacher?

4. Do you see any benefits in using social media as a teacher? How can social media benefit you professionally?

5. How do you interpret the term "appropriate" as it relates to a teacher's use of social media? Which behaviours, if any, would you classify as "inappropriate?"

6. Do you have concerns about using personal devices (smart phones, laptops, tablets) in the classroom? What are the benefits of using personal devices?

7. Do you consider it important to monitor the social media use of your friends and family members in case they make posts about you? How do you (or would you) go about monitoring others' posts?

8. How does the issue of privacy affect your digital decision-making?

Tips for planning and leading a focus group:

  • Focus groups are an effective way to learn about a topic from those who are directly affected by it. These sessions can help a case study writer get new ideas for their case studies and/or test the ideas they already have for relatability, authenticity, and engagement.
  • Plan focus group questions ahead of time and ask the most important questions first to ensure that you get answers to them.
  • Find out from the students' department which days and times would work best for the students, especially if most students in the college have similar timetables.
  • Promote your focus group as early as possible and in the way(s) that will reach the most students in order to increase the number of participants. For our focus group, we created and hung posters in the Neville Scarfe building and sent two announcements to students via email.
  • Request that students contact you if they plan to participate. This will help you gauge the number of participants to expect and continue promoting accordingly.
  • Plan to provide students with an incentive for participating. At our focus group with teacher candidates, we provided pizza and drinks for students who were willing to give up their break between classes at lunch.
  • Book a room for the focus group that will be easily accessible for the participants. Because we were working with teacher candidates, we held or focus group in the Neville Scarfe building where all Education classes take place.
  • Determine the maximum number of participants in advance. We decided on a maximum of 20 students and felt that any more than that would make the focus group too large, possibly limiting each participants chances to contribute to the discussion. This number also helped us to determine how much food to order and which size room to book.
  • It is important the the focus group facilitator be present and fully engaged in the discussion. Because of this, we had one person responsible for asking questions and leading the discussion, and one person responsible for note-taking.
  • If you would like to record your focus group, you must get permission from the participants. Even if you are only recording audio, students should sign UBC's "Consent to Use of Image" form.


Evaluating the success of the case studies was central to understanding whether or not our project objectives were met and determining future directions. Below is a breakdown of our process for assessing the case studies.

Stage 1: Goal Development

Before you can begin writing your assessment surveys, you must first determine the goals for your assessment. In other words, you need to determine what you are hoping to learn from the assessment surveys. Knowing what it is you want to learn from the assessment will help you to create appropriate and useful questions. The goals of your assessment should be related to the goals or learning outcomes for the project as a whole.

For the Case Studies for Student Teachers Project, we developed the following learning outcomes for our case study workshops: Learning Outcomes: Workshop participants have the opportunity to:

  • build their confidence for decision making about posting and sharing content online.
  • practice using guidelines and resources to support decision making.
  • reflect on and discuss the multiple perspectives at play in each scenario and the implications for themselves as beginning teachers.

Based on these learning outcomes, we developed the following goal for our assessment: Goal for assessment:

  • to assess change related to confidence in decision-making specific to social media as a new professional.

Having a predetermined goal will help to guide your question-writing, as it will help you to evaluate the usefulness of your questions. With every question you write, you can ask yourself “Will the answers to this question help to meet the goal of the assessment? Will the answers to this question tell me whether or not the overall goals for the project are being met?” If the answer is “no,” you should remove or re-write the question.

Stage 2: Assessment Research & Planning

A great deal of thoughtfulness is required to write effective survey questions and your question-writing--both the questions you ask and the options you provide for answers--should be informed by research into the topic. This is especially important if you are not an experienced survey-writer. We recommend consulting the following book for information about survey writing:

Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M. (2014). Internet, phone, mail, and mixed-mode surveys : the tailored design method. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

At this stage, you can begin determining the type of survey you want to create, the types of questions you think would be most valuable, and the most effective ways to format those questions. The formatting you choose will likely depend in part on the delivery method. For instance, branching and contingency questions can be very easy to set up in online surveys, but they are complicated to follow on paper surveys.

Our decision was to create two self-administered online surveys--one to be completed prior to the case study workshop, and one to be completed at the end. This decision is the basis for all other stages of the assessment process described below.

If you intend to create an online survey as we did for the Case Studies for Student Teachers project, it is important to familiarize yourself with the survey tool you will be using at this stage of the assessment process. This will give you an idea of the types of questions you can ask, the formatting options for the survey, and the methods for gathering results. You can learn about and connect to the UBC survey tool, which was used to create and administer our surveys.

Stage 3: Writing Surveys

While creating the assessment surveys for the Case Studies for Student Teachers project, this stage was the most lengthy, due mostly to the number of drafts required to reach the final surveys. We went through many questions and answer options before creating the surveys we felt would ultimately provide us with the most valuable information about the students’ experiences with the case studies.

The surveys we created can be found at the following links:

All of the survey questions can also be viewed here.

We considered the following as we wrote our questions:

  • How much time will respondents have to complete the survey and how should this impact the questions or the number of questions that we will ask?
  • What is the right number of questions to ensure that we are getting all of the information we need without overwhelming or burdening respondents?
  • Note: We ultimately decided to ask 9 closed-ended questions on the pre-workshop survey and 10 closed-ended plus 1 open-ended question on the post-workshop survey.
  • Is this question best expressed and most useful as an open-ended or closed-ended question?
  • Are all of our questions valid? Will each question tell us something that we actually need and/or want to know? Will each question contribute to meeting the goal of the assessment?
  • Have we used terminology familiar to our respondents and avoided unnecessary jargon?
  • Have we used terminology and scales consistently?
  • Have questions been phrased as clearly and simply as possible?
  • Have we avoided double-barreled questions? (A double-barreled question is one that asks for two pieces of information in a single question.)
  • Are all response options mutually exclusive?
  • Are any questions worded in a way that is leading or biased? Are answer options balanced and unbiased?
  • For closed-ended questions, which response options will be the most effective (e.g. polar, scale, etc.)?
  • For closed-ended questions, are all possible answers available as options?
  • What is the best possible order for the questions?

We chose to use “True,” “False,” and “I’m not sure” answers, along with questions phrased as statements to format most of our questions. We felt that, because we were asking questions related to the personal thoughts and experiences of students that having them determine whether they found a statement to be true to their own experiences with the case studies would result in the best information. Providing “I’m not sure” as a neutral option was also determined to be useful as we recognized that some students may not have the prior experience required to have determined personal responses to some of the questions. This neutral option meant that we would avoid having students skipping a question or choosing an answer that did not accurately reflect their experience.

Our decision to use “True,” “False,” and “I’m not sure” came after many drafts that included unipolar scales of agreement as the answer options (e.g. strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree). The change to “True,” “False,” and “I’m not sure” kept our questions simple and meant that respondents would not have to decipher the difference between “agree” and “strongly agree” or ”disagree” and “strongly disagree”. If you instead decide to provide scales of any kind, the following guiding questions from Dillman (2014) can help you to evaluate the quality of your scales:

  • “Will a unipolar or bipolar scale be used?
  • Does the scale only include 4 or 5 categories? If more are used, is there a justification for it?
  • Do the question stem and response categories match? Are construct-specific response categories used?
  • Is there a natural metric underlying the scale that can be used to the response categories?
  • Are the positive and negative ends of the scale equally balanced?
  • Are all the categories verbally labeled? If not, is there a justification for using a polar-point or other type of scale construction?
  • Are numeric labels included? If so, are they needed, or can they easily be removed?
  • Is the question too complex? Should a branching or multiple-step format be used?
  • Will the response options bias the responses? Should an open-ended question be used instead?” (pg. 164)

The writing stage should also include the crafting of a preface and any necessary instructions for your surveys in order to ensure that users will understand how to answer the questions and what their answers will be used for. In our preface, it was important for us to tell students that their answers would help us to determine the impact that the case studies would have on their decision-making and confidence. We also emphasized that all of their answers would be submitted anonymously.

Stage 4: Testing

Testing your surveys prior to implementing them is a critical step in the assessment process, and it should be done with enough time to make any necessary changes to the surveys before they must be sent to your users.

Our surveys were tested with students working with the Digital Tattoo project, who were asked to complete the surveys and provide feedback regarding:

  • The UBC survey tool (Was the survey tool easy to use? Were they able to find and complete the surveys without difficulty?)
  • The clarity and wording of questions (Did students understand what was being asked of them? Were they being asked questions they had answers to?)
  • The time spent completing surveys
  • This helped us to determine how much of our workshop time needed to be spent with the surveys.

Stage 5: Administering Surveys

Once the surveys have been tested and any necessary changes have been made, the assessment tools are ready to be delivered to your users. For this project, links for both surveys (made with the UBC link shortener service) were added to the “Case Studies for Student Teachers” Wiki. The links were also sent to all teacher candidates who would be attending the Digital Tattoo workshops prior to the workshop taking place. During the workshops, students were given time to complete the surveys 3-5 minutes at the beginning and end of each workshop.

Leaving time at the end of the workshop is especially important, given that students are not necessarily motivated to complete the final survey if the workshop has run over time.

Stage 6: Gathering and Analyzing Responses

Understanding and sharing assessment results is made easier by creating visual representations of data. After downloading the spreadsheets of results from the UBC survey tool, I used pivot tables in Excel to create pie graphs for each question. This made it more efficient to see all of the results for a particular question at once, and helped us to make comparisons between the pre-workshop survey results and the post-workshop survey results.

Additionally, if your survey has open-text questions, it can be helpful to go through the answers that students provide and sort the comments into specific categories. For instance, when preparing to share the results of our survey with the advisory committee, I went through all written answers from the last question on the post-workshop survey, removed the answers that were unclear or unhelpful (e.g. some answers that were not helpful included "Yes" and "Nice information"). I then sorted the remaining comments into categories related to our goals that included "Comments related to confidence," "Comments related to decision-making," "Comments on case studies," and "Room for Improvement." This made discussing the comments and gauging student responses easier during meetings with stakeholders.

Below are the documents I created to present the survey results:

Writing a Facilitator's Guide

One of the goals of the Case Studies for Student Teachers project was to create resources that could be used by other groups in many organizations, and not solely the teacher candidates in UBC's Teacher Education program who were participating in our Think Before You Ink workshops. In order to make our case studies more accessible, a Facilitator's Guide was created. This was done to ensure that any group who wanted to use or adapt our case studies for their own discussions about digital identities and professionalism would be able to do so effectively.

The Facilitator's Guide can be viewed here.