In 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development. They committed to a shared vision of opening up a sustainable path for humanity, the planet, peace, partnership, and porosity, which serve as the Sustainable Development Goals. The year 2020 is the beginning of the decade of accelerated efforts and sustainable solutions to the world's biggest challenges, from poverty eradication and gender inequality reduction to climate change. However, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted efforts to achieve the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development. The impact of COVID-19 and the measures taken to mitigate its impact have overburdened the global health system and impacted the SDGs.
Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are world development targets adopted and implemented by the United Nations to eliminate poverty, addressing climate change, ending inequality, and aiming to create a better and fairer world by 2030；there are 17 Sustainable Development Goals. More specifically, the SDGs is a blueprint for a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including those related to poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace, and justice. Sustainable development goals, also known as the global goals, are developed based on the millennium development goals' success, aiming to eliminate all forms of poverty further. What's unique about the new goals is that they call on all countries, whether poor, rich, or middle-income, to take action to promote prosperity while protecting the planet. They recognized that poverty eradication must be combined with strategies to build economic growth and meet a range of social needs, including education, health, social protection, and employment opportunities while addressing climate change and environmental protection. These 17 goals are interrelated, and in order not to let anyone fall behind, and achieving all of them by 2030. They recognize that activities in any area affect other areas, and in order to ensure a balanced development of society, the 17 goals are considered as a whole.
The 17 global goals are:
1. No poverty, acquiring to fundamental human health, education, and sanitation needs.
2. Zero hunger, providing food and humanitarian relief to build sustainable food production.
3. Global heath and wellbeing, building better and more accessible health systems to increase life expectancy.
4. Quality education, inclusive education promotes social mobility and poverty eradication.
5. Gender equality, achieving gender equality in education, promoting equal laws, and making women's representation more equitable.
6. Clean water and sanitation, improving access for billions of people who lack basic infrastructures.
7. Affordable and clean energy, providing renewable, safe, and widely available energy for all.
8. Decent work and economic growth, creating jobs for all, improving living standards, and providing sustainable economic growth.
9. Industry, innovation and infrastructure, creating employment and income through innovation.
10. Reduced inequalities, decreasing revenue and other inequalities within and between countries.
11. Sustainable cities and communities, making cities secure, tolerate, elastic, and sustainable.
12. Responsible consumption and production, reversing present consumption tendency to advance a more sustainable approach in the future.
13. Climate action, regulating emission reduction and promoting renewable energy.
14. Life below water, promoting conservation to protect marine diversity and regulating fishing practices.
15. Life on land, reversing artificial deforestation and desertification to sustain all life on earth.
16. Peace, justice and strong institutions, building inclusive societies, strong institutions and equal access to justice.
17. Partnerships for the goals, revitalizing a powerful global partnership for sustainable development.
After the 17 SDGs were built, many countries took action. For example, the government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has affirmed its commitment to achieving sustainable development goals. GoIRA has designated the Ministry of the economy (MoEc) as the lead department and focal point for coordinating, monitoring, and reporting on Afghanistan's sustainable development goals (A-SDGs). The nationalization process is closely coordinated with the High Council of Ministers (HCM) to ensure sustainable development goals and strengthen cooperation with the private sector, civil society, and community organizations. The National Coordinating Committee (NCC) on sustainable development goals has been established to provide a high-level platform for direct and sustained participation among government stakeholders, private sector actors, civil society organizations, non-governmental organizations, academia, youth, and the international community to achieve the common goal of sustainable development goals.
2030 agenda for Sustainable Development
The 2030 agenda is universal, transformative, and rights-based. It is an ambitious plan of action for States, the United Nations system, and all other actors. The agenda is by far the most comprehensive blueprint for eradicating extreme poverty, reducing inequality, and protecting the planet. "The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development involves a shared vision of peace and prosperity for the planet ". The Agenda for Sustainable Development integrates the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, as well as the elements of peace, governance and justice. This agenda will be implemented by both developing and developed countries and is therefore universal. The agenda also includes an overarching principle to ensure that efforts are spared in achieving the SDGs. In 2015, 195 countries agreed with the United Nations that they could make the world a better place, achieved by bringing together their respective governments, businesses, media, higher education institutions, and local NGOs to improve their own people's lives by 2030.
Coronaviruses refer to a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded, and highly diverse RNA viruses. There are four genera: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta; among which α and β-coronavirus attract more attention because of their ability to cross animal-human barriers and emerge to become major human pathogens. Coronavirus cause diseases ranging from common cold to more severe diseases, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS COV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS CoV). Coronavirus disease in 2019 which is called COVID-19 is a respiratory infection caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which was first found in Wuhan, China. Studies show that COVID-19 is structurally related to the SARS COV, which was first emerged in 2002 in Guangzhou, China. According to World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease that has rapidly spread worldwide and has been announced as a pandemic in 2020. More than 5.7 million individuals worldwide were infected, and approximately 358,000 death cases were reported by 28 May 2020. Recently, 219 countries and territories around the world have reported a total of 138,828,976 confirmed cases of the coronavirus COVID-19, and a death toll of 2,985,469 deaths. COVID-19 is not just a global epidemic and public health crisis but also a serious impact on the global economy and financial markets. Significant reductions in income, rising unemployment, and disruptions in transportation, services, and manufacturing are among the consequences of disease mitigation measures implemented in many countries. Obviously, most governments in the world underestimate the risk of the rapid proliferation of COVID-19 and are mostly passive in dealing with the crisis. Since outbreaks are unlikely to disappear shortly, active international action is needed to save lives and protect economic prosperity. For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on Canada's economy and society. As a purposeful response to the public health crisis, the policies issued to curb the spread of the virus have caused unprecedented damage to Canadians' social and economic life, changing their ways of interaction, learning, work, and consumption. COVID-19 affects every part of human life, including the material world. These measures are taken to control the spread of the virus, and the slowdown in economic activity has a significant impact on the environment. Positively, the pandemic has significantly improved air quality in different cities worldwide, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced water pollution and noise, and reduced pressure on tourism destinations, which may contribute to ecosystem recovery. Besides, there are some negative consequences of COVID-19, such as the increase of medical waste, the arbitrary use and disposal of disinfectants, masks, and gloves, and the burden of untreated waste on the environment.
SDG before COVID-19 pandemic
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) proposed by the United Nations in 2015 provide a global framework for not only a Sustainable planet for all of humanity, But also towards a more equal, peaceful, resilient and prosperous society by 2030. The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations, in collaboration with experts and international agencies, has published The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020, which reports on the current temporary lack of progress in meeting the goals and warns of setbacks due to the COVID-19 pandemic.Achieving the SDG plan by 2030 will require a major shift in the direction of long-term, cooperative, and substantially accelerated action by most countries.
Progress on the 2020 Sustainable Development Goals
Goal 1: To end all forms of poverty around the world
Even before the COVID-19 outbreak, the pace of global emissions reductions was slowing, and the global goal of eradicating poverty by 2030 was not expected to be met. In the period before the COVID-19 pandemic, The global poverty rate fell from 42.5% in 1981 to 9.2% in 2017. In particular, the Sustainable Development Program (SDP), launched in 2015, has increased the global community's focus on poverty eradication. Accelerated development of the economy, family health, education and health measures. Under SDG 1, the world was off track to end poverty by 2030 even before the outbreak of COVID-19. Projections suggesting that 6% of the global population would still be living in extreme poverty in 2030. The COVID-19 epidemic has caused tens of millions of people to fall back into extreme poverty, which has been in crisis for many years. Despite the emphasis placed during the outbreak on the need to strengthen social protection and emergency preparedness and response, these measures have not been sufficient to protect the poor and vulnerable groups most in need of protection.
Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
The total number of people suffering from severe food insecurity has been increasing since 2015, and millions of malnourished children remain. The economic slowdown and disruption to the food value chain caused by the outbreak have exacerbated hunger and food insecurity. In addition, the surge of desert locusts remains alarming in East Africa and Yemen, where 35 million people are already suffering from severe food insecurity. Some 370 million primary school children have lost the free school meals they rely on as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic. Immediate measures must be taken to enhance food production and distribution in order to mitigate and minimize the impact of the outbreak（9）. Similarly, before the COVID-19 outbreak, the vision of ending hunger as embodied in Sustainable Development Goal 2 had already been shaken, as embodied in the increasing overall number of people suffering from food insecurity between 2014 and 2018. And the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified the pressures on production, supply chains, household incomes, and more, with the poorest affected the most.
Goal 3: To ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all people of all ages
Progress in many areas of health has continued, but the rate of improvement has slowed to insufficient levels to meet most SDG3 goals. The COVID-19 outbreak is undermining global health systems and threatening the health gains that have been made. Most countries, especially countries in poverty, do not have enough health facilities, medical supplies and staff to cope with the surging demand. Therefore, countries need integrated health strategies and increased spending on health systems to meet emergency needs and protect health workers, as well as coordinated global efforts to support countries in need. In addition, 70 countries suspended their childhood vaccination programmes during the outbreak, while health services such as cancer screening, family planning and communicable diseases other than COVID-19 were interrupted or neglected in many countries. The report warns that disruption to health services could reverse decades of progress. Failure to reach these health services will likely affect human health for years to come.
Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all
By the end of 2019, millions of children and young people were still out of school, with more than half of them failing to meet minimum reading and numeracy standards. SDG 4 aims to achieve inclusive and equitable access to education, but this does not seem to be happening. It is estimated that by 2030, more than 200 million children will still have no access to education. School closures to stop the spread of COVID-19 have adversely affected the academic performance and social and behavioral development of children and young people, affecting more than 90% of the global student population. Even if distance learning is offered to many students, children and young people living in vulnerable environments such as remote areas, extreme poverty, fragile states and refugee camps do not have the same opportunities. The digital divide will widen the existing educational equality gap.
Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
The commitment to promote gender equality has led to improvements in some areas since the SDG was issued by the United Nations. The promise of full gender equality for every woman and the removal of legal, social and economic barriers to their empowerment remains unfulfilled. Women's equality still needs time to bring about changes and social acceptance and change in the overall thinking. Women and girls are also being hit hard by the current pandemic. Globally, women make up three-quarters of doctors and caregivers. Women spend three times as much time as men doing unpaid care at home, according to the survey. The closure of schools and other places due to the outbreak has particularly affected women, providing more child care and promoting home schooling. Reports from some countries indicate that domestic violence against women and children has also increased during the global blockade.
Goal 6: Ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation facilities for all
Billions of people around the world still lack access to safely managed water and sanitation services and basic hand-washing facilities for use in their homes, which are critical to preventing the spread of COVID-19. Especially with the emergence of the pandemic, access to water and sanitation facilities which match the SDG goal 6 becomes a more important health problem. 2.2 billion people still do not have access to safe drinking water, and the COVID-19 outbreak highlights the lack of access to sanitation for billions of people. Immediate action to improve hand-washing facilities is essential to prevent infection and curb the spread of COVID-19. Access to water and sanitation facilities (SDG 6) remains an important health challenge. 2.2 billion people still do not have access to safe drinking water, and the COVID-19 outbreak highlights the lack of access to sanitation for billions of people.
Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
The world has made good progress in increasing access to electricity and improving energy efficiency. Still, millions of people around the world do not have access to electricity, access to electricity remains a challenge in some areas, and progress in clean cooking fuels and technologies is slow. The COVID-19 outbreak highlights the need for reliable and affordable electricity for health centers. However, a survey conducted in selected developing countries showed that a quarter of the health facilities surveyed had no access to electricity, and a quarter of unplanned power outages affected their ability to provide basic health services.
Goal 8: To promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
Even before the current crisis, global growth was still slower than in previous years and can not compare the peak of the economy, despite improvements in productivity and unemployment. The COVID-19 outbreak has devastated the global economy, plunging the world into recession. The unprecedented shock to global labor markets is expected to reduce total hours worked by about 10.5% in the second quarter of 2020, equivalent to 305 million full-time workers. Small and medium-sized enterprises, workers in informal employment, the self-employed, daily wage workers and workers in the highest risk sectors are the most affected.
Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure to promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and innovation
Global manufacturing growth had been steadily declining even before the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic has dealt a severe blow to manufacturing and disrupted global value chains and product supplies.
Goal 10: To reduce inequalities within and between countries
Progress in reducing inequalities within and between countries has been patchy. There is still a need to strengthen the voice of developing countries in the decision-making forums of international economic and financial institutions. Duty-free treatment and preferential access for exports from the least developed and developing countries have been expanded; the least developed countries and small island developing states continue to need more assistance to ensure that they fully share in the benefits of sustainable development. Some countries have reduced relative income inequality, and preferential trade status has benefited low-income countries, although there have been some positive signs in some areas of reducing inequality, which still persists in various forms. The COVID-19 crisis is hitting the poorest and most vulnerable hardest and has the potential to have a severe impact on the poorest countries. This has exposed and exacerbated the serious inequalities that exist within and between countries.
Goal 11: Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
The rapid economic and social growth has brought rapid urbanization, and tall buildings have begun to symbolize the development of a city. However，rapid urbanization is leading to an increase in the number of slum dwellers, inadequate and overburdened infrastructure and services, and worsening air pollution. The COVID-19 outbreak will hit most of the more than 1 billion slum dwellers around the world who lack adequate housing, no running water at home, shared toilets, little or no waste management systems, crowded public transport and no access to formal sanitation facilities. Many of them work in the informal sector and face losing their livelihoods as cities restrict traffic.
Goal 12: Ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns
Global consumption and production depend on the use of the natural environment and resources in patterns that continue to have devastating effects on the planet. The COVID-19 pandemic is an opportunity for countries to develop recovery plans that will reverse current trends and transform the way we consume and produce towards a sustainable future.
Goal 13: Urgent action to address climate change and its impacts
2019 was the second warmest year on record and the end of the hottest decade (2010-2019). With average global temperatures 1.1°C above pre-industrial estimates, the global community is unable to meet the 1.5°C or 2°C targets called from the Paris Agreement. Although greenhouse gas emissions are expected to fall by 6% by 2020, and air quality has improved due to the travel ban and the economic slowdown caused by the COVID-19 outbreak, the improvement is only temporary. Governments and businesses should learn lessons to accelerate the transition needed to achieve the Paris Agreement, redefining the relationship with the environment and making a systematic transition to economies and societies with low GHG emissions and climate resilience. As the SDG report shows, the world is off-track in achieving the environmental sustainability goals contained in SDG 7-9 and 11-15. Most countries have not fulfilled their commitments to limit greenhouse gas emissions. We may not be able to achieve the goal of improving the urban environment by reducing the slum population, increasing public transport, and reducing air pollution. The goals of sustainable and inclusive economic growth, energy supply, and infrastructure development have not been achieved before COVID-19 , and are facing considerable setbacks under the shadow of economic recession.
Goal 14: Conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and Marine resources for sustainable development
Oceans and fisheries continue to support the economic, social and environmental needs of the global population, while enduring unsustainable consumption, environmental degradation, and carbon dioxide saturation and acidification. Current efforts to protect critical Marine environments, small-scale fishermen and investments in Marine science have not met the urgent need to protect this vast and fragile resource. The beginning of the pandemic caused a lot of damages, but it had a positive effect on marine resources. Restricting travel reduces the consumption of the ocean and the pollution of the marine environment.
Goal 15: To protect, restore and promote the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems; to manage forests sustainably; to combat desertification; to halt and reverse land degradation; and to halt biodiversity loss
Forests continue to shrink, protected areas are not concentrated in key biodiversity areas, and species are still threatened with extinction. However, there are still some efforts are a concern and have a positive impact, help to reverse these results; such as, in terms of sustainable forest management, in the land, fresh water and mountains area coverage as well as in the implementation of the protection of biodiversity and ecological system and the legislation and the accounting principles have made progress.
Goal 16: To promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, to provide access to justice for all and to build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Conflict, insecurity, weak institutions and limited access to justice remain great threats to sustainable development. Millions of people are denied security, human rights and a chance for justice. The COVID-19 outbreak could lead to an increase in social unrest and violence that would greatly undermine our ability to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
Goal 17: Strengthen means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
Strengthening global partnerships and strengthening the means to implement the Sustainable Development Goals remain challenging due to financial shortages, trade tensions, technical barriers and a lack of data. COVID-19 continued to spread, adding more difficulties to the implementation of the SDGs, leading to major losses and volatility in global financial markets, with more than $100 billion of capital flowing out of emerging markets, the largest outflow on record. Global trade is expected to plummet by 13-32% by 2020. That makes strengthening multilateralism and global partnership is more important than ever.
SDG after COVID-19 pandemic
The global recession triggered by the COVID-19 response threatens the suitability of the SDGs for a post-pandemic era. The range of problems posed by the pandemic has also become more salient, with some even claiming that Sustainable Development Goals may be counterproductive because they promote growth rather than development. While there is currently no pandemic response programme in the SDGs, it is vital that pandemic response is not decoupled from the SDGs.
COVID-19 has had a positive impact on the planet and partnerships. The partnership was forged in the common fight against the virus. During the quarantine, as people's travel is restricted, the air is fresher than before, also the rivers are purer and the mountains are cleaner. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the pace of deforestation has been steadily slowing across much of the Amazon rainforest. And data from Landsat satellite images have shown that the air quality of the environment has been declining throughout the pandemic, as has the concentration of particulate matter in the air.
COVID-19 pandemic disrupted efforts to achieve the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development. The impact of COVID-19 and the measures taken to mitigate its impact have overburdened the global health system. Specifically, it left up to 90% of students out of school; led to the closure of businesses and factories; disrupted global value chains and product supply; and is expected to plunge 71 million people back into extreme poverty, with 132 million undernourished by 2020. The world already face the most severe economic recession since the great depression, and real GDP per capita declined by 4.2%. And the COVID-19 pandemic also does a lot of damage to the livestock industry. The food processing industry was also badly affected during the outbreak of the pandemic. According to the report, there is a high risk of illness among workers in meat processing plants, where the airborne virus can easily spread to many people at once in a densely packed environment. And the decline in the quality of workers, will lead to a decline in the quality of food, a large number of animals are stuck in the feedlot. This series of harm will eventually lead to the emergence of economic crisis. Another hazard that we often overlook is the increase in medical waste. During pandemics, people often throw used masks, gloves, disinfectant and so on into unsealed trash bins, which also allows germs to spread easily in the air. Studies have shown that the virus can survive for up to three days on plastic and stainless steel items used in pandemic tools such as masks, needles, syringes, bandages, and so on.
As a result of the COVID-19, an estimated 71 million people live in extreme poverty. Although income inequality has decreased in some countries, the global economic recession after the epidemic may push millions of people back into poverty and exacerbate inequality. The most vulnerable groups are being hit hardest by the pandemic, threatening SDG 10.People living in low-income neighborhoods are less likely to have access to health care, and less educated families are less likely to work from home. Because most of them are workers, weavers, farmers and so on, their work is based on external conditions, they need to work in factories or farms, and they will not be able to go out to work after the outbreak of the pandemic. This leads to their economic income being directly blocked, which leads to the economic crisis and the widening gap between the rich and the poor.
COVID-19 crisis has highlighted lack of access to sanitation for billions. Because the sanitation facilities are not properly handled in time, most of the bacteria have polluted the water resources, and the water quality has been significantly reduced. Many water suppliers have scaled back, leading to a sharp rise in demand for water. This will result in government restrictions on the amount of water available and a sharp drop in revenue throughout the supply chain. Some countries have issued emergency measures that include partial water cuts or restrictions on water use for low-income users. The measures taken will continue to be the priority policy for addressing the wealth gap, and the negative effects of these water resources will continue to be linked to economic impacts.
During the outbreak of COVID-19, most of the world's children were deprived of formal education - a legacy that could threaten sustainable development goals. During the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world were forced to close their campuses and switch to remote teaching models. This greatly reduces the quality and assurance of student learning. There is a lack of direct communication and interaction between teachers and students, while the delay of the Internet and the time difference caused by different regions also make students feel tired. The data show that students who take distance education online have a lower rate of decline in test scores than those who take face-to-face classes. Students from families with large wealth gaps may also lack access to education during the pandemic because they do not have the equipment to listen to lectures online.
The world has made progress in achieving gender equality in goal 5 of sustainable development, with fewer girls forced to marry early and more women in leadership positions. However, during the outbreak of COVID-19, women's well-being was affected, domestic violence increased by 30% in some countries, and the demand for women's unpaid care was higher.
Peace and Safety
The political tensions caused by the COVID-19 and the trend of hardening of national borders may threaten the 16th SDG to promote peace and security and avoid violence and threaten the 17th SDG to strengthen the international partnership.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the SDG in different countries
Also, The COVID-19 pandemic shows that sustainable development is now beyond national strategies. People need to make health decisions that meet both their own needs and the needs of the wider community. For example, people wear masks on public transport, following advice on social distance and self-isolation where necessary, which help curb transmission and reduce disease, death and economic impact.
Most positive impacts of the COVID-19 on achieving the SDGs indicates on the improvement of environment. Recent data from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and ESA (European Space Agency) show that the pollution in cities like Wuhan, Italy, Spain and the United States, the epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic, has decreased by as much as 30%, which is a positive sign to the sustainable development goals.
Negative influences occurs, which are greater than the positive ones.
In low- and middle- countries, the main stresses have been imposed on their health systems such as the sexual and reproductive health of individuals living. To be specific, the COVID-19 pandemic has already led negative impacts to the supply of contraceptive commodities by many ways like the stagnation of production and the delayed delivery. What is more, those people and equipments supposed to be used in providing sexual and reproductive health services may be transferred into other use for the COVID-19, which results shutting down of many clinics. In Nepal and India, the COVID-19 has led clinics that operated by the largest provider of family planning services in India except the public sector to close. The COVID-19 pandemic causes indirect influences to these countries by disrupting their health system instead of the direct impacts.
In most developed countries, economy is considered to be the most severely affected part. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on stock market returns in all affected countries and regions. Besides, after the World Health Organization declared the pandemic, governments around the world put in place rules to limit the movement of citizens and shut down unnecessary businesses such as shutting down schools, large gatherings, sports, and community activities. People also cancel unnecessary travels. As a result, many business lost revenue and workers lost income. Negative impact happens in the US, the COVID-19 pandemic led to the shutdown of much of the United States in an effort to contain SARS-CoV-2, contributing to a sudden and unprecedented economic contraction.
For that reason, the International Labour Organization (2020a) is calling for measures to prevent workers from losing jobs, stimulate the economy and employment, and support employment and incomes. For example, many European countries have taken actions to protect their workers. In the UK, to keep employees' wages, businesses can claim 80% up to £2,500 per employee per month from the UK government and self-employed businesses can claim 80% of the value of their trading profits from the UK government up to £2,500 per month on deferred payments, direct and indirect taxes.
The COVID-19 Pandemic on achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in both positive and negative aspects based on five important elements such as poverty, water sanitation, education, gender equality and peace and safety. The negative affects are beyond the positive ones to all these elements. In addition, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the SDG in different countries is also illustrated. Though COVID-19 brings both good and bad effects to different countries on the world, the bad ones especially in economy are greater than the good ones. In a word, the The COVID-19 Pandemic has adverse influences the SDGs, which are way more than the positive ones. Hence, the SDGs is unlikely to be achieved by 2030.
- Min, Y., & Perucci, F. (2020, August 27). UN/DESA policy BRIEF #81: Impact of covid-19 on SDG progress: A statistical perspective. Department of economic and social affairs. Retrieved February 23, 2021
- Tebbutt, Emma (November 2016). "Assistive products and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)". Globalization and Health. 12 – via BMC.
- Rehfuess, Eva (March 2016). "Assessing Household Solid Fuel Use: Multiple Implications for the Millennium Development Goals". Environmental Health Perspectives. 114(3) – via ehp.
- Srivastava, A., Kumar Sharma, R., & Suresh, A. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 on Sustainable Development Goals. Amity University.
- Manandhar, Mary (September 2018). "Gender, health and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development". Bulletin of the World Health Orgnization. 96(9): 644–653 – via PMC.
- Thirumalaisamy P, Velavan (Feburury 2020). [10.1111/tmi.13383 "The COVID‐19 epidemic"] Check
|url=value (help). Public heath emergency COVID-19 initialtive. 25(3): 278–280 – via NCBI. Check date values in:
- Khetrapal S, Bhatia R. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health system & Sustainable Development Goal 3. Indian J Med Res [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 25];151:395-9. Available from: https://www.ijmr.org.in/text.asp?2020/151/5/395/285360
- Feras J., Jirjees (septemper 2020). "COVID-19 Death and BCG Vaccination Programs Worldwide". Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. 84(1): 13–21 – via NCBI. Check date values in:
- "Countries where COVID-19 has spread". Worldometer.
- Pak, Anton (May 2020). "Economic Consequences of the COVID-19 Outbreak: the Need for Epidemic Preparedness". Front. Public Health – via Public Health Policy.
- The Lancet Public Health. (2020, September). Will the COVID-19 pandemic threaten the SDGs? Retrieved March 18, 2021, from https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(20)30189-4/fulltext
- Sachs, J., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kroll, C., Lafortune, G., Fuller, G., Woelm, F. 2020. The Sustainable Development Goals and COVID-19. Sustainable Development Report 2020. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Boeren, E. (2019). Understanding sustainable development Goal (sdg) 4 On “QUALITY EDUCATION” from micro, meso and macro perspectives. International Review of Education, 65(2), 277-294. doi:10.1007/s11159-019-09772-7
- Ortigara, A. R., Kay, M., & Uhlenbrook, S. (2018, September 28). A Review of the SDG 6 Synthesis Report 2018 from an Education, Training, and Research Perspective. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327948826_A_Review_of_the_SDG_6_Synthesis_Report_2018_from_an_Education_Training_and_Research_Perspective/fulltext/5baef19745851574f7eeb573/A-Review-of-the-SDG-6-Synthesis-Report-2018-from-an-Education-Training-and-Research-Perspective.pdf
- Pradhan, P., Costa, L., Rybski, D., Lucht, W., & Kropp, J. P. (2017). A systematic study of sustainable development goal (sdg) interactions. Earth's Future, 5(11), 1169-1179. doi:10.1002/2017ef000632
- Janouskova, Svatava (2018). "Global SDGs Assessments: Helping or Confusing Indicators?". Sustainability. 10(5): 1540 – via MDPI.
- Heggen, K., Sandset, T. J., & Engebretsen, E. (2020, October 13). COVID-19 and sustainable development goals. Retrieved March 18, 2021, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336836/PMC7652554.pdf
- NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. (2020, December 8). Environmental impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, as observed from space. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 16, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/12/201208162957.htm
- Min, Y., & Perucci, F. (2020, August 27). UN/DESA policy BRIEF #81: Impact of covid-19 on SDG progress: A statistical perspective. Department of economic and social affairs. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/publication/un-desa-policy-brief-81-impact-of-covid-19-on-sdg-progress-a-statistical-perspective/
- Heggen, K., Sandset, T. J., & Engebretsen, E. (2020, October 13). COVID-19 and sustainable development goals. Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336836/PMC7652554.pdf
- Marchant-Forde, J. N., & Boyle, L. A. (2020). COVID-19 Effects on Livestock Production: A One Welfare Issue. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.585787
- Rume, T., & Islam, S. M. D.-U. (2020). Environmental effects of COVID-19 pandemic and potential strategies of sustainability. Heliyon, 6(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04965
- Kuhn, H. (2019). Reducing inequality within and AMONG countries: Realizing Sdg 10—A developmental perspective. Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Rights, 137-153. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-30469-0_8
- Finch, W. H., & Hernández Finch, M. E. (2020). Poverty and Covid-19: Rates of Incidence and Deaths in the United States During the First 10 Weeks of the Pandemic. Frontiers in Sociology, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2020.00047
- "Water, sanitation, hygiene and waste management for COVID-19: technical brief" (PDF). World Health Organization. Spring 2020.
- The Impact of COVID-19 pandemic for Water&Sanitation.https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/126b1a18-23d9-46f3-beb7-047c20885bf6/The+Impact+of+COVID_Water%26Sanitation_final_web.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CVID=ncaG-hA
- Tadesse, S., & Muluye, W. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Education System in Developing Countries: A Review. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 08(10), 159–170. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2020.810011
- Violence against women in Italy during the COVID‐19 pandemic. (2020). UN Women Ending Violence Against Women (EVAW) COVID-19 Briefs. doi:10.18356/6c50a2a9-en
- Heggen, K., Sandset, T. J., & Engebretsen, E. (2020, October 13). COVID-19 and sustainable development goals. Retrieved March 18, 2021, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336836/PMC7652554.pdf
- Muhammad, Sulaman; Long, Xingle; Salman, Muhammad (2020). "COVID-19 pandemic and environmental pollution: A blessing in disguise?". Science of The Total Environment. 728.
- Riley, Taylor; Sully, Elisabeth; Ahmed, Zara; Biddlecom, Ann (2020). "Estimates of the Potential Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Sexual and Reproductive Health In Low- and Middle-Income Countries". International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 46: 73–76.
- Liu, Haiyue; Manzoor, Aqsa; Wang, Cangyu; Zhang, Lei; Manzoor, Zaira (2020). "The COVID-19 Outbreak and Affected Countries Stock Markets Response". Environmental Research and Public Health.
- Williams, Colin; Kayaoglu, Aysegul (Summer 2020). "The Coronavirus Pandemic and Europe's Undeclared Economy: Impacts and a Policy Proposal". South East European Journal of Economics and Business.
- Stock, James (May 2020). "Reopening the coronavirus-closed economy" (PDF). Hutchins Center Working Paper. 60.