Blended Learning

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What is Blended Learning?

Blended learning in educational research refers to a mixing of different learning environments. It combines traditional face-to-face classroom methods with more modern computer-mediated activities.

Defining Blended Learning Models[1]

ROTATION -- Within a given course or subject, students rotate on a fixed schedule or at the teacher's discretion between learning modalities, at least one of which is online learning.

FLEX -- Content and instruction are delivered primarily by the Internet, students move on an individually customized, fluid schedule among learning modalities, and the teacher of record is on site.

SELF-BLEND -- Students choose to take one or more courses entirely online to supplement their traditional courses; the teacher of record is the online teacher.

ENRICHED VIRTUAL -- A whole-school experience in which, within each course, students divide their time between attending a brick-and-mortar campus and learning remotely using online delivery of content and instruction.


Link to Complete Bibliography
For a complete bibliography, please visit the CTLT's shared folder on Refworks.

Having problems? Visit the RefWorks information guide.

  • Ash, K. (2012). Blended learning mixes it up: As schools mix online instruction and face-to-face learning, educators are identifying promising hybrid approaches. Educatin Week, 31(25), 31.Ubc-elink.png
  • Bersin, J. (2004). The blended learning book: Best practices, proven methodologies, and lessons learned. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.Ubc-elink.png
  • Bonk, C. J., & Graham, C. R. (2006). The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.Ubc-elink.png
  • Bowen, W. G., Chingos, M.M., Lack, K.A. & Nygren, T.I., (2012). Interactive Learning Online at Public Universities: Evidence from Randomized Trials. Ithaka.Ubc-elink.png
  • Delialioglu, O. (2012). Student engagement in blended learning environments with lecture-based and problem-based instructional approaches. Educational Technology & Society, 15(3), 310-322. Ubc-elink.png
  • Drysdale, J.s., Graham, C.R., Spring, K.A. & Halverson, L.R., (2013). An analysis of research trends in dissertations and theses studying blended learning, The Internet and Higher Education, 17, 90-100.Ubc-elink.png
  • Halverson, L.R., Graham, C. R., Spring, K.J., & Drysdale, J.S., (2012). An analysis of high impact scholarship and publication trends in blended learning, Distance Education, 33:3, 381-413.Ubc-elink.png
  • Hofmann, J. (2011). Top 10 challenges of blended learning. Training, 48(2), 12.Permalink.svg Permalink
  • Lehman, R. M., & Berg, R. A. (2007). 147 practical tips for synchronous and blended technology teaching and learning. Madison, WI: Atwood Pub.Ubc-elink.png
  • Littlejohn, A., & Pegler, C. (2007). Preparing for blended e-learning. London England ; New York: Routledge.Ubc-elink.png
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, (2009). Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies, Washington, D.C. Permalink.svg Permalink

Other Resources

  • Vignare, K., Dziuban, C., Moskal, P, Luby, R. Serra-Roldan, R. & Wood, S. (2005). Blended Learning Review of Research: An Annotative Bibliography.Permalink.svg Permalink

See Also


  1. Ahs, K. (2012). Flexible learning a motivator: Students work through online courses at their own pace with classroom support. Education Week, pp. 10.

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