Science:Math Exam Resources/Courses/MATH312/December 2010/Question 05
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Question 05 

Find all positive integers n such that and prove that there are no others. Here denotes the Euler function. 
Make sure you understand the problem fully: What is the question asking you to do? Are there specific conditions or constraints that you should take note of? How will you know if your answer is correct from your work only? Can you rephrase the question in your own words in a way that makes sense to you? 
If you are stuck, check the hint below. Consider it for a while. Does it give you a new idea on how to approach the problem? If so, try it! 
Hint 

Recall that
Start with this and use divisibility rules to help. 
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Solution 

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Please rate my easiness! It's quick and helps everyone guide their studies. We begin by noting that
where above we used the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic to write (recall that means fully divides)
Our main equation of discussion will be . We proceed in cases. First we discuss the powers of 2 in n. Case 1: . In this case, notice that 4 divides the right hand side of the main equation but only 2 divides the left hand side. This is a contradiction. Case 2: . In this case, notice that 2 divides the right hand side of the main equation and 2 divides the left hand side. However, if another odd prime divides n, then the right hand side is divisible by an extra power of 2 which is a contradiction. The remaining subcase in this case is if no odd primes divde n, that is, . But since also this case cannot occur. Case 3: or n is odd . In either of these cases, since is multiplicative and as , we have that either of these cases can occur, that is, if , then Therefore, without loss of generality, we suppose 2 does not divide . Now we deal with the odd primes. Notice that for each odd prime, we get a factor of 2 on the right hand side of the main equation. Thus only exactly one odd prime can occur. Thus . Since only 2 and 11 occur as prime factors on the left hand side of the equation, we know that we must have that (the right hand side of the main equation has an term so the factor could be 2). If , then the prime p in question must be 11 since p divides the right hand side. So but this is inadmissable since . Thus n is a prime. For primes, we have that . This value we know is 22 and so . Thus combining the two discussions shows us that either or completing the question. 