Open Scholarship

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Open Access Week

UBC faculty, students, and staff have a history of engaging with open practices. Openness is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on transparency and free, unrestricted access to knowledge and |information, as well as collaboration and cooperative management and decentralized decision-making.[1]

Open Education

Spectrum of Open Practices at UBC

Open education refers to institutional practices and programmatic initiatives that broaden access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems. By eliminating barriers to entry, open education aids freedom of information by increasing accessibility.

Open Content and Open Educational Resources

Open content refer to creative works that lack restrictions on how people can use, modify, and distribute them.[2][3][4] [5] Open educational resources(OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes.[6]

Open Pedagogy and Practices

Open pedagogy is not a rigorously defined term but can be seen moving beyond a content-centred approach to openness, shifting the focus from resources to practices, with learners and teachers sharing the processes of knowledge creation.[7] In open pedagogy, students and instructors often engage with the public and/or networked communities for the purpose of teaching and learning. Students and instructors are co-creators in this process and the products of their courses or work are available to the public. Open pedagogy can be defined as teaching and learning practices that open up otherwise closed educational boundaries to promote access, agency, connections, transparency, and transformation for the sake of improved student learning along with equity and social justice. [8]

Open Access Publishing

Open access refers to the practice of allowing peer-reviewed research articles to be available online free of charge and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.[9] Benefits of this approach include: accelerated discovery and progress as researchers are free to use and build on the findings of others,[10] giving back to the public as much research is paid for with public funds,[11] and greater impact for one's work due to open access articles being accessible to a bigger audience.[12] 'Open peer review is a process in which names of reviewers of papers submitted to academic journals are disclosed to the authors of the papers in question.[13][14] In some cases, as with the BMJ' and BioMed Central, the process also involves posting the entire pre-publication history of the article online, including not only signed reviews of the article, but also its previous versions and author responses to the reviewers.[15][16]

Open Software Development

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.[1][2] A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public.

Open Collaboration

Open collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create something, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike."[17].

Open Data

Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.[18]

Open Research

Open research is concerned with making scientific research more transparent, more collaborative and more efficient. A central aspect to it is to provide open access to scientific information, especially to the research published in scholarly journals and to the underlying scientific data, much of which traditional science tends to hide away. Other aspects are more open forms of collaboration and engagement with a wider audience, including citizen science|citizen scientists and the public at large.

Open Science

Open science is the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional. It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge.

See Also


  1. Peters, Michael. "The Idea of Openness: Open Education and Education for Openness". The Encyclopaedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory. Archived from the original on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  2. "Definition of Free Cultural Works". Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  3. Stallman, Richard (November 13, 2008). "Free Software and Free Manuals". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  4. Grossman, Lev (1998-07-18). "New Free License to Cover Content Online". Netly News. Archived from the original on 2000-06-19. Retrieved 2010-01-12.
  5. Wiley, David (1998). "Open Content". Archived from the original on 1999-01-28. Retrieved 2012-04-17.
  6. "What are Open Educational Resources (OERs)? | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  7. Cronin,Cathering.
  8. "Navigating open pedagogy, part 2 – You're the Teacher". Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  9. Suber, Peter. "Open Access Overview". Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  10. "The Case for Open Access". Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  11. Suber, Peter. "The taxpayer argument for open access". SPARC Open Access Newsletter, issue #65. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  12. Harnad, Steven; Tim Brody. "Comparing the Impact of Open Access (OA) vs. Non-OA Articles in the Same Journals". D-Lib Magazine. 10. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  13. Walsh E, Rooney M, Appleby L, Wilkinson G (January 2000). "Open peer review: a randomised controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 176 (1): 47–51. doi:10.1192/bjp.176.1.47. PMID 10789326.
  14. van Rooyen S, Godlee F, Evans S, Black N, Smith R (January 1999). "Effect of open peer review on quality of reviews and on reviewers' recommendations: a randomised trial". Bmj. 318 (7175): 23–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7175.23. PMID 9872878.
  15. "What is 'open peer review', as operated by the medical journals in the BMC series?". BioMed Central. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  16. Groves T, Loder E (September 2014). "Prepublication histories and open peer review at the BMJ". Bmj. 349 (sep03 13): g5394. doi:10.1136/bmj.g5394. PMID 25186622.
  17. Levine, Sheen S., & Prietula, M. J. (2013). Open Collaboration for Innovation: Principles and Performance
  18. Auer, S. R.; Bizer, C.; Kobilarov, G.; Lehmann, J.; Cyganiak, R.; Ives, Z. (2007). "DBpedia: A Nucleus for a Web of Open Data". The Semantic Web. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4825. p. 722. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-76298-0_52. ISBN 978-3-540-76297-3.