Just Food Project: Glossary of Terms

From UBC Wiki
Term Definition
Ally A person who commits to, and makes efforts to recognize their privilege (based on gender, class, race, sexual identity, etc.) and works in solidarity with oppressed groups.[1] While the term ally is used in these modules, there are several critiques of this term. See accomplice for another understanding of working towards practising solidarity to lead to collective liberation.[2]
Accomplice A term that has emerged to critique of those who have co-opted the term ally and advanced their own careers off of the struggles they are trying to support, producing the ally industrial complex, effectively rendering the term useless. Accomplice is put forth as an alternative to centre a “fiercely unrelenting desire to achieve total liberation, with the land and, together” and the need for those who hold the privilege to become “complicit in a struggle towards liberation”, instead of only providing temporary shows of support.[3] See this guide, Opportunities for White People in the Fight for Racial Justice, for examples of how to distinguish actions between actors, allies, and accomplices. While this resource is an oversimplification (and written for a white audience focusing solely on racial justice), it is a starting point for those working to show solidarity with different marginalized groups to which they may not belong.
Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) Associations of food producers, distributors, and retailers (including institutions and restaurants) that have intentionally positioned themselves outside of the mainstream, commercial, and industrial food system. These include organic farms, those involved in locally sourced foods, Fair Trade certifiers and distributors, and other specialized market goods purveyors that emphasize ethical consumption through various means including farmers' markets, cooperatives and other less common sites. These products are increasingly being sold by more mainstream commercial retailers.[4]
Anti-oppression According to the Anti-oppression Network, anti-oppression refers to "strategies, theories, actions, and practices that actively challenge systems of oppression on an ongoing basis”. This definition centres personal responsibility in one's understanding of practising anti-oppression, stating that anti-oppression is not only confronting individual examples of oppression but “also confronting ourselves and our own roles of power and oppression in our communities and the bigger picture".[5]
Anti-racism The active process of identifying and eliminating racism by changing systems, organizational structures, policies and practices and attitudes, so that power is redistributed and shared equitably.[6]
Class Refers to peoples’ relative positions in the distribution of goods including land, property, money, housing, and division of labour, and refers to processes of further social differentiation based on these positions; these differentiations are both caused by and are a cause of power relations.[1]
Colonization A form of invasion, dispossession, and subjugation of a group of people. Colonization can manifest as a geographical intrusion (such as military, agricultural, urban, or industrial encroachments) that dispossesses vast amounts of land from the original inhabitants. Colonization often leads to institutionalized inequality as the colonizer benefits at the expense of the colonized.[1]
Corporeal oppression In the context of gender and the food system, corporeal oppression corresponds to systemic discrimination based on gendered expectations of bodies and consumptive patterns.[7]
Community-Supported Agriculture (CSAs) A food distribution method directly connecting producers to consumers. Consumers buy a “share” of a farm at the beginning of the season and receive a weekly box of fresh vegetables and fruit (sometimes with add-ons such as eggs, meat, dairy, or flowers depending on the region) throughout the growing season. This model allows farmers access to early-season capital and a stable market, and consumers receive fresh seasonal goods. CSAs are often used by organic farms or farms transitioning to organic certification.[8]
Critical Race Theory CRT maintains that race continues to exist as a power structure wherein people of color often face tangible challenges in accessing economic resources, educational and professional opportunities, and positive experiences with the legal system. The CRT framework also seeks to dismantle racial inequity through racial emancipation.[9]
Cuisine An essentialized (possibly oversimplified or misleading) concept of the food of a culture that has a series of defining characteristics: ingredients, flavours, cooking methods, resultant dishes, and rules of consumption, all of which are shaped by the social context.[10]
Cultural appropropriation The theft of cultural elements for one’s own use, commodification, or profit—including symbols, art, language, and customs—often without understanding, acknowledgement, or respect for its value in the original culture. This results from the assumption of a dominant (e.g., white) culture that they have a right to take other cultures' elements.[1]
Culture A social system of meaning and custom developed by a group of people to assure its adaptation and survival. These groups are distinguished by a set of unspoken rules that shape values, beliefs, habits, patterns of thinking, behaviors, and styles of communication.[1]
Decolonialism The bureaucratic, cultural, linguistic and psychological divesting of colonial power and restoring of Indigenous world views, cultures, traditions, and knowledge.[11]
Diaspora A scattering of people over space and transnational connections between people and places. The term was first used to describe the forced dispersal of the Jews from Palestine in the sixth century BCE, and often continues to refer to forced migration and exile. More recently, and particularly since the 1990s, diaspora studies have come to encompass wider notions of transnational migration, resettlement, connection and attachment.[4]
Distributive justice Distributive justice issues concern the fairness of the distribution or division of something among several people or groups, whether it be a benefit (e.g. work wages) or a burden (e.g. taxes).[12]
Epistemic justice Epistemic justice relates to the privilege or oppression of different ways of knowing, understanding and communicating, as well as different systems of thought.[13][14] In North America, there are different systems of thought. For instance, Western scientific thought, which attempts to separate science from religion and philosophy. There are also various Indigenous understandings based on traditional ecological knowledge which is a more holistic understanding “of the rules and responsibilities that govern the relations between people and all components of the natural world, whether human or non-human.”[14] When Western ways of knowing inform policies that cause harm to Indigenous groups and undermine their sovereignty and right to self-determination, this is a structural epistemic injustice, rooted in histories of power dynamics. Another example of epistemic injustice in the context of the settler nation of Canada would be federal laws that assume Canada has control over Indigenous peoples and their territories.[15] Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Report demonstrated that longstanding Indigenous laws and institutions are denigrated and ignored in discussions of sovereignty, self-determination, justice claims, and reconciliation. The report states that for reconciliation to be possible, non-Indigenous Canadians need to unlearn what is taught in the ‘official’ accounts of history and learn about the histories of laws, practices, and traditions as told by Indigenous Canadians. Who gets to tell and record the ‘history of Canada’ shapes the collective interpretation, in turn shaping the relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians. Questioning who gets to tell the stories and acknowledging how these stories shape our collective history is an example of pursuing epistemic justice.
Equity Equality refers to treating each person within a community or system in the same way. Equity refers to treating individuals “according to their circumstances” so that they can experience similar outcomes to the rest of the community or system.[16] An equitable approach requires careful consideration of actors’ positionalities and intersections within society as opposed to a universal approach that may superficially appear to be equal.
Ethnicity A social construct that divides people into smaller social groups based on characteristics such as shared sense of group membership, values, behavioral patterns, language, political and economic interests, history and ancestral geographical base.

Examples of different ethnic groups are: African American; Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese; Cree, Mohawk; Puerto Rican; Polish.[1]

Farmer A person who works on agricultural land or owns farmland. The term farmer does not denote the person's economic or social position.
Farmworker A hired agricultural labourer, employed in a farming, ranching, orcharding or other agricultural operation. Their main duties can include growing, planting, cultivating, or harvesting agricultural products. (also known as agricultural worker or farmhand)[17]
Feminism There are some contestations over the definition of feminism. However, principal understandings of the term describe it as “political, cultural, and economic movements that aim to establish equal rights and legal protections for women.”[18] Other descriptions extend the definition to include movements that seek equal rights and protections for all people.[19][20] Feminist movements have mobilized around issues including but not limited to property rights, voting rights, affordable healthcare, historic exclusion of Indigenous womxn and womxn of colour from feminist actions, and inequalities experienced by womxn in the private and public spheres.[21] Contemporary feminism is characterized by the employment of diverse feminist theories as well as by the breadth of social issues focused on, from the hegemony of capitalist systems to policy barriers preventing gender equity.[22] Also characteristic of contemporary feminism is the application of an intersectional lens that is inclusive of race, sexuality, class, and other social categories to womxn’s issues around the world.[23]
Food justice Understandings of food justice continue to evolve and are not universally agreed upon, but most see food justice as meaning "a transformation of the current food system, including but not limited to eliminating disparities and inequities" that constrain food choices and access to good food for all[24] and communities exercising their right to grow, sell, and eat fresh, nutritious, affordable, culturally appropriate, and locally grown foods. The well-being of the environment, workers, and animals must be considered simultaneously.[25] Food justice involves addressing the causes of inequality both within and beyond the food system—such as racism, exploitation, and oppression.[26] This means actively analyzing and reflecting on the structural causes that permeate the food system and society broadly, leading to unequal access to food for different groups.[27][28][29]
Food regime A rule-governed structure of production and consumption of food on a world scale. Food regime analysis emerged to explain the role of agriculture and food in the construction of the world capitalist economy.[30]
Food security Considered a basic human right by the United Nations, it is fulfilled when all people have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and preferences.[31] The concept of food security usually emphasizes physical and economic access to food; the FAO emphasizes that an increase in food insecurity at the global scale can contribute to economic slowdowns and increased conflict. The food security paradigm often compares the total amount of production to the average needs of the population to measure food insecurity.[32]
Food sovereignty "The right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems."[33] The concept of food sovereignty was introduced and championed by La Via Campesina in 2007, a global peasant movement working to enact their food sovereignty by advocating for workers’ and women’s rights and fighting against land grabs and the spread of GMOs.[34]
Food system A food system is a “complex web of activities” related to food including its “production, processing, transport and consumption”.[35] Viewing food from this systems lens relies on a relational way of viewing processes, and an interdisciplinary understanding spanning economics and governance, food cultivation and environmental science, nutrition and population health, and more.
Foodways The study of the procurement, preparation, and consumption of food. It is the study of what people eat and why they eat it. Foodways connect people to a geographic region, a climate, a period of time, an ethnic or religious group, and a family.[36]
Gender Characteristics such as “attitudes, feelings and behaviors that a society or culture” delineate as normative (eg. masculine, feminine) or non-binary (eg. gender non-conforming or two-spirited).[37][38]
Gender binary “A system that constructs gender according to two discrete and opposite categories: boy/man and girl/woman. It is important to recognize that both cisgender and Transgender people can have a gender identity that is binary.”[39]
Gender normativity Expectations of behaviour and gender expression that are based on notions of heterosexuality and the gender binary.[37]
Global development The planned attempts to transform the standard of living among the poorer populations of a country or region, generally by outside forces. Characterized as a complex series of interventions directed from richer countries to poorer countries in the form of aid. A modernist project with historical roots in the Cold War that seeks to narrow the socioeconomic gap between different parts of the world by bringing into effect the social and cultural changes thought necessary to close the gap and stabilize countries politically.[4]
Green revolution The diffusion of new high yield varieties of crops such as rice and wheat with their associated agricultural technologies from the Global North to the Global South beginning in the 1950s. The Green Revolution increased agricultural productivity and the right to food in many developing nations but is associated with the disruption of traditional farming economies and the environmental degradation. The Green Revolution is also tied to the global corporate food regime, as one of the outcomes of the revolution was to increase productivity leading to increased exports, entrenching global supply chains.[4]
Inclusion An organisational effort and organizational practices through which different groups or individuals having different backgrounds are culturally and socially accepted and welcomed, and equally treated. These differences could be self-evident, such as national origin, age, race and ethnicity, religion/belief, gender, marital status and socioeconomic status or they could be more inherent, such as educational background, training, sector experience, organisational tenure, even personality, such as introverts and extroverts.[40]
Indigenous A term used to encompass a variety of Aboriginal* groups. It is most frequently used in international, transnational, or global context to “refer broadly to people of long settlement and connection to specific lands."[41]
Indigenous food sovereignty Understandings and specifics of Indigenous Food Sovereignty differ between Indigenous groups. According to the Indigenous Food Systems Network in British Columbia, “Indigenous Food Sovereignty is a specific policy approach to addressing the underlying issues impacting Indigenous peoples and our ability to respond to our own needs for healthy, culturally adapted Indigenous foods.”[42]
Indigenous Food Sovereignty Movement (IFSM) A worldwide movement with the goal of achieving food security and sovereignty. This movement seeks to address the systemic issues influencing Indigenous peoples' access to and control of appropriate foods and relies on “cultural mobilization and the maintenance of multi-millennial cultural harvesting strategies and practices” to influence policy. See Module 2: Agriculture as a Colonial Project to learn more.[42]
Individual racism The beliefs, attitudes, and actions of individuals that support or perpetuate racism in conscious and unconscious ways. Examples include telling a racist joke, believing in the inherent superiority of white people over other racial groups, or not hiring a person of color because “something doesn’t feel right.”[43]
Institutional racism Occurs when organizations, businesses, or institutions like schools and police departments discriminate, either deliberately or indirectly against certain groups of people to limit their rights. This type of racism reflects the cultural assumptions of the dominant group.[44]
Intersectionality A term coined by Kimberle Crenshaw, a Black feminist legal scholar, to articulate how social differentiation occurs through interactions between ‘markers of difference’ (for example, social identities formed by gender, race, and class).[45][46] To understand different experiences, it is necessary to analyze how social identities intersect and interact.[47] See this helpful introductory video from Teaching Tolerance.
Labour migration Movement prompted by the migrant's intent to relocate to a more or less distant labour market. Where labour is allocated through a labour market, most migration is prompted by the decisions of households and individuals to move in search of better work opportunities. Labour migration reflects the spatial distribution and redistribution of economic opportunities among regions and nations.[48]
LGBTQIA2+ An abbreviation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual and Two-spirit.[49] An umbrella term that is commonly used is LGBT, however, the abbreviation has continued to expand in gender and sexuality discourse to establish inclusivity and representation for various communities.[50][51]
Local Food Movement Broadly defined as the movement of people who prefer to eat food that is grown, harvested, foraged, caught, hunted, and processed close to where it is purchased. Over the past two decades, the movement has gained significant traction, from the naming of the term “locavore” as Oxford’s “Term of the Year” in 2007 to local eating becoming a policy priority at multiple governmental levels.[52]
Material oppression In the context of gender and food system, material oppression corresponds to systemic discrimination based upon gendered expectations within the formal and informal labour markets.[7]
Microaggression The everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights, snubs, or insults, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative messages to target persons based solely upon their marginalized group membership.[1]
Migrant A person who changes their place of usual residence by moving across a political or administrative boundary, for example, between countries or regions within the same country. There is no exact way to define who is a migrant. An international migrant, for example, may be classified as foreign-born, foreign-national and/or someone who has moved to a country for at least a year. Some surveys and official sources treat refugees as migrants, but others do not.[53]
Modernity A historical period and associated experience connected to the spread of capitalism and characterized by perpetual change and innovation.[4] Modernity is a generation's self-definition of its own technological innovation, governance, and socioeconomics; this definition attempts to distinguish one’s self as being organizationally or intellectually advanced compared to a previous generation. Modernity is associated with individual subjectivity, scientific explanation and rationalization, a decline in emphasis on religious worldviews, the emergence of bureaucracy, rapid urbanization, the rise of nation-states, and accelerated financial exchange and communication.[54]
Modernization Theory An ideological notion that poorer countries and regions need to transition from traditional societies to modern, advanced industrial societies through technological, social, and cultural change.[55]
Multiculturalism A policy in Canada from the 1970s that celebrates difference while still containing it within the national frame. Sociologically, it is the presence of people from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds.[56]
Nation State The “idea of a nation [a group of people that see themselves as a cohesive and coherent unit] governed by a sovereign state”; in practice, this is very difficult to achieve.[57]
Ontology The study and understanding of the nature of reality—such as what exists or what there is. Understandings of reality constrain and support theories of knowledge (epistemology) and how knowledge is learned and taught (pedagogy).
Oppression “A pervasive system of supremacy and discrimination that perpetuates itself through differential treatment, ideological domination, and institutional control. Oppression depends on a socially constructed binary of a dominant group (though not necessarily more populous) as being normal, natural, superior, and required over the ‘other’. This binary benefits said group, who historically have greater access to power and the ability to influence the process of planetary change and evolution.”[58] Examples of oppression include racism, classism, and heterosexism.
Organic agriculture Farming based on principles that seek to minimize environmental degradation to agricultural ecosystems by restricting artificial inputs, including synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically engineered components. Instead, organic principles emphasize crop rotation, natural manure, and compost, among other techniques, to restore these nutrients.[4]
Personal power Personal power is the power within each individual to take action, make decisions, and participate. Personal power can be enhanced or limited depending on the influence of systemic or positional power.[59]
Patriarchy A system in which social structures are organized around the power of men, with womxn being seen as dependent and subordinate to men.[60] This type of system is reinforced by the gender binary that attempts to justify the dominant positions of men as being a result of inherent ‘gender differences’ as opposed to being a constructed form of social organization. From a feminist perspective, patriarchy is considered the root of oppression for womxn.[23]
Philanthrocapitalism The application of free-market principles to philanthropic investing under the belief that market ideals will lead to better outcomes for philanthropy’s beneficiaries (otherwise known as capitalist philanthropy). It encompasses some of the practices and approaches used by “mega” foundations, such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation that are funded through the wealth of donors and lack public accountability. Philanthrocapitalism aims to harness wealth to improve public good, however, critics of the practice and theory highlight that it can lead to a systemic shift to increased corporate control, for instance, in Africa’s public agricultural sector.[61][62][63][64] See Module 6: Food Systems Governance to learn more.
Philanthropic foundation A non-profit organization that donates money to other organizations or funds their own activities; In the United States, this includes both private foundations that are usually funded by an individual or corporation as well as public charities which raise funds from the general public. These foundations are generally created with the intention to support the social good and they provide funds for charity, education, research and other beneficial programs.[65]
Philanthropy Charitable giving to causes on a large scale, carried out by wealthy individuals seeking to improve human welfare.[66] Philanthropy’s scale and scope distinguish it from other charitable giving; philanthropists invest in humanitarian objectives in ways that are often intended to benefit many people in universalizing ways.[61]
Positional power Positional power comes from the privileges of higher positions within hierarchies such as those of age, experience, or professional titles.[59]
Positionality Coined by philosopher Linda Alcoff, positionality is a term used by feminist scholars to indicate that lived experiences and social identities (such as those implicated by race, class, and gender) shape our worldviews. These identities do not have fixed essences or certain characteristics; they are markers of relational positions and are fluid, shaped by “socially constructed positions and memberships to which [they] belong”.[67]
Procedural justice Results from following a ‘fair procedure’ – which concerns the fairness of how information is gathered or how a decision is made (not the decision made or information gathered itself).[12][46]
Queer Theory While “queer theory itself resists definition”, this theoretical lens critiques identities as performative, normalized through the repetition of certain actions, as opposed to being natural. This lens also encourages nonconformity with normative or dominant social identities.[68][69][70]
Race A political construction created to concentrate power among white people and legitimize dominance over non-white people. Race is a made-up social construct, and not a biological fact. Racial categorization schemes were invented by scientists to support worldviews that viewed some groups of people as superior and some as inferior.[1][43]
Racial equity Both an outcome and a process as defined by the Center for Social Inclusion. “As an outcome, we achieve racial equity when race no longer determines one’s socioeconomic outcomes; when everyone has what they need to thrive, no matter where they live. As a process, we apply racial equity when those most impacted by structural racial inequity are meaningfully involved in the creation and implementation of the institutional policies and practices that impact their lives. When we achieve racial equity:
  • People, including people of color, are owners, planners, and decision-makers in the systems that govern their lives.
  • We acknowledge and account for past and current inequities, and provide all people, particularly those most impacted by racial inequities, the infrastructure needed to thrive.
  • Everyone benefits from a more just, equitable system."[71]
Racialization The dynamic process that creates cumulative and durable inequalities based on race. Interactions between individuals are shaped by and reflect underlying and often hidden structures that shape biases and create disparate outcomes even in the absence of racist actors or racist intentions. The presence of structural racialization is evidenced by consistent differences in outcomes in education attainment, family wealth and even life span.[1]
Racism Involves one group having the power to carry out systematic discrimination through the institutional policies and practices of the society and by shaping the cultural beliefs and values that support those racist policies and practices. It is different from racial prejudice, hatred or discrimination.[1]
Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP) A program that allows employers to hire temporary foreign workers (TFW) when Canadians and permanent residents are “not available”. These employers can hire TFWs from participating countries for a maximum period of 8 months, between January 1 and December 15, provided they are able to offer the workers a minimum of 240 hours of work within a period of 6 weeks or less.[72]
Settler colonialism The specific form of colonialism in which people come to a land inhabited by (Indigenous) people and declare that land to be their new home. Settler colonialism is about the pursuit of land, not just labor or resources. Settler colonialism is a persistent societal structure, not just an historical event or origin story for a nation-state. Settler colonialism has meant genocide of Indigenous peoples, and the reconfiguring of Indigenous land into settler property. In the United States and other slave estates, it has also meant the theft of people from their homelands (in Africa) to become property of settlers, made to labor on stolen land.[73]
Sex Refers to socially constructed characteristics based upon “biological differences [such as] chromosomes, hormonal profiles, internal and external sex organs”.[74]
Sexual orientation Describes a person’s attraction (or lack thereof) to others based on physicality, emotionality, and gender identities. Sexual orientations include homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual, asexual, pansexual, and questioning.[75][76]
Social movement Organized efforts of individuals, communities, or organizations to reach societal goals and, in general, act outside of the defined state and economic spheres.[4]
Sociocultural oppression In the context of gender and the food system, sociocultural oppression corresponds to systemic discrimination based on societal expectations and assumed gender roles regarding food in the private or domestic sphere.[7]
Structural racism "While most of the legally based forms of racial discrimination have been outlawed, many of the racial disparities originating in various institutions and practices continue and accumulate as major forces in economic and political structures and cultural traditions. Structural racism refers to the ways in which social structures and institutions, over time, perpetuate and produce cumulative, durable, race-based inequalities. This can occur even in the absence of racist intent on the part of individuals" (p. 5).[44]
Systemic power Systemic power is built into socioeconomic relationships. Systems that hold power in society provide individuals and groups in control with significant power and privilege–for example, government, business, and education. The values of those who hold systemic power can facilitate environments that increase barriers for those with less privilege or decrease barriers for those with more privilege.[59]
Temporary Foreign Workers Program (TFWP) A migrant worker program that Includes the Caregiver Program, the Seasonal Agricultural Program, a stream for Lower-Skilled Occupations, and an Agricultural stream.[72]
Terra Nullius A Latin expression meaning "lands of no one." The concept of Terra nullius is part of the historical dispossession and erasure of Indigenous peoples; it has been invoked in colonial law to justify the acquisition and occupation of Indigenous lands by European powers. The concept played an integral role in rendering inhabitants of these lands as non‐human, justifying their domination, subjugation and dispossession at the hands of European settlers.[77]
Trauma-informed practice The integration of understanding of past and current experiences of violence and trauma into all aspects of service delivery. The goal of trauma-informed systems is to avoid re-traumatizing individuals and support safety, choice, and control in order to promote healing.[78]
Unceded Synonymous with 'stolen'. When we say that a territory is unceded, we mean that the land is appropriated by settlers from Indigenous peoples without being officially ceded through a treaty.[79]
Unpaid labour The production of goods or services that are consumed by those within or outside a household, but not for sale on the market. An activity is considered ‘work’ (vs. ‘leisure’) "if a third person could be paid to do a certain activity”.[80]
Urban agriculture Urban agriculture includes the production and harvesting of agricultural products, including fruits, vegetables, and livestock for sale or consumption within and around cities. Urban agriculture can include community gardening, urban farming, hobby beekeeping, backyard hen keeping, and edible landscaping, depending on the urban areas' context, season, and resources.[81]
White fragility "White people in North America live in a social environment that protects and in-sulates them from race-based stress. This insulated environment of racial protec-tion builds white expectations for racial comfort while at the same time lowering the ability to tolerate racial stress, leading to what I refer to as White Fragility. White Fragility is a state in which even a minimum amount of racial stress be-comes intolerable, triggering a range of defensive moves. These moves include the outward display of emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and behaviors such as argumentation, silence, and leaving the stress-inducing situation. These behav-iors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium" (p. 54).[82]
White privilege The unquestioned and unearned set of advantages, entitlements, benefits and choices bestowed upon people solely because they are white.[83] Generally white people who experience such privilege do so without being conscious of it. Examples of privilege might be: ‘I can walk around a department store without being followed'; ‘I can come to a meeting late and not have my lateness attributed to my race'; ‘I can turn on the television or look to the front page and see people of my ethnic and racial background represented'.
White supremacy A historically based, institutionally perpetuated system of exploitation and oppression of continents, nations and peoples of color by white peoples and nations of the European continent; for the purpose of maintaining and defending a system of wealth, power and privilege.[84]
Whiteness Whiteness is the false universalization of social norms and culture (including white supremacist ideology) associated with white people as if they were proper for society as a whole. This can be implicit such as is common in farmers' markets, or explicit, as in white supremacist organizations. ‘White’ can be understood as a “position in a racialized social structure”, it influences access to resources, and it would have no meaning outside of a racialized social structure.[4][46]
Womxn A term used in gender discourse that is inclusive of “all woman-identified individuals, regardless of assigned sex at birth”.[85] Similar to the term ‘womyn’, it emerged as a way to assert that women as people and ‘women’ as a term should not be defined in relation to men. The spelling of this term using the ‘x’ emerged in response to the “history of exclusion [of trans womxn and gender non-conforming people] in many second wave feminist organizations” in which membership was based upon normative notions of femininity.


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