Course:FRST270/Wiki Projects/The History of Co-management of the Valhalla Provincial Park in British Columbia, Canada

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The History of Co-management of the Valhalla Provincial Park in British Columbia, Canada

The Valhalla Provincial park lies within the Selkirk mountains of the West Kootenays in British Columbia, Canada. From shorelines and low-elevation Interior Cedar-Hemlock forests, to alpine meadows and snow-capped peaks, it is an area of unique ecological diversity. Since the arrival of miners in the 1890’s and the ‘extinction’ of the Sinixt First Nations people in 1956, the provincial forest been used for recreation and timber extraction. As part of the Arrow Timber Supply Area, resource extraction has occurred in the northern section of the land but not through the mountain range due its rugged terrain. Persistent advocacy by the Kootenay Mountaineering Club and the Valhalla Wilderness Society led to the creation of the Valhalla Provincial Park in 1983 with the goal of protecting the ecology and of creating a profitable tourist industry. This case study explores the history and management of this park, and assess its successes and failures.

Description

View of the Valhallas from the east side of Slocan Lake

Location

The Valhalla Provincial Park lies between the Lower Arrow Lake and Slocan Lake within the Selkirk mountains of the West Kootenays in British Columbia, Canada[1].

History

This region was historically occupied by the Sinixt First Nation who had three villages on Slocan Lake and would travel into the mountains to hunt, pick berries, fish, and visit sacred sites[2]. Pictographs and the remains of small archaeological sites can still be seen throughout the park [1][3].

The introduction of smallpox from affected Native groups on the High Plains in 1770 and 1780 caused devastating effects in Sinixt territory[4]. Indigenous populations through the North-Western Americas dropped by 90% leaving villages completely deserted[4]. Early reports by the Hudson Bay Company indicate low numbers of Sinixt in the Slocan Valley [2] and it is likely that this is because of the small pox epidemic and the consequent de-population.

Low populations through the 1800’s meant that when non-native people flooded into the Valhalla region during the silver-lead rush, of the 1890s there was very little resistance from the Sinixt First Nation[2]. The encroachment and disruption of the remaining communities caused the Sinixt to retreat further south into the Colville area across the American border leaving behind their northern villages[2]. While now officially recognized in the US, the absence of an abundant Sinixt population in Canada caused the Government of Canada to declare the Sinixt people, or Arrow Lakes Band, to be extinct since 1956[2].

Since the First Nation depopulation, many different groups have come to the Slocan Valley. The mining rush of 1891 brought hard rock prospectors and miners into the valley [5]. Slightly later Eastern Canadian and English immigrants a few of them from middle class background, began to arrive[6]. Some of them established apple orchards for profit[7]. In the 1940’s, Japanese people were relocated to the valley after being deported from the coast during the Second World War[8]. In the late 1960s American hippies settled in the Slocan Valley to escape the Viet Nam war and the draft[9]. All of these individuals from many different backgrounds found homes in the Slocan Valley and formed new communities leading to the creation of several villages; New Denver, Silverton, and Slocan.

Within these communities discussion about a possible park on the west side of Slocan Lake produced two polar views. Many working class people, mainly in resource extraction, were vehemently opposed to the park creation[10]. This right-wing movement, ‘Can the Plan’, was focused on creating jobs and sustaining families rather than on environmental conservation[10]. It was their opinion that the land would be wasted with the creation of the Valhalla Provincial Park. There could be vast mineral reserves in the proposed park, although none had been found in the past century, while timber in the forests was useless just sitting there. On the other hand, the hippies, who were relatively well educated and came from urban backgrounds, strongly supported the park, as did a fair portion of the pre-hippie population[6]. For those who opposed the park, the fact that the hippies -- whose long hair and other ways they found repugnant -- supported it, was another reason to reject the park. Overall, supporters of the park considerably outnumbered the critics, and fact that there were few obvious commercial resources within the area of the proposed park led the provincial government to approve it.

Land Use of the Valhalla Park since the disappearance of the Sinixt

Since the disappearance of the Sinixt First Nation, the Valhalla mountains have been used mainly for recreational purposes and have seen only moderate resource extraction. The increase in the population led to a new wave of exploration into the Valhalla mountains for prospecting and recreation. The first documented recreational use of the Valhalla mountain range was the building of a trail to the New Denver Glacier in 1907 by the Town Improvement Society of New Denver[11]. Mining was in decline, and it was held that alpine tourism was a viable alternative. The rugged terrain and difficulty to access has meant that the upper western regions of the park have never been logged[11]. Flume and horse logging occurred through 1900-1920 only in the lower more eastern region of the park[12]. The shorelines were burnt in the 1920’s, and logged moderately from 1940-1950 as part of the Arrow Timber Service Area[13]. Low mineral potential meant that the park was left largely untouched by the 1891 mining boom despite considerable search efforts[11].

Creation of the Park

From shorelines to snowcapped peaks the Valhalla mountains have offered the residents of Slocan a beautiful backyard for recreational activities and provided a home for many different animals. Valhalla Provincial Park is the home of black bears, mountain goats, mule deer, whitetail deer, cougars, golden eagles, alpine ptarmigan, many bird species, and importantly, grizzly bears[12]. Low nutrients availability in Slocan Lake and the presence of dams on the Kootenay and Columbia rivers (which blocked salmon runs) has meant that there are relatively low fish populations, and subsequently low fishery values[12]. Ecologically, the forests within Valhalla Provincial Park are provincially and internationally significant as there are uniquely large Interior Cedar-Hemlock forests[12].

In the park’s interior lie several unusually large, high-elevation lakes; Beatrice Lake, Cahill Lake, and Evans Lake[11]. Significant ecologically, Recreational Reserves were placed on these three lakes in 1953 to “preserve the area for the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public”[11]. The first government recognized protection movement by the community was a park proposal in 1970 by the Kootenay Mountaineering Club to the Minster of Recreation and Conservation[11]. This called for a 25,000 hectare park. Itwas not initially accepted, but did lead after 1976 to a ban on logging[11]. Between park proposal and the logging ban, a ban was placed on mineral exploration. In 1974 there was a community proposal, endorsed by the Slocan Valley Community Forest Management Project, for a Nature Conservancy area[11]. Another park recreation plan was proposed by the Valhalla Wilderness Society in 1979[11]. This continuous and persistent advocacy by the community for the preservation of the beautiful land led to the creation of the Valhalla Provincial Park in 1983[1].

Although there were some vehement objections, overall the process of proposals and approval of this Provincial Park seemed relatively smooth. Concerned both economic growth and with being re-elected, the government of British Columbia must balance the desires of the community and the need for resource extraction. The ongoing objective of the provincial government to appeal to a broad portion of the public was greatly influenced by the large movement and organized advocacy of community groups for the creation of the Valhalla Provincial Park. Consisting of only 2.1% of the Arrow Timber Service Area, impacts of the extraction of the Valhalla Park from that service area was expected to be low[11]. It was expected that the withdrawal would result in only 21,000 cubic meters of timber and the loss of 14 jobs[11]. The continued pressure for conservation and findings, in initial studies of the prospective park, of low impacts on forestry and the economy gave the government an easy decision.

Tenure arrangements

As a part of the provincial park system, the Valhalla Provincial Park is on land that is owned by the Provincial Government of British Columbia. Throughout the property, there are several inholdings and tenure arrangements that existed before the park’s creation. There is also a conservation covenant on the most recent addition to the Valhalla Provincial park, 1.5km of shoreline along the western shore of Slocan Lake called the Valhalla Mile, by the The Land Conservancy of British Columbia[14].

Freehold properties

There are several freehold properties within the Valhalla Provincial Park boundaries [15]. These lie along the western shore of Slocan Lake and have existed since the creation of the park[15]. The park management is committed to honouring all of the previous agreements, but with the objective of phasing out all existing tenures[15]. There is one permit for a summer cabin site which is valid only for the lifetime of the original land owners and may not be transferred[15]. Four District Lots are scattered along Slocan Lake, half of which have buildings on them[15]. Several of these lots have been donated to the Valhalla Mile initiative by the land owner, Mr. Franz, as a split receipt under the federal Ecological Gifts Program[16]. Two of the District Lot holdings block public access up Gwillim Creek [15]. The government of BC is in the process of negotiating mutually beneficial access arrangements in order to give the public some form of legal right of way[15].

Wildlife Permits

With the creation of the park, three trap line permits were issued to ensure the continued right of hunting for local trappers[15]. No cattle or sheep grazing tenures have been issued for the lower forests or upper alpine grasslands in order to retain species richness, distribution, and diversity[12]. There are also five tenures for recreational guiding and one for maintenance and operations[15]. As per the most recent park management plan, tenures such as these will continue as long as they provide a public service and meet park policies and objectives[15].

The Land Conservancy

The Land Conservancy (TLC) of British Columbia is a charitable organization which was key in securing the Valhalla Mile property. TLC brought together many different community groups in order to secure the funding and support for the new 63 hectare lakeshore addition to the Valhalla Provincial Park[14]. While the provincial government owns and manages the land, TLC holds a legally binding conservation covenant on the property[16]. This will ensure that the land will be preserved for ecological purposes even with the collapse of the provincial park system.


Administrative arrangements

The government of British Columbia is the management authority in the Valhalla Provincial Park. It has implemented several different planning strategies, as well as a planning process for all management decisions.

As the provincial government of British Columbia is committed to the protection of the environment, a science-based ecosystem management approach is used[11]. Among other things, this includes the integration of science-based information with management activities[11]. To ensure this approach is followed, there have been several different planning strategies used since the Park’s creation.

The Protected Areas Strategy was implemented in 1993 to “protect viable representative examples of natural diversity in the province …[and] protect the special natural, cultural heritage and recreational features”[12]. The BC Parks Legacy Project was used from 1997-1999 with the objective of incorporating public opinions into management processes and ensuring that the protection of the natural and cultural values was a dominant feature of the management decisions[12]. This was done by creating a panel to canvass the public who could “recommend appropriate strategies to care for and sustain the expanding protected areas system” [12].

In 1992, the province’s Commission on Resources and the Environment (CORE) initiated the first strategic land use plan called the Kootenay Boundary Land Use Plan (KBLUP) with the goal of expanding the protected areas of the Central Columbia Mountains Eco-section[12].

The provincial government claims that its commitment to environmental causes, has resulted in a planning process to encourage a “science-based ecosystem management approach”[11]. This process includes:

  1. Update of the background report.
  2. Consultation with individuals and organizations that expressed interest in the park.
  3. Interviews with a wide array of stakeholders
  4. Workshops for management planning
  5. Discussion of a draft management plan with knowledgeable persons
  6. Consideration of land use policies, BC Park policies, zoning criteria, and existing facility development within the area.
  7. Review of the draft management plan taken place with the public (all stakeholders) through open houses and meetings.
  8. Consultation with the First Nations. [11]


Affected Stakeholders

Due to rugged terrain, limited access, and low nutrient content in the ecosystems, as well as early logging and forest fires, there has been very little recent opportunity for resource extraction; no timber, non-timber forest products, or minerals. Therefore, there have been few user groups whose livelihoods are dependent on the land since the Sinixt people. Park rangers, and freehold property owners are exceptions to this.

The Sinixt

The First Nations group the Lakes People or the Sinixt as they are more commonly known, were the traditional rights holders to the land of the Valhalla Provincial Park. The Sinixt are a people renowned for their hunting abilities[17]. They would make seasonal rounds of their territory in sturgeon-nose canoes hunting, fishing, and gathering[17]. Several habitation sites along the Slocan River indicate that the Sinixt would travel north into the Slocan Valley and up into the Valhalla mountain range as part of their traditional hunting ground[17]. 1930 was the first documented incident where the Sinixt did not return to their northern territory but instead wintered near the Kettle Falls fishery to accommodate the elders who preferred tending to their gardens to the travel required[17]. But despite these decisions to remain in the southern section of their territory, there have been many instances of the Sinixt asserting their rights in the Canadian portion of their territory and have never willingly relinquished what they considered to be traditions rights of the Valhalla Provincial Park region[17]. Recently, a British Columbian court established that the Sinixt have unceded hunting rights in the Valhalla[17].

Park Rangers

As per the BC Parks’ report of the economic impacts of land allocation in 1991 there were three jobs associated with the creation of the park[11]. These three jobs were designated to full time park rangers whose main objective is to act as a set of eyes within the park and to provide feedback to the managing systems about the park conditions (BC Parks, 2012). As an employee of a provincial park system, the park rangers are subject to the power of the provincial government. They themselves hold little, if any, power at the management level.

Inholdings

Within the park boundaries, there are several freehold property owners[15]. Only half of these inholdings have buildings on them and they are mainly used as a seasonal cabins[15]. The property owners hold legal power as owners of freehold property, but as the province claims ownership of all land, they must comply with the objectives of the decisions of the Valhalla Provincial Park management.


Interested Outside Stakeholders

As a central feature of the Slocan Valley and the West Kootenays, the Valhalla provincial Park draws the attention of many different social actors. These interested stake holders span much of British Columbia, and consist of charity groups, local committees and groups, government groups, First Nations groups, forestry companies and tourists.

Charity Stakeholders

The organization The Land Conservancy of British Columbia is a non-profit charitable Land Trust [18]. This organization holds many covenant properties throughout BC which protect the land and ensures the safety of the existing ecosystems[18]. This gives them legal power over the land even though they do not own it. Any breach to the covenant agreements can be taken up in court. As a democratic member based organization governed by an elected board of Directors, it relies on strong membership and volunteers to operate[18]. This also gives them considerable power as a group that can become the center for community resistance. They are able to bring together many different councils, clubs, and alliances that together have a much stronger voice and considerable power.

Community Stakeholders

There are many different community groups who, at different times, have shown interest in of the Valhalla Provincial Park. Many of these groups helped with the creation of the park master plan[19]. They are the

A view of the west coast of Slocan Lake, the Valhalla mountain range, and the small town of New Denver in British Columbia, Canada
  • Federation of B.C. Naturalists (Vancouver)
  • Federation of Mountain Clubs of B.C. (Vancouver)
  • Kootenay Mountaineering Club
  • Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C.
  • New Denver Village Council
  • Regional District of Central Kootenay
  • Silverton Village Council
  • Slocan Valley Chamber of Commerce
  • Slocan Valley Residents' Alliance
  • Slocan Village Council
  • Valhalla Wilderness Society
  • Various interested Residents of the Slocan Valley and West Kootenay

The Valhalla Wilderness Society was founded by a small group of local residents and has since grown to become a much larger organization. This is the group that spearheaded the creation of the Valhalla Provincial Park in 1975 to prevent logging on the western slopes of the Valhalla range[20]. The power of this society lies in its ability to draw attention to environmental issues in British Columbia and to incite concern and action in others. By drawing the attention of BC residents to ecological issues of wilderness and wildlife protection, the Valhalla Wilderness Society is able to influence the regional and provincial governments. Residents can influence their local MP’s to implement different management plans.

The Kootenay Mountaineering Club, the membership of which tended to come from educated English settlers, was the first community group to put forward a proposal to create a park[11]. As a highly glaciated area, there are many different types of physiography within the Valhalla Provincial Park such as high cirque basins, arêtes, turreted peaks, and expansive cliff faces that are of interest for mountaineers[12].

The Hunting Divide

Two other groups of interested stakeholders comprise those for a hunting ban in the park and those who are opposed to it. This is a relatively recent division that arose due to an incident in 2010 where a hunter killed and dressed a mountain goat close to a heavily used campsite[21]. While it was well within the legal right of the hunter as a holder of one of the five designated hunting permits, it started a discussion within community groups and the government about public safety and concerns about conservation[22].

Those opposed to the ban claim that since the popularization of recreational hunting almost a century ago, it has been hunters who have been the most concerned about the size of wildlife populations[23]. In letters sent to BC’s Premier, Christy Clark, hunting is identified as a significant source of funding for the provincial government through the sales of hunting permits, licenses. Moreover, it provides a source of economic growth through the sales of hunting related equipment and paraphernalia; motels, restaurants, vehicle sales, RV, ATV, clothing, gun shows, etc[23].

The stakeholders who support the ban of hunting are led by an internationally respected bear and conservation expert local to the Slocan Valley, Wayne McCrory[24]. Mr. McCrory is a member of many local conservation groups including the Valhalla Wilderness Society, the Valhalla Foundation for Ecology and Social Justice, and the Get Bear Smart Society[23]. The main objective of these conservation groups is to ensure the protection of the red and blue listed species within the park. This entails the protection of grizzly bears who continue to be under pressure due to human caused mortality, displacement, and habitat degradation[12].

Government Stakeholders

As a provincial park, there are many government groups who are interested stakeholders of the Valhalla Provincial Park. Ministry departments such as the Forest Analysis and Inventory Branch within the Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, the Environmental Stewardship Division in the Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, and the Ministry of Environment conduct the assessments of the park and have the power to make and change management and park regulation decisions[12]. The vision for the Valhalla Provincial Park is that the park will continue to be managed primarily for the conservation of its ecological systems and special features while offering high quality recreation opportunities that do not impair the park’s ecological values and wilderness character[25]. These ministries hold the majority of the power over decisions concerning the Valhalla Provincial Park. While consideration is given to the many different social actors, ultimately the government holds the final decision.

Forestry Stakeholders

Before the creation of the park, the Valhalla region was part of the Arrow Timber Service Area[13]. Withdrawal from the Arrow TSA meant the loss of 21,000 cubic meters of timber [11]. This would have affected the forestry companies that were hired to extract the timber. The report by BC Parks (1991) outlines these impacts. They are listed below.

Employment Losses (annual person years)[11]
Logging and Milling 21
Indirect and Induced, Region and Province 42
Total employment lost 63
Personal Incomes (annual) [11]
Logging and Milling $1,147,000
Support, region and province $1,360,000
Total personal incomes lost $2,507,000
Business Revenues[11]
Forestry District $1,680,000
Indirect and other $4,200,000
Total business revenue lost $5,880,000
Loss of Direct Provincial Government Revenues (annual)[11]
Stumpage $105,000
Rentals $5,250
Personal and Corporate income taxes on first round of income $202,000
Total direct government revenue lost $312,250


Discussion

Aim of the Provincial Park

The aim of the current Valhalla Provincial Park is outlined in the Valhalla Provincial Park management plan (2012). “The vision for Valhalla Park is that the park will continue to be managed primarily for the conservation of its ecological systems and special features, while offering high-quality recreational opportunities that do not impair the park’s ecological values and wilderness character”[15].

Successes

With the creation of the park, a unique and beautiful region of BC which holds ecological national and international significance has been preserved. There has been successful co-management between local stakeholders and provincial government ministries. Community groups have been able to share in the planning processes. They have had a real impact on decisions made about the park.

Recently, the draft for a new park management plan included a proposal for new zoning regulations to increase the tourist industry in the park[26]. New zoning would have allowed for lodges to be built which had 80 beds and had full amenities. Local community groups led by the Valhalla Wilderness Society vehemently opposed this new addition. Letters were sent to the Environmental Stewardship Division Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection[26]. These letters were successful as the finalized master plan removed the development of these lodges from the park[15].

While there have been instances of successful community management, there will always be issues that arise between the government’s decisions and the values of the community. In the most recent Valhalla Park management plan, there new regulations were introduced, policing the harvesting of mushrooms which caused disruption to the moss[10]. This caused much fuss in the local community who often would travel into the lower slopes of the Valhalla mountains to harvest mushrooms [10].

Failures

The management plan for the Valhalla Provincial Park has identified an objective to work closely with First Nations groups to build “a relationship based on respect, recognition and accommodation of aboriginal title and rights” to ensure “that management of the park considers their traditional uses”[15]. The management plan states that the Valhalla Provincial Park lies within the traditional territory of the 3 First Nations; the Ktunaxa Nation Council, the Okanagan Nation, and the Shuswap Nation Tribal Council[13]. Of these three groups, it has only been the Ktunaxa Nation that has entered into negotiations with the provincial government. This is a failed attempt at building a relationship with First Nations people because it does not acknowledge the Lakes (or Sinixt) people who are the original rights holders of the Valhalla Provincial Park land.

Sinixt people have lived in the area dating back at least 2000 years and have never relinquished their traditional ancestral claims[17]. Shelly Boyd the recently installed Aboriginal Rights Coordinator for the Arrow Lakes claims that “the Sinixt people have never left the water”[27]. Due to depopulation cause by the small pox and measles epidemic, and the significant disturbances caused by the heavy silver and gold mining activity, the Sinixt have not dwelled as a cohesive group in Canada in recent history[2]. Low populations meant that the government of Canada declared the Sinixt First Nations group extinct in 1956[2]. But this is not true. The lack of government recognition means that the Sinixt are not included in decisions and are not eligible for any benefits provided to First Nations by the provincial and federal governments.


Assessment

Stakeholder Relevant Objective Relative Power
The Sinixt (affected) To preserve their traditional hunting land and to regain status as a current First Nation. Low
Park Rangers (affected) To enforce the regulations created by BC Parks management and provide feedback to park conditions. Low-Medium
Inholding/Property Owners (affected) To use their properties as summer homes and enjoy the Valhalla Park. Low-Medium
Charity Groups (interested) To ensure the protection and conservation of the existing ecosystems. Medium-High
Community Groups (interested) Ensure all voices are heard and that the park management aligns itself with the community. Medium-High
Hunting Divide (interested) To either enforce or object the ban of hunting within the park. Low
Government Groups (interested) To stimulate economic growth and ensuring the protection of important ecosystems while complying with the desires of the community. High
Forestry Groups (interested) Since the ban of foresting in the Valhalla mountain range forestry groups have had no power. Low


Recommendations

Wilderness and Park Recommendation

There has been discussion within the government to increase the tourist industry associated with the park. Historically, this provincial park has maintained an environment and protection based management plan with very little tourist developments. Sterling Brubaker (1972) defines wilderness as: Quite distinct from most recreational uses of land is wilderness, a very restrictive and necessarily extensive use…. An extremely specialized type of outdoor recreation land – large areas without roads or other “improvements” where small numbers of experienced back packers can get back to nature. Wilderness can preserve its character only if it is lightly used; long before human wear and tear become evident it loses its appeal, for those who enjoy it most frequently love solitude.” (p.37)[28]

I recommend keeping the Valhalla Provincial Park as a wilderness area with the intention of maintaining low numbers of visitors. This ensures that the park’s greatest attributes will be preserved. I also recommend increasing the number of wardens. Currently there is only one, for half a year, to oversee this and several other parks. Historically, there have been 3 full time park wardens, or, at another point, a game warden and a forestry official overlooking this park. Reinstating park officials or wardens would improve the accountability of those using the park.

First Nation Relationship Recommendation

I would also recommend that the provincial government reinstates the Sinixt people as a current First Nation group. They are the rights holders to the land and have traditions and cultural significance of the land and have the right to be a part of the management decisions regarding the park. The management plans state that their objective is to “research with First Nations to increase the knowledge and understanding of pre and post-contact history of the area” [13]. This objective will never be accomplished when there is no acknowledgement of the Sinixt as a current First Nation, but if the provincial government were to reinstate the Sinixt, there are many sources of information, among them the new Aboriginal Rights Coordinator for the Sinixt people[27].

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ministry of Environment. (n.d.) Valhalla Provincial Park. Retrieved October 21, 2017, from http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/explore/parkpgs/valhalla/
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Pryce, P. (1999). Keeping the Lakes’ way: Reburial and re-creation of a moral world among an invisible people. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
  3. Goodale, N. (2015, June 29). Slocan Narrows Archaeological Project digs into the past. Retrieved November 28, 2017, from http://selkirk.ca/news/slocan-narrows-archaeological-project-digs-past
  4. 4.0 4.1 Harris, C., & Leinberger, E. (2003). The resettlement of British Columbia: essays on colonialism and geographical change. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
  5. Harris, J. C. (1909). British Columbian problems. Vancouver: Thomson Stationery.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Harris, C. (2017, December 3). The hippies of the Slocan Valley [Personal interview].
  7. Gordon, K. (2004). The Slocan: portrait of a valley. Winlaw, BC: Sono Nis Press.
  8. Harris, C. (2006). The Slocan: Portrait of a valley (review) [Review of pdf The Slocan: Portrait of a valley]. The Canadian Historical Review,87(2), 356-358. Retrieved November 28, 2017, from http://muse.jhu.edu/article/199338/pdf
  9. Krogh, H. V., & Harris, C. (2017). Early New Denver. New Denver, BC: Chameleon Fire Editions.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Jordan, G. (2017, December 3). The controversial creation of the Valhalla Provincial Park [Telephone interview].
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.20 11.21 BC Parks. (1991). Economic impacts of land allocation for wilderness purposes: a retrospective analysis of the Valhalla Park in British Columbia. Surrey, B.C.: Clayton Resources Ltd.
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 Wildland Consulting Inc. (2004, December). Valhalla provincial park: Management plan draft background document. Retrieved from http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/explore/parkpgs/valhalla/valhalla_background_2005_new_maps.pdf?v=1508606715381
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Canada, Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, Forest Analysis and Inventory Branch. (2016). Arrow timber supply area: Timber supply analysis discussion paper. Victoria, B.C.: Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Schafer, T. (2009, April 20). Valhalla mile dream now reality. Nelson Daily News. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/357584714?accountid=14656
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 Canada, BC Parks, Parks Planning and Management Branch. (2012, July). Valhalla Park Management Plan. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/explore/parkpgs/valhalla/valhalla-mp2012-final.pdf?v=1511199286748
  16. 16.0 16.1 Thompson, K. (2009, April 8). Valhalla Mile property to be added to provincial park. Retrieved from https://archive.news.gov.bc.ca/releases/news_releases_2005-2009/2009ENV0027-000806.htm
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 Regina v. Richard Lee Desautel, 66 (The Provincial Court of British Columbia March 27, 2017).
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 About. (2017, March 16). Retrieved November 24, 2017, from http://conservancy.bc.ca/about/
  19. Ministry of Parks. (1989, February) Valhalla Provincial Park Master Plan. (Rep.). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from B.C. Parks website http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/planning/mgmtplns/valhalla/valhalla_mp.pdf
  20. About Valhalla wilderness Society. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.vws.org/about-valhalla-wilderness-society/
  21. Mckenzie, K. H. (2011, December 22). Valhalla facing a hunting ban. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.outdoorcanada.ca/valhalla-facing-a-hunt-ban
  22. Park and Recreation Area Regulations. (1990, June 8). Retrieved November 25, 2017, from http://www.bclaws.ca/civix/document/id/loo69/loo69/12_180_90#section5
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Str8shooterbc (2011, April 12). Help stop a no hunting proposal – West Kootenays [Msg. 3]. Message posted to http://www.huntingbc.ca/forum/showthread.php?75505-Help-stop-a-no-hunting-proposal-west-kootenays
  24. Valhalla Mile. (n.d.). Retrieved Octobeer 21, 2017, from http://blog.conservancy.bc.ca/covenants/kootenay-region-covenants-and-other-properties/valhalla-mile/
  25. Canada, BC Parks, Parks Planning and Management Branch. (2012, July). Valhalla Park Management Plan. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/explore/parkpgs/valhalla/valhalla-mp2012- final.pdf?v=1511199286748
  26. 26.0 26.1 Sherrod, A. (2005, February 22). Submission on the Draft Master Plan for Valhalla Provincial Park (Issue brief). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from Valhalla wilderness Society website: http://www.vws.org/documents/Parks/ValhallaParkMasterPlanFeb222005.pdf
  27. 27.0 27.1 Boyd, S. (2017, November 2). New Arrow Lakes Coordinator for Colville Confederated Tribes. The Valley Voice, p. 2.
  28. Brubaker, S. (1972). To live on earth: man and his environment in perspective. Washington: Resources for the Future.


Seekiefer (Pinus halepensis) 9months-fromtop.jpg
This conservation resource was created by Rowan Harris. It is shared under a CC-BY 4.0 International License.