Course:FNH200/Assignments/2021/Lactantia Butter

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Lactantia Garlic Butter

Introduction of the Brand/Product

Lactantia® is Canada’s #1 Butter Brand. Rich, Creamy & Delicious. Trusted since 1947, Lactantia® Butter has earned the reputation for being the finest-quality butter with a smooth, rich and creamy taste. Lactantia® butter is made with 100% pure pasteurized cream, sourced from Canadian farms[1].

Lactantia Lactose-Free Salted Butter

Pictures of Ingredients List

Lactantia Garlic Butter Ingredients
Lactantia Lactose-Free Salted Butter Ingredients

Ingredients List

Ingredients List

Lactantia Garlic Butter Lactantia Lactose-Free Salted Butter
Butter Lactose free cream (Lactase)
Water Salt

Contains: Milk

Garlic oil
Dehydrated garlic
Dehydrated onion
Contains: Milk
Contains: Sulphites

Additives Used in the Products

Sulphite (Additive used in Lactantia Garlic Butter): In Lactantia Garlic Butter, sulphite is used as a preservative to help extend shelf-life, keep the butter's colour, and suppress the growth of micro-organisms.[2]

Lactase (Additive used in Lactantia Lactose-Free Salted Butter): In Lactantia Lactose-Free Salted Butter, the enzyme lactase is used to hydrolyze lactose (milk sugar) into its monosaccharide components galactose and glucose[3]. This is done for a few reasons, although the most notable reason is to enable individuals who are "lactose intolerant" (those lacking the enzyme lactase) to better digest the butter. Essentially, since lactose intolerant individuals cannot digest (breakdown) lactose, [3]adding lactase into the production of butter breaks-down lactose for those lactose intolerant individuals, allowing them to safely enjoy the milk-based butter.

Comparing the Ingredients Lists

Differences in the two Ingredients Lists

When comparing Lactantia Garlic Butter with Lactantia Lactose-Free Salted Butter, we can clearly see that the garlic butter alternative contains many more ingredients.

One of the most notable differences is the implied inclusion of lactose in the garlic butter alternative, while the lactose-free, salted butter specifically includes "lactase" beside its ingredient "lactose-free cream". We note that both ingredients lists contain milk and thus the respective components that make up milk, but the "lactose-free" alternative specifically states the addition of lactase (which effectively implies the absence of lactose) while the "garlic" alternative does not.[4] As discussed above, the inclusion of lactose in the garlic butter makes the garlic butter less accessible to "lactose intolerant" individuals, while the exclusion of lactose in the lactose-free alternative gives those allergic to lactose a viable alternative.[3] Furthermore, it is known that the hydrolysis of lactose into its monosaccharide components glucose and galactose results in a substantial increase in sweetness of a dairy product,[3] meaning that it is likely that individuals could perceive the lactose-free alternative to be sweeter than its garlic butter counterpart. The reason for this potential perceived difference in sweetness is due to the fact that lactose has a sweetness index of 10-20,[3] while glucose and galactose have a sweetness index of 70-80 and 60 respectively.[3]

Other notable and obvious differences in the lists of ingredients are the garlic oil, dehydrated garlic, and dehydrated onion added in the garlic butter. These ingredients form the base of the "garlic" flavour by contributing to both the taste and aroma (smell) of garlic.[5] The white wine and spice on the other hand work to enhance the "garlic" flavour; we also note that ingredients such as "spices" are not considered food additives under Canadian regulations despite being considered food additives under U.S regulations.[6]

We also note that the garlic butter lists "water" as one of the ingredients while the lactose-free alternative does not. However, in general, salted butter has a water activity value of 0.894 - 0.952,[7] meaning that water is indeed present and most of it exists in the form of "free water."[8] This high water activity value indicates that a significant amount of water is freely dispersed as droplets throughout the solid continuous phase that makes up butter[8] (discussed further below). Furthermore, a high water activity value also indicates that a large portion of water is available for usage by microorganisms,[8] resulting in susceptibility to degradation by bacteria and eventual spoilage; additionally, since butter has a pH of 6.1-6.4[9] which is over the 4.6 mark, butter is considered a low-acid food, meaning that it supports the growth of disease causing organisms.[10] The two facts that butter has both a high water activity value and is considered a low-acid food likely contribute to the need for preservatives such as sulphites and the use of refrigeration to inhibit bacterial growth, in order to maintain butter's quality.

Similarities in the two Ingredients Lists

Despite the garlic butter's lack of lactose, both butters include the usage of salt, with neither butter providing a substitute for it. To date, it has proven difficult to provide suitable salt substitutes since only sodium chloride gives an unadulterated salty taste;[5] this difficulty stems from the fact that it is uniquely the ionized molecule of sodium chloride that produces the salty taste, rather than simply the sodium or chloride portion that produces the salty taste.[5] But perhaps future research into product development will result in a viable, salty alternative for sodium conscious consumers. Additionally, salt functions as a water-binding agent to prevent spoilage as free water allows microorganisms to grow.[8] The addition of salt to butter ensures that some free water molecules are bound and thus exist as "bound water," which doesn't allow for usage by microorganisms that will ultimately cause the butter to spoil.[8]

Looking at the nutrition facts, both butters have 8 grams of fat which likely comes from the "butter" and "lactose-free cream" ingredients in their respective ingredients lists. In particular, both butters have a significant portion of fat coming from saturated fats (5 grams). The molecules of these saturated fats are "tightly packed," which function to give butter its solid shape even at room temperature.[11] The fats in the garlic butter in particular also function as carriers of the garlic aroma constituents, helping to bring out the garlic flavour that consumers enjoy.[12] The fats in both butters are also responsible for the "spreadable" nature of butter since fats have the property of becoming softer when heated,[12] thus explaining why consumers often leave butter unrefrigerated for a few minutes or microwave refrigerated butter before use on products such as bread. Finally, from a more technical point of view, butter is considered a "solid emulsion" that is "water in oil."[13] The fats in butter function as the "oil" part of the solid emulsion, forming a solid continuous phase that surrounds the dispersed "water" phase.[13]

Lactantia Traditional Garlic Spread (Extra Alternative Product)

Lactantia Traditional Garlic Spread is a vegetable oil table spread made with non-hydrogenated oils.

Ingredients list: Non-hydrogenated oil blend (soybean oil, modified palm and palm kernel oil), modified milk ingredients, water, salt, garlic seasoning(dehydrated garlic and onion, dehydrated parsley, spice), soya lecithin, vegetable monoglycerides, garlic oil, potassium sorbate, lactic cultures, beta carotene, vitamin a palmitate, vitamin d3[14]

Fat substitutes/Sugar substitutes/Additives analysis

Soya lecithin (additive): Soya lecithin is lecithin that is specifically derived from soy.[15] In Lactantia Traditional Garlic Spread, soya lecithin functions as an emulsifier[15] that promotes the water in oil emulsion that makes up the garlic spread[13] by orienting itself at the interface between the "water" and "oil" phases of the emulsion (hydrophilic part facing water and hydrophobic part facing oil), working to reduce the interfacial tension between the two phases.[12] Since soya lecithin can also help stop dispersed water droplets in the emulsion from coalescing, it also helps to stabilize the emulsion .[12]

Vegetable monoglycerides (additive): Vegetable monoglycerides are additives extracted from vegetables and act as an emulsifier in the garlic spread[16]. They promote the water in oil emulsion that forms the spread. Monoglycerides also work as a lubricant, which makes the product more palatable[17].

Beta carotene (additive): Beta carotene is a pigment commonly found in plants that gives them rich red, orange, or yellow hue. Therefore, it works as a coloring agent of the garlic spread. In addition, beta carotene is an anti-oxidant, which means that it can delay the onset of food spoilage of the spread by preventing fat oxidation[6][18].

Potassium sorbate (additive): Potassium sorbate is a chemical additive synthetically made from sorbic acid and potassium hydroxide. It works as a preservative agent in the garlic spread[19]. Specifically, the sorbic acid in potassium sorbate is the main preservative that acts as an antimicrobial agent[6]. Potassium sorbate is listed as a class 2 and 3 preservative in Canada's Food and Drug Regulations list[20].

Ingredients analysis (only for ingredients not done above)

Non-hydrogenated oil is the source of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, known as "healthy" fat. This oil blend is added to the spread to create a healthier product for the consumers' heart health related issues[21][22].

Modified milk ingredients are basic milk components separated from the original milk such as caseins, whey proteins, skim milk, etc. Milk itself has a limited shelf life, but separating its components could make it last longer. Therefore, these modified milk ingredients are added to the product by the manufacturer to produce it more cheaply and for longer shelf life[23].

Lactic cultures: Lactic cultures are the lactic acid bacteria commonly used in dairy food products for food fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria plays a role in preservation, digestibility, and food flavoring within the garlic spread[24].

Vitamin A palmitate + Vitamin D3: Vitamins A palmitate and D3 are fat soluble vitamins found within the "oil" portion of the garlic spread.[25] These vitamins are essential in terms of nutrition since they are critical components in the human diet as they have important functions in the human body[25]. Some general functions are maintaining a healthy immune system[26] and repairing sun-damaged skin[27].

*Note: This product is written as an extra analysis suggested by Judy (No pictures of the product, ingredient list, or labels are needed)

Pictures of Labels

Lactantia Garlic Butter Nutrition Facts
Lactantia Lactose-Free Salted Butter Nutrition Facts
Lactantia Garlic Butter Label
Lactantia Lactose-Free Salted Butter Label


Labelling Requirements Lactantia Garlic Butter Lactantia Lactose Free Butter
Bilingual Labelling English&French English&French
Common name of the food Lactantia Butter Lactantia Butter
Country of Origin Canada Canada
Storage instructions Keep Refrigerated Keep Refrigerated
Identity and Principal Place of Business Trademarks owned or used under license by Parmalat Canada, Toronto, ON, M9C5J1, 1-800-526-7673 Trademarks owned or used under license by Parmalat Canada, Toronto, ON, M9C5J1, 1-800-526-7673
Irradiated Foods N/A N/A
List of ingredients See "Ingredients List" section above See "Ingredients List" section above
Legibility and location All labels are legible at proper location All labels are legible at proper location
Nutrition Facts table See "Pictures of Labels" section

Clearly shows the amount of Calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, Vitamin A, Calcium, Carbohydrate, Protein, Vitamin C, Iron per tsp(10g)

See "Pictures of Labels" section

Clearly shows the amount of Calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, Vitamin A, Calcium, Carbohydrate, Protein, Vitamin C per tsp(10g)

Net quantity of the food 125g 250g
Sweeteners N/A N/A
Other mandatory information Contains: milk Contains: milk

We found that there's no specific expiry data/best before date on the package of both products. According to relevant studies, butter usually has a shelf time longer than 90 days if stored correctly. It is also suggested that butter could remain fresh a month past the "sell by date" unopened and two weeks beyond the "sell by date" after it's been opened[28]. Moreover, if it's put in a freezer, it could last for 6-9 months[28]. Thus, butter does not require a specific "best before"/expiry date. However, to keep the butter in best condition, it is still necessary to keep refrigerated and sealed immediately after purchase and after each use.

All information does comply with the regulatory requirements as outlined in Lesson 04.


Please use the Wikipedia reference style. Provide a citation for every sentence, statement, thought, or bit of data not your own, giving the author, year, AND page.

  1. "Lactantia Butter". Lactantia. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  2. "Sulphites - Priority allergens". 2017. |first= missing |last= (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Module Carbohydrates
  4. Hooke, Andy (Mar 26, 2021). "What's The Difference Between Dairy-Free And Lactose-Free".
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Module 3.2 Sensory Properties of Foods
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Module 4.7 Food Additives
  7. Schmidt, Shelly (17 April 2020). "Water Activity Values of Select Food Ingredients and Products". p. 413.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Module Water
  9. "pH Values of Common Foods and Ingredients" (PDF). July 22, 2021. p. 2. |first= missing |last= (help)
  10. Module Organic Acids
  11. "The Difference Between Solid and Liquid Fats". Monday, December 13, 2010. |first= missing |last= (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Module Fats and Oils
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Module 2.1 Food - Colloidal Dispersions
  14. taken from:
  15. 15.0 15.1 Schaefer, Anna (February 15, 2019). "Is Soy Lecithin Good or Bad for Me?".
  16. "Questions About Food Ingredients". The Vegetarian Resource Group.
  17. "Glycerides" (PDF).
  18. "Beta-Carotene". Mount Sinai.
  19. Hecht, Marjorie (March 30, 2017). "Everything You Should Know About Potassium Sorbate". Healthline.
  20. "List of Permitted Preservatives (Lists of Permitted Food Additives)". Government of Canada.
  21. "Healthy Oils". American Heart Association. April 24, 2018.
  22. "Fats: Know your fats". Cleveland Clinic. 07/19/2019. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  23. Schwarcz, Joe (03/20/2017). "What are "modified milk ingredients"?". McGill. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  24. Canon, Fanny; et al. (November 20, 2020). "Function-Driven Design of Lactic Acid Bacteria Co-cultures to Produce New Fermented Food Associating Milk and Lupin". Frontiers in Microbiology. Explicit use of et al. in: |last= (help)
  25. 25.0 25.1 Module Vitamins and Minerals
  26. Stines, Yvelette (May 24, 2021). "The Benefits of Getting Enough Vitamin D3".
  27. Whelan, Corey (September 25, 2018). "Vitamin A Palmitate".
  28. 28.0 28.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :8


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This Food Science resource was created by Course:FNH200.
  1. Hwang, Jamie. "Does Butter Expire? Here's What You Should Know". Spoonuniversity.