Course:ASIA319/2022/“milky" 奶

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The Chinese character for "milky" in regular script

The word "奶 (nǎi)" is a character that has been frequently used in Chinese society since ancient times. From the modern structure of the word "奶", it can be seen that its radical is "女(nǚ, female)", which means that this word represents things related to females. The original meaning of the word "奶" refers to the organ that breastfeeds, that is, the breast. In Wang Li's "同源字典 (Homologous Dictionary)", it is mentioned that "people today say that breasts are milk, and mother's milk is also milk (今人谓乳房为奶,乳汁亦为奶)[1]". Thus, the word "奶" was mostly used to refer to milk (乳汁), which also includes any types of milk, milk powder, and yogurt. "奶" can also be used as a title for grandmothers or older women. In addition, due to the development of the times and the popularity of the Internet, the word "milk" has been extended to many different usages. For example, "奶" can be used as an adjective, which is often used to describe a certain type of boys who are very clean and lovely in appearance. "奶" is understood in the network as a prediction, which means that something is predicted to happen. Hence the term "毒奶 (poisoned milk)," refers to the opposite direction of prophecy. "奶" can also be understood as "治疗(healing)" in online games, which refers to restoring blood to the characters in the game. The word "奶" is very important in Chinese culture. By popularizing the word, more people can understand the extensive usage and meaning of "奶", which is also conducive to cultural exchange and dissemination.

The genesis of the keyword

The game character "蔡文姬 (Cai Wenji)" in the game Honor of Kings

"奶" has been used by people from ancient China to modern China. This is not a new word but passed down from generation to generation. So far, this word seems to appear in people's lives quite frequently. Originally referring to the breast, it was later widely used to refer to milk. Based on its long history, although it has always existed in Chinese culture, it is difficult to trace the exact appearance of this word. In modern pop culture, however, "奶" has taken on a new meaning. This make of "奶" is more active in the daily communication of young people. In recent popular culture, "奶" has been used to refer to game characters with assistive abilities. This type of game character usually has healing and some supporting attack-type skills. This meaning can be traced back to the game "辉煌OL (Huihuang OL)" released in South Korea in 2004. When a game character's HP is low, players often say "奶一口 (milk me)", which means to let the auxiliary character help restore the HP. Therefore, game characters with therapeutic ability are collectively referred to as "奶妈 (wet nurse)".[2] Due to the emergence of mobile phones and the progress of mobile games, in the game "王者荣耀 (Honor of Kings)" by Tencent in 2015, there is a game character "蔡文姬 (Cai Wenji)", which is popular because of her excellent therapeutic ability. Since then, more and more people in Chinese society acknowledge and use the word "奶妈 (wet nurse)".

In addition, "奶" has a prophetic meaning in modern Chinese popular culture. It refers to the way things are going as people say and think. It is also widely used in modern esports games. An extension of this usage is "毒奶 (du nai, poisoned milk)". It means that things are going in the opposite direction to what people say or think. The term "毒奶" can be traced back to the 三鹿奶粉 incident (Sanlu milk powder scandal) in 2008, which was tainted with melamine. This brand of milk powder can lead to a series of diseases if ingested for a long time. This matter was ridiculed as "毒奶". The term was later used in games, and in the famous game World of Warcraft there is a character who is a cleric whose ability is to restore blood to other game characters. However, when he is affected by the game's bosses, his skills will have a negative effect. This means that the cleric will deduct blood to other characters. This is likely to lead to the immediate death of other game characters. "毒奶" has since become popular in gaming culture. The term really became popular from the game Starcraft. Huang Xudong (黄旭东) was a game commentator who was commentating on a game match and confidently predicted that a contestant would win because the contestant had a huge advantage, yet he lost the match due to a mistake by the contestant. In a game match in 2016, South Korea played against France and the French team won with an absolute advantage of five to zero. However, Huang Xuedong predicted before the start of the game that South Korea would beat France by five to zero. Since then, Huang Xudong has become a "celebrity," and the term "毒奶" has really become popular. [3]

There is also a usage in popular culture that exists mostly among girls. That is, many girls like to describe a certain type of boys as "奶系男友 (milky boyfriends)". The characteristics of this type of boys are young, clean, fresh, full of energy, and they make people feel very friendly.

Glossary of its explicit dictionary meanings

The meaning of "奶" and official script to regular script

The Dictionary Meaning of "奶"

In the Chinese dictionary, the original meaning of "奶" refers to the breast, an organ used for breastfeeding. At the same time, "奶" is also used to refer to breast milk. "奶" can also be used to refer to mothers, such as nursing mothers, and it is also a term for grandmothers or older women. "奶" can also be used to refer to things with a milky flavor, such as yogurt, milk curd, and cream. "奶" can also be used as a verb, meaning to breastfeed. It refers to the action when a mother breastfeeds her baby.[4]

1. As a noun, it means "乳房 (rǔ fáng, breast)". An organ of the human body. The breast of a mature woman can secrete milk through the mammary tissue in it to feed the baby.[5]

2. As a noun, it means "乳汁 (rǔ zhī, milk)". A pale yellow or white fluid secreted by the female breast and is opaque. It is rich in nutrients to feed the baby. This liquid is collectively called milk.[6] It is also used to refer to dairy products

3. As a verb, it means "喂奶 (wèi nǎi, breastfeeding). It is also called "哺乳 (bǔ rǔ). The biological process of raising young by secreting milk from one's mammary glands. [7]

4. As a noun, it means "奶奶 (nǎi nai, grandmother). In Chinese, people call father's mother or father's mother's sister "奶奶". It can also be used to refer to a woman of the same generation or age as grandmother.[8]

奶-glyph evolution-Chinese bronze inscriptions, The lesser seal character, and regular script (including simplified regular script).

Etymology of "奶"

Milk, the radical is "女 (nǚ, female), meaning the word is associated with women. The tone in Hanyu Pinyin is three. It is the left and right structure of Chinese characters, total strokes of five. The word "奶" underwent several forms of evolution, and eventually became the image of 奶 in modern Chinese.[9]

“奶” in Contemporary Chinese popular culture

The poster shows Mr Love: Queen's Choice protagonist Zhou Qiluo, who is cute and outstanding in appearance, with the youthful look of a teenager, and dressed naturally and brightly.
Usage in today's online discussion forums and popular press

In addition to its basic dictionary meaning, "nai" (奶) has been given several new meanings in today's Chinese pop culture and is widely used on the Internet, in the media and in people's daily communication. Today's  women love to use the term "nai xi", milky boy (奶系), to describe a specific type of guy ,which is understood as a young, clean and fresh, usually representing a bright, soft and cute teenage feeling. It can be used to describe appearance and character, both associated with youth and tenderness. One of the main characters in the once popular domestic visual novel mobile game "Mr Love: Queen's Choice"《恋与制作人》, Zhou Qiluo, is a typical representative of a milk boy. He has a child-like personality, likes to cling to people and always maintains a positive spirit[10]. Simple thoughts and adorable behavior make girls very fascinated. He is good at making girls happy with sweet words and calling them "mistress" affectionately[11]. His image is gentle and soft, not traditionally masculine but makes a large number of women crazy, and even for such a virtual character constantly to recharge the game.

Furthermore, "nai" in modern usage has the meaning of encouragement and expectation, which comes from a profession in the online game World of Warcraft, whose main skill is to add blood to teammates and help them achieve ultimate victory in team battles as a support. Later its meaning was further derived from the famous game commentator Huang Xudong's behavior during a StarCraft match. He strongly praised the side that had the advantage, but the moment the praise ended the players lost the game due to operational errors. Therefore, a new term "du nai", poisoned milk (毒奶), was created[12]. Huang Xudong was also repeatedly teased by netizens afterwards, believing that his "du nai" ability was extremely strong, and that as long as the team or members he was optimistic about, things would basically go wrong. The term is also understood as a prophecy that causes things to go in the opposite direction, and is considered the opposite of encouragement and expectation, symbolizing bad luck and curses, and is widely used in other fields today.

Associated words in our general discussions of Chinese culture and society
Xiaonaigou, xiaolanggou (小奶狗, 小狼狗)

Xiao (小) means little, gou (狗) means dog, lang (狼) means wolf. So that Xiaonaigou "little milky puppy" means a young and cute puppy that have not yet been weaned, in contrast, Xiaolanggou means the dominant and powerful puppy. These two terms describe different types of boyfriends in today's society. Girls habitually divide men into two broad categories, of which the gentle, cute, well-behaved and obedient simple type of teenager is called a Xiaonaigou. The other kind of debauchery, domineering passionate controlling boys are called Xiaolanggou. The specific attraction of a Xiaolanggou is that it allows girls to experience the feeling of being protected and cared for. They enjoy the feeling of being controlled and arranged by a domineering boyfriend and the direct and passionate way of expressing love. In contrast, the Xiaonaigou seems more affectionate, they are simple and cute and compassionate, easy to cause the girl's teenage heart, have this type of boyfriend will make the daily conversation and behavior are warm and vibrant, so that girls enjoy sweet love. But they will lack some masculinity in comparison.

Xiaoxianrou (小鲜肉)
NU'EST, the first Korean male group launched by Pledis Entertainment in 2012, one of the representatives of Korean idol groups. Every member of the group is young and handsome and has a large number of fans.

The direct translation of the term "Xiaoxianrou" into English is "little fresh meat".The term was originally used to describe male actors, referring to young, handsome new generation male idols. It originated as a term used by female fans to refer to Korean idols, and was later promoted and quickly cited by various variety shows, online platforms, and eventually became one of the internet buzzwords of the year. It usually refer to simple boys aged 15-25 who are good-looking, perfectly built and without much emotional experience. [13]Because of their stunning appearance they are often admired and pursued by large numbers of young women. However, with the expanding influence of terms and the mass production of young idols in recent years, "little fresh meat" is seen as lacking in manliness and masculinity, and is therefore gradually disliked and rejected by some people.

Wuyazui (乌鸦嘴)

"Wuyazui" means "crow's mouth". The main meaning of "du nai", poisoned milk can actually be interpreted as crow's-mouth, which is one of the phrases that can be linked to it. The term "crow's mouth" was originally used to describe a person with a foul mouth, implying that such a person was vicious, mean-spirited, talkative and disgusting. But later the semantics changed a lot. The more widespread use of the word today is that things always go in the opposite direction of what was said before, which is similar to the meaning of "du nai", expressing a reverse prophecy. It also means that all the good things said in advance will not come true, but all the bad things said will come true.

Counterpart term in other cultures

The word "nai" is often used in China as an adjective in connection with small puppies, and is therefore mostly defined as cute. In Japanese, the adjective for people is also derived from the adorable nature of puppies. "ワンちゃん" or "汪ちゃん", the meaning of this term is actually from the bark of a puppy, and Japanese girls are very fond of using the onomatopoeia of a puppy barking to express the meaning of cuteness. In this way, the Chinese name for men classified as “little milky puppy" and "little wolf dog" also comes from the Japanese culture of "犬系男子",[14] which is the Japanese girls' name for the kind of boys who like to play outside, like to deal with others, and are better at sports than studies. When it was introduced in China, the meaning changed somewhat.

How dictionary meanings are transferred, distorted, or subverted

The word "nai" originates from ancient Chinese hieroglyphs and refers mainly to a woman's breast. Later, it gradually came to refer to women, mothers, grandmothers, and subsequently to young children. However, with the development of the Internet and the influence of globalization, other cultural ideas have been introduced into Chinese society and have attracted much attention and discussion, distorting and innovating the meaning of the words themselves. The term "little milky dog" as an internet buzzword actually originated in Japan, and is a classification given to boys by Japanese girls. This is due to a sweet love TV series Kimi Wa Pet from Japan, which introduced this usage and idea to China[15]. Since many Chinese women are keen on following Korean and Japanese dramas, many images of young men have been substituted into this new concept and have caused heated discussions on the internet. This was identified by the media as a characteristic adjective to attract audiences, so it was frequently used in the promotional slogans of movies or novels on various websites, and this meaning gradually became accepted and understood. In addition, the use of "poisoned milk" is also derived from the global game competition that many people pay attention to. Due to the popularity and visibility of the game, the invention of the new vocabulary has been repeatedly hitting the hot list of weibo, social media platforms, TV shows and various video commentaries, deepening people's impression time and time again. In short, due to the flourishing of the virtualized information and communication society[16], Internet terms have developed rapidly and influentially as a new linguistic form, gradually penetrating into traditional media and enriching more meanings of Chinese.

Implied values related to the multiple meanings of "奶"

"Nai xi" (奶系) milky boy - The word "nai" as an adjective has been used since ancient times to describe the young, but since it became a type of contemporary male, it has actually led the way for a generation of sexual aesthetics. "nai" can be associated with tenderness, youthfulness, and a lovely appearance. These descriptions, which were originally used to describe girls, are gradually being used to describe men. This shows the gender confusion and the change of people's aesthetics. In the proposal of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)[17], "Concerning and preventing the trend of "feminization" of male adolescents"pointed out that the trend of "feminization" of China's youth, if not effectively addressed, will jeopardize the survival and development of the Chinese nation. This may be a result of one-child policy in China, where children enjoy the care and protection of their entire family after birth, and where most children grow up under the care of a female role such as a mother or grandmother, and therefore may become soft and delicate in character, with maturity delayed. Influenced by celebrities and other media sources, the unisex aesthetic was valued among girls, who were encouraged to be independent and strong in their image and grew up with such an upbringing. In the process the explosion of Korean male groups has made girls interested in and fond of these beautiful, young, cute, thin and white male idols. The "Yanggangzhiqi 阳刚之气" (masculinity) of boys, which has been passed down through the ages in China, has been neglected in this generation, and their aesthetic and sexual orientation has been influenced to a certain extent while worshipping idols. Therefore, the popularity of "nai xi" can be further discussed in terms of gender differences and people's daily aesthetics.

"Du nai" (毒奶) poisoned milk - The popularity of "poisoned milk" can be analyzed from different aspects, and its specific origin is that the problem of Sanlu tainted milk powder has been made public, which has become an explosive news in the society. Nowadays, it is officially called "reverse prophecy", and people have habitually associated it with bad omen. In fact, the "poisoned milk" mentality is a popular phenomenon, people can't accept results that are contrary to their expectations, and the feedback on failure has a greater impact on the mindset than success. Just as many people often say "don't get your hopes up", people's resistance to "poisoned milk" is a reflection of their unwillingness to accept bad results. As we all know, "poisoned milk" does not exist in this world, but is a deep-rooted belief that people can comfort themselves and make life easier by lowering their own internal expectations. In China, especially in the older generation, there is a reverence for "吉利" (jí lì, luck), and there are different preoccupations and superstitions to help them make decisions in various activities of life, which resembles a belief but is actually supported by a psychological factor. If speaking of failures and bad results attributed to luck, such external attribution makes people find a new perspective in their lives.

Social, cultural, and political problems

Xiaoxianrou: Feminized society and masculinity crisis.

In China nowadays, the gender roles have undergone a significant change. China currently holds one of the highest female labour participation rates globally, with 61%.[18]. As a result, the “little fresh meat” is a product of the reverse of “male gaze” and male dominated society. In terms of “fresh”, it describes men as inexperienced in both sexual and emotional relationships; as for “meat”, it highlights a desirable physical appearance for female; and lastly “little” obviously means young[19]. These characteristics are typically used to describe females in order to highlight their weakness and vulnerability. However, as the data suggested, Chinese society is slowly transferring into a female dominated society. Therefore, the increasing popularity of the androgynous male celebrities can also be explained by their targeted audience, which are heterosexual young female. More female labour participation also means more purchasing power from female, so the presentation of desired androgynous look form female consumer is crucial for generating revenues[19]. This reverse of gender relation can also be seen as China’s effort of integrating into the global capitalist system. In response to this problem, Chinese authorities started to react recently by banning these “little fresh meat” appearing on TV and other entertainment platforms. The word Milky is naturally used to describe this type of male that females desire, and it is becoming a norm within male populations in China. The concern of the androgynous male celebrities’ influence on young generation, particularly boys has gained a significant attention.

Wuyazui: Gamification of Chinese language.

It is suggested that the use of the term “poisoned milk” originated from the Sanlu Milk scandal, which pointed out China's failure in constructing a successful regulatory agency when transitioning into a market economy[20]. This political problem could be seen as the origin for the phrase "毒奶", also known as poison milk. However, this phrase only gained its popularity from the video game War of Warcraft. In the academic field, it is widely acknowledged that the issue of gamification has been present in Chinese society for quite a long time. For instance, according to Lei, the Chinese platform economy, especially the food delivery system, established their algorithms based on the features of video games[21]. In terms of the Chinese language, the issue of gamification still extends its influence. With the rapid speed of China’s technology improvement, many aspects of the traditional way of living have been taken over by technologies. For instance, the Chinese language learning through video games has been demonstrated its effect on eliminating boredom in the learning process[22]. Consequently, the gamification of the Chinese language is quite inevitable considering the technological advancement. The usage and meaning of 奶 have become relatively detached from the original meaning under the development of game culture. Rather, the usage of 奶 was given a new definition by the new social culture. For example, the prophecy of 奶 means to be socially constructed. It is precisely because the game culture has given it a new life, and through the continuous practice and strengthening of social groups, its meaning is gradually strengthened and determined. Wide spread means wide acceptance, and when everyone around them accepts and uses the word milk as a prophecy, people will think that there is no problem with this usage since everyone is using it. Technology affects society, society affects culture, and ultimately culture affects people's consciousness.

Studies related to the keyword

Sociological Studies

In her publication on masculinity, author Athena Wang compares the discourses of Asian and White boys. She writes how “masculinity is historically and socially constructed,” and a boy is able to draw on multiple different masculinities in his efforts to develop his identity as an individual, and as a male[23]. In terms of the word "nai" (奶), in relation to the phrase, "Little Milky Puppy" (小奶狗), which is a label applied to a boy who is well-behaved and compliant, many men of Chinese descent associated their masculinity with "caring characteristics such as being polite and obedient," where nurturing qualities added onto their masculine power, while alternatively, Western hegemonic readings of masculinity would label these traits as effeminate and passive[23].

In another view, author Kam Louie applies the contemporary Western example of the 'macho man', who manifests himself in brute strength, to Chinese masculinity. This traditional macho man in Chinese culture, represented by the yingxiong (outstanding male) and haohan (good fellow) are contrasted by a softer type of masculinity; the caizi (the talented scholar) and the wenren (the cultured man)[24]. Louie writes, the "macho tradition in China... is not the predominate one," and in the Chinese case, the cultured male model tends to "dominate over that of the macho, brawny male[24]. This goes in hand with the representation of the "Little Milky Puppy" (小奶狗) energized, and lacking in "manliness" youth.

Literature and Language Studies

In Xiaokui Zhong's publication, she explains the obsession with the culture of "Youth feeling" (少年感) comes with the rise of the post-90s generation and their obsession with "Little Milky Puppy" (小奶狗) and "Little Wolf Dog" (小狼狗). The sorting of a man into either of the categories entirely depends on his temperament and personality; "milky" boyfriends are cordial, and no matter what they do, they are clean, full of energy when they speak, and have an affinity for the people around them[25]. Common adjectives include, "pure and lovely," but the final interpretation always depends on how his "woman“ sees him [25].

Jin-ah, the female lead, and Joon-hee, her love interest, hug in a snowy landscape.

Lu Han's article also focuses on the term, "Little Milky Puppy" (小奶狗), and how it represents changes in social culture, reflecting the improvement of women's right to speak and the reshaping of social gender order; language in it of itself is a special social phenomenon, which reflects the development of society [26].

In her analysis of the Korean Drama, Something in the Rain, the male protagonists, Joon-hee, is a young, clingy character, and can be labelled as very simple, easy to train, and loyal to his girlfriend — a perfect representation of the "Little Milky Puppy" (小奶狗). This character archetype was found to be popular among a woman audience.

Han explains that, with the development of the market economy in China and the awakening of women's growing independence, the differences between the sexes in terms of economic status, political participation, development needs, have gradually narrowed, and men are also facing the situation of their bodies being used as consumer goods[26]. The creation of the term, "Little Milky Puppy" (小奶狗), is a product of this development, and represent the promotion of women's right to speak. The patriarchal system and the degree of male dominance over women has been reduced. The popularity of "Little Milky Puppy" (小奶狗), as popular internet term, under the logic of consumption, is the product of the transformation of China’s economic structure from a resource-based economy to a consumption-based economy, and signals the rising diversification of masculinity[26].


"奶 (nǎi)", at its core, relates to milk, breast, or grandmother, all which can be linked to femininity. In contemporary Chinese culture, the word is interestingly used to describe a certain genre of boys found in popular culture, those in which are clean, pure, and energetic.The extension of “奶 (nǎi)” is applied to topics of vitality, like in video games, which is used to label game characters with healing and supportive skills.

This clean, fresh, and teenage-like spirit often shows itself in different manifestations, often with variations, like “Little Milky Puppy” (小奶狗) and “Little Wolf Puppy” (小狼狗), which are contrasts of each other. While both refer to the categorization of boyfriend archetypes in Chinese popular culture, the former refers to a more affectionate, vibrant, and obedient type of boy. This adds onto the clean, energetic culture of "奶 (nǎi).” The term itself has historically been used to describe youth and youthfulness, while the subjects of which have slowly turned from girls, to boys. In the case of “Poisoned Milk,” (毒奶), it presents itself as an antithesis to good luck; it’s definition is associated with bad results, particularly in the technological sense. This further shows how the culture surrounding "奶 (nǎi)" is one of which relates to purity.

What’s interesting to note is how women are placed at the center of "奶 (nǎi),” whether it be the inherent feminized meaning of the character, or who chooses the type of boys defined within the character. The growing popularity of “feminized” men in Chinese media can be attributed to the adjusting social and economic influence of women in Chinese society.The gender roles that apply to the phrase is apparent; there is a significant emphasis on feminine traits when describing male characters that fall under such categories, with mention of pettiness, youth, and vulnerability. From the backlash that titles such as “Little Fresh Meat” (小鲜肉) receive, one can see that traditional patriarchal values still exist in Chinese contemporary culture, an example shown from the banning of the appearance of males who are too feminized in media. It is encouraged for there to be a future study centered on the discourse of masculinity and femininity regarding "奶 (nǎi),” and gender and power structure that defines the terms in which labels, like “Little Milky Puppy” (小奶狗) are created within, as well as how the changing landscape of the social, economic, and political society influences the popular aspects of feminine influence on Chinese culture.


  1. "Explanation of the Word "奶" -- Xinhua Dictionary online 奶字的解释---在线新华字典".
  2. ""Wet nurse" 奶妈".
  3. "The past and present of poisoned milk 毒奶的前世今生".
  4. ""奶" - Xinhua Dictionary 奶 - 新华字典".
  5. "Baidu Baike - 乳房".
  6. "Baidu Baike - 乳汁".
  7. "Baidu Baike - 哺乳".
  8. "Baike Baidu - 奶奶".
  9. "The origin of milk - 奶的字源".
  10. "恋与制作人:小奶狗撩妹终极绝学大揭秘 李泽言都望尘莫及".
  11. "《恋与制作人》官方网站".
  12. Chen, Xiaobing. "毒奶的起源与黄旭东传奇".
  13. "小鲜肉". Sogou Baike.
  14. "犬系男子の特徴や好きなタイプとは?恋愛傾向や落とし方を解説!".
  15. "宠物情人|志尊淳|年下小奶狗|高甜|想要个拥抱的点进来吧!!".
  16. 王, 赫川 (2012). "新时代媒体的语言规范——谈网络用语对新闻媒体的影响". 视听.
  17. "防止男性青少年女性化提案引热议 何为"阳刚之气"?". 中国新闻周刊.
  18. Chowdhury, Debasish (September 10, 2021). "Empires and 'Effeminate Men.' After Britain and America, It's China's Turn to Worry about Masculinity". New York Times.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Song, Geng (May 7, 2021). ""Little Fresh Meat": The Politics of Sissiness and Sissyphobia in Contemporary China". Sage journals: 3–4.
  20. Huang, Yanzhou (July 6, 2014). "The 2008 Milk Scandal Revisited". Forbes.
  21. Lei, Yawen (2021). "Delivering Solidarity: Platform Architecture and Collective Contention in China's Platform Economy". Sage Journals.
  22. Rawendy, Dicky (October, 2017). "Design and Development Game Chinese Language Learning with Gamification and Using Mnemonic Method". Sciencedirect. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  23. 23.0 23.1 Wang, Athena (2000). "Asian and white boys' competing discourses about masculinity: implications for secondary education". Canadian Journal of Education. 25: 113–125 – via ProQuest.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Louie, Kam (2002). Theorising Chinese Masculinity: Society and Gender in Chinese masculinity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521806213.
  25. 25.0 25.1 钟, 小葵 (2018). "选"小奶狗"还是选"小狼狗"". 意林. 5: 18–19 – via 中国知识.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 韩, 露 (February 2020). "浅议网络流行词"小奶狗" ——基于话语与性别权利的视角". 天中学刊. 35: 120–124 – via 中国知识. line feed character in |title= at position 13 (help)
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