User:JanineHirtz/Books/UBCO Faculty Resource Guide
Faculty Resource Guide
- Chapter 1
TEACHING & LEARNING
AT UBC OKANAGAN
A guide for instructors
Copyright UBC Okanagan, 2009
Table of Contents
Teaching Support at UBC Okanagan 3 Learning Services 3 Centre for Teaching and Learning (CTL) 3 Centre Programs 4 e-Learning 5 Learning Communities of Practice 6 Teaching Portfolios 6 Teaching Awards 7 Videoconferencing 8 Library 8 Information Technology Services (IT) 9 Continuing Studies EdTech Centre 10
Teaching Roles and Responsibilities 11 Interactions with Students 11 Working with Teaching Assistants and Graduate Students 12 Student Discipline 14 Getting Started 15 Course and Assignment Design 16 Blended Learning 16
The Effective Instructor 17 Student Engagement 19
The Teaching and Learning Environment 20 Learning Centred Teaching 22 Learning Styles 23 Helping Students Become Successful Learners 23 Preparing for the First Class 25
Instructional Strategies 26 Group Processes 27 Large Classes 28
Assessment and Evaluation of Student Work 28
Evaluating Your Teaching 31
Teaching Support at UBC Okanagan
Welcome to UBC Okanagan!! Whether you are new to teaching or an experienced faculty member, Learning Services can offer you a wide variety of services and resources to enhance your teaching experience at UBC Okanagan. Learning Services at UBC Okanagan is comprised of the Library, Information Technology (IT) Services, the Centre for Teaching and Learning and Community and Continuing Studies. These departments can be of assistance to you as you plan the learning experiences for your students.
The Centre for Teaching and Learning
UBC Okanagan’s Centre for Teaching and Learning promotes and supports excellence in teaching and learning. The Centre provides campus- wide support for all models of teaching and learning, including online learning. UBC Okanagan faculty are provided with a variety of academic growth opportunities including a peer mentoring program, connections for new faculty, communities of practice, training workshops, learning technology support and resources on teaching practices. In addition, the Centre provides graduate students and teaching assistants with professional development opportunities.
Hours of Operation & Location: Monday-Friday 8:30am – 4:00pm Student Services Centre Building – Room 044 (SSC044)
Contacts: Peter Arthur, Director Specializing in E-learning, Instructional Strategies & Course Design 250-807-9207 firstname.lastname@example.org Janine Hirtz, e-Learning Instructional Support Specialist Specializing in WebCT Vista Support, Clickers (Personal Response Systems), E-learning, Blended Learning, Social Software Tools 250-807-9133 email@example.com Heather Hurren, Learning Instructional Support Specialist Specializing in Instructional Strategies, Assessment & Course Design 250-807-9288 firstname.lastname@example.org Tricia Wohlgemuth, Centre for Teaching and Learning Support
Alignment of Course Design Elements is essential. Your learning outcomes, assessments and activities should all be in agreement.
The Centre for Teaching and Learning offers a course design/redesign workshop each May, but you can meet with one of the staff anytime throughout the year to discuss the planning and implementation of a course.
A Blended Approach Using WebCT Vista
In a blended learning environment study, researchers conclude that “The blended learning environment resulted in marked improvements in pass rates and positive student evaluations” (Boyle et al, 2003). Many instructors at UBC Okanagan use WebCT Vista course management system to enhance student learning. They are able to provide students with electronic content including course outline and handouts. In this blended approach to teaching (using technology and face to face together) it is important to decide how WebCT Vista can best enhance student learning. WebCT Vista provides private journaling spaces (between instructors and students) which are often used for practicum seminars. Private online discussion groups can be set up for students who may be working in groups or on special projects. WebCT Vista’s live classroom and chat tools including audio, application sharing, and whiteboards are used by some instructors for holding virtual office hours or online tutorials. The learning modules allow instructors to organize readings and reinforce student expectations. The quiz tool helps ensure that students have been keeping up with readings and assignments. Assignments can be submitted, marked, grades recorded and returned to students online. Students can share presentations, get peer feedback and track their progress. The gradebook is a simplified method of tracking and calculating students grades and is guaranteed to make your life easier including submitting your final grades to FSC(faculty service center).
Used effectively with thoughtful consideration to instructional design, WebCT Vista has been shown to provide increased opportunities for student participation and interaction with the content.
Teaching Roles and Responsibilities
A university instructor’s first responsibility is the pursuit and dissemination of knowledge and understanding through teaching and research. In order to do this effectively, one must conscientiously develop scholarly competence and effectiveness as an instructor. It is hoped that this guide will give instructors some helpful hints and resource personnel to be in touch with for further insight.
In accepting a university position one assumes obligations to the university other than their primary duties as instructor and researcher – they have the responsibility to participate in the university’s governance and administration by serving on committees and task forces. One has the responsibility to abide by its rules and regulations and seek reforms which they believe would improve the university.
Interactions with Students:
Office Hours All instructors are required to hold regular office hours during the term their course is offered. It is recommended that you announce office hours the first day of the course (in class and on the syllabus) and post office hours on your office door.
Email It is strongly recommended that you establish guidelines for email at the outset of the course, indicating reasonable response times for email.
Advising/Counselling Be aware of the various services that the university has to offer students. You do not need to be the expert. Refer students to the appropriate contacts for professional advice or counselling (academic, personal, medical, etc). Review regulations on how to assist students with administrative details such as adding and dropping a course. A few quick links are provided here so that you can direct students needing assistance to the proper department:
The following services are available from this website: http://okanagan.students.ubc.ca/
Aboriginal Programs & Services International Student Advising Academic Advising Peer Support Network Awards, Fees & Finances Disability Resource Centre Health & Wellness
Academic Resource Centre (math, science, writing and learning support) http://blog.students.ubc.ca/arc/
Career Services & Co-op Education Centre http://okanagan.students.ubc.ca/careers/
Human Rights & Equity Services http://www.ubc.ca/okanagan/hes/about.html
The Effective Instructor
Much research has been done on the characteristics of effective instructors. This manual presents a combination of various research elements, but ultimately it is up to you to decide which characteristics are achievable and comfortable for your implementation as you evolve as a great instructor. You must decide the role you want to play in the mentorship and development of your students and your teaching actions will reflect that decision.
Great teachers are made, not born. There are no mysterious talents you have to be granted at birth, but skills that you can learn. Those who make it look easy have probably worked the hardest at practicing, reflecting and revising their teaching.
Reflect on your teaching goals as you consider the following characteristics of effective teachers: (Adapted from H. Murray University of Western Ontario)
1. Clarity: method used to explain or clarify concepts & principles - Makes objectives of the course and each class clear - Establishes a context, practical application of material - Uses several concrete everyday examples to explain concepts and principles - Defines new or unfamiliar terms - Repeats difficult ideas several times - Stresses most important points by pausing, speaking slowly, raising voice - Uses graphs or diagrams to facilitate explanation - Answers students’ questions thoroughly - Suggests ways of memorizing complicated ideas - Writes key terms on whiteboard or overhead screen
2. Enthusiasm: use of non-verbal behavior to solicit student attention and interest - Conveys a love for the field and self-confidence - Gives the students a sense of the field, its past, present, and future directions - Speaks in a dramatic or expressive way, smiles - Walks amongst students and maintains eye contact - Avoids reading lecture verbatim from prepared notes or text - Is concerned about the quality of his/her teaching
3. Interaction: techniques used to foster class participation - Encourages student questions and comments, independent thought - Avoids direct criticism of students when they make errors - Praises students for good ideas - Asks questions of individual students & whole class - Incorporates students’ ideas into presentation - Presents challenging, thought-provoking ideas - Uses a variety of media and activities - Discusses viewpoints other than his/her own
4. Organization: ways of organizing or structuring subject matter - Uses headings and subheadings to organize presentation - Puts outline on whiteboard/overhead/power point - Establishes a context for the material - Clearly indicates transition from one topic to the next - Gives preliminary overview at beginning - Explains how each topic fits into the course as a whole - Begins class with a review of topics covered last time - Periodically summarizes points previously made
5. Pacing: rate of information presentation, efficient use of time - Asks and confirms if students understand, before proceeding to next topic
6. Disclosure: explicitness concerning course requirements and grading criteria - States objectives of the course and objectives of each meeting - Advises students as to how to prepare for tests or exams - Provides sample exam questions - Tells students exactly what is expected on tests/essays/assignments - Reminds students of test dates or assignment deadlines
7. Rapport: quality of interpersonal relations - Addresses individual students by name (to the extent possible) - Announces availability for consultation outside of class - Offers to help students with problems - Shows acceptance of other points of view - Talks with students before & after class - Is perceived as fair, especially in methods of evaluation - Is seen by students as approachable and a valuable source of advice
Facilitating versus Teaching
A facilitator guides the students through a discovery or learning process. It is a good idea to blend teaching and facilitating in your classes, moving smoothly from one to the other. Try the following to become more of a facilitator than an instructor: • Create a supportive atmosphere, where students feel valued and comfortable to contribute to the learning process • Make the learning practical where possible • Encourage active participation in the learning process and provide plenty of evaluative feedback to students • Sit rather than stand; or sit as part of a group whenever possible to create a sense of equality and participation; stand when you need to regain control of the situation. • When possible, ask rather than tell to allow students to do the work and share experiences • Ask class members if they wish to participate in an exercise or role play; avoid commanding; find ways to make everyone want to participate • Find ways to ensure that talkative students don’t do all the participating and quiet shy students only sit back and watch • Wait for volunteers to answer questions • Encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning Student Engagement
“Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write reflectively about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.” (Chickering & Gamson, 1987)
Whether you are facing a lecture hall filled with 300 students or a seminar table with 15 students, one of your primary goals for the class should be to actively engage students with the material. The research is clear: students learn more when they are asked to actively participate in the process of learning, whether it is through discussion, practice, review or application. Active learning increases student investment, motivation and performance.
Engagement can take many forms: Faculty with Student Student with Student Student with Community Student with Content Student with Process Student with Mentor
Student engagement begins with the first class. Our teaching and learning approaches should move them beyond just being present and passive to becoming involved and active learners. Let them know that they are a part of this learning activity and have a shared responsibility with you for their own learning. Share expectations even though they may seem obvious.
• Encourage study groups or a type of learning community within your class. This may instill a sense of belonging or community/identity. • Vary your assignments so that students are called upon to think in different ways. • Encourage students to value different learning styles. • An engaged student is inquisitive, prepared, critical and constructivist.
The Teaching and Learning Environment
Building a successful teaching and learning environment depends on both the teacher and the student, however the initial responsibility for achieving this state falls on the instructor. An essential element of a healthy teaching environment is active student involvement. The following are the various pieces that come together to shape the teaching and learning environment:
By reflecting on the above illustration, one can see the areas that the instructor can influence and those areas that will be in constant flux. Awareness of the various inputs is essential to managing the pieces effectively. Each student brings knowledge, skills, values and experiences with them. It can be a challenge to meet the needs of the whole class with so many “individuals” within it. That mix is what makes teaching exciting!
Various Tips to Assist in the Creation of a Supportive Learning Environment: • Don’t forget what it was like to be a student • Set realistic goals • Emphasize mastery and learning rather than grades • Respect and accept students, treat them as adults, listen to them • Model acceptance of others views • Never humiliate, avoid sarcasm and teasing • Help students to see that what they learn will take them where they want to go in other courses or their career • Do not tolerate disparaging remarks based on gender, race, ability, national origin, religion or sexual preference • Give responsibility for learning to the students • Model enthusiasm • Help students set achievable goals • Provide organization and order, provide a comfortable physical environment Types of Learning
There is more than one type of learning. A committee led by Benjamin Bloom, identified three domains of educational activities: • Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) • Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) • Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)
Approaches to Learning
Marton and Saljo (1976) identified 2 different approaches to learning which came to be called the deep approach and the surface approach.
When students adopt a deep approach to learning their motive is to gain understanding; they adopt strategies such as reading widely and discussing the concept or topic with others; they seek to make sense of new knowledge in terms of what they already know about this topic and related topics.
Students adopting the surface approach are primarily interested in meeting the demands which the system places upon them. Their usual strategy is to reproduce enough of the information they have been given to satisfy the assessment requirements of the unit. They often resort to rote learning and are satisfied if they can retrieve what they have memorized even if they don’t fully understand it.
Learning-Centered Teaching Practices
Learning-centered teaching means identifying how the student can best learn the desired content or skill. Your teaching methods are focused on achieving the desired learning outcome. Mistakenly, this is sometimes confused with student centred learning or learner centered which usually involves active learning so that the students or learner are at the center of activity. Active learning may well be a strategy used in Learning-Centered teaching if that is the method that will achieve the deepest learning. However, other methods, such as lecture or reading may achieve the desired learning for some content. Another piece of Learning-Centered teaching is teaching the student how to learn so that students develop a responsibility for their own learning and meaning. Instructional design and the learning environment should accommodate various learning styles and allow for reflection so that students uncover how they learn best and why. This means that we focus on the process of learning at the beginning, rather than on the content. The object is to facilitate student learning rather than to act as "gatekeepers" of knowledge, doling it out in small doses. Break down what you do – the content, the strategies, the evaluation and link all to student learning. For example, a Learning-Centered Syllabus expresses course goals in terms of student learning needs, explains learning objectives in terms of observable behaviors, presents content in graphically organized form showing major elements of the course and the relationships between and among the various parts, and provides explicit guidelines/models for purposeful projects and assignments.
Students and graduates of such learning-centered programs may be characterized by being lifelong, self-directed, self-initiated learners and leaders, possessing excellent problem-solving abilities.
Learning-centered teaching is a unified approach. To achieve learning-centered teaching all of the following practices as described by Weimer in her book “Learner-Centered Teaching” should be an integral part of the education: • The functions of the content in learning-centered teaching include building a strong knowledge foundation and to develop learning skills and learner self-awareness. • The role of the teacher should focus on student learning. The roles are more facilitative rather than prescriptive teaching. • The responsibility for learning shifts from the teacher to the students. Students take responsibility for their own learning. With students, the teacher creates learning environments that motivate students to accept responsibility for learning. • The processes and purposes of evaluation shift from only assigning grades to also including constructive feedback and to assist with improvement. Learning-centered teaching uses assessment as a part of the learning process, not just an end point. • The balance of power shifts so that the teacher shares some decisions about the course with the students such that the teacher and the students collaborate on course policies and procedures. Learning-centered teaching has an appropriate balance of power between the teacher and the students by giving students some control over the policies; the schedule, including deadlines; methods of learning; and methods of assessment, but not usually the content of the course. For many educators moving toward learning-centered teaching requires significant adjustments and takes time. While we may strive to achieve a total learning-centered approach, it may not be realistic or obtainable in every course. Determining if a total unified learning-centered approach is appropriate for a particular course depends on the content, context and level of the course. However, implementing some of these practices indicates progress toward achieving the goal of an integrated learning-centered approach.
Students differ dramatically in the way they process and understand information. These differences in learning, called learning styles, refer to student’s preferences for some kinds of learning activities over others. Students bring with them their predispositions to learning. Information about learning style is important to both instructor and student because: • instructors with an understanding of learning styles are better able to adapt their teaching methods appropriately • students who learn about their own style become better learners • information about learning styles can help instructors become more sensitive to the differences which students bring to the classroom
Helping Students Become Successful Learners As a facilitator of learning, you can control some of the factors that will enhance student’s ability to achieve. Demonstrating leadership in the classroom, providing motivation for learners and operating effective groups will increase the chances of success for students. Your behaviors can contribute positively to the learning process of students (listening, monitoring student progress, knowing names to make it personal, scheduling breaks, being available, changing the pace, being friendly, relaxed and at ease).
Helping Students Think (create opportunities for students to think) - Create situations in the classroom and on assignments and exams that encourage students to evaluate, solve problems, make decisions, give causes and effects, give comparisons and examples, provide solutions - Give assignments and conduct classes to foster learning for different learning types - Ask students to read and then discuss material - When students ask a question to which they should know the answer, take time to ask questions to draw out the answer - Help students to appreciate other perspectives by challenging traditional ways of thinking - Require students to provide evidence in support of their opinions - Stimulate students to generate ideas and explore all possibilities to examine issues from all perspectives
Helping Students Learn • Let them know what they are expected to learn and why • Give them a framework for the information to fit into, use examples, repetition • Summarize important points or get the students to summarize at the end of a class • Incorporate active learning
- Make the material relevant, - Arouse their interest by using little known facts about the material or humorous application of the material
- Communicate that they are important by: • inquiring about them – interests, experiences, goals and based on that
information, relate the content and level to as many students as possible
• talking less than they do • listening, being supportive and positive • encouraging interaction amongst students so they get to know each other • allowing them input into decisions, assessment, choices • allowing them to get to know some things about you (keeping a professional distance) • giving positive feedback (verbal and non-verbal) • asking for their feedback
Preparing for the First Class
Don’t take the first class for granted. Student’s first impressions and initial observations are too important to risk by giving a boring lackluster introduction. A well organized and well utilized first class lets students know that you are interested, competent and prepared and it sets expectations that they need to be conscientious in the course.
___1. Prepare (visit the room in order to check furniture arrangement, electrical outlets, lights & equipment) ___2. Welcome them at the door ___3. Outline on the board, handout or information placed on WebCT (name, course, office hours, contact info) ___4. Position yourself – where you will be most comfortable (behind desk/podium or in front of the desk, amongst the students) ___5. Start the way you intend to continue (arrive on time, finish on time, no sarcasm or put downs, one person talking at a time) ___6. Introduce yourself (name you prefer, academic career, why you chose the discipline, interests) ___7. Let them know: why the course is interesting and useful why you are pleased to teach it what they will know and be able to do at the end of the course ___8. Discuss or create ground rules (attendance, plagiarism,disruptions, laptop use) ___9. Indicate: - your goals and expectations (shared responsibility for making the class a success) - course requirements - grading format - office hours - structure of classes/labs ___10. Put information in writing or post it on WebCT Vista ___11. Always have a rationale ___12. Icebreaker activity – to get to know them How will you learn their names? Seating plan? ___13. Conduct a brief learning activity with course content
It is a good idea to do some content piece in the first class and discuss some of the current issues in your field of study. It is imperative that you be explicit about management issues, outlining expectations or guidelines for the successful operation of this new learning community. Indicate that the students are stakeholders in this learning community and as such have responsibilities associated with the success of the course.
Your choice of strategies will depend on your comfort level with the curriculum, your resources, your intended audience and their learning styles, the physical setting and your intended outcomes. The following diagram illustrates how various methods relate to the five strategies presented. It should be noted that the methods appearing in the diagram are examples only, and are not intended to be inclusive of all instructional methods.
MODELS OF TEACHING
Interactive Instruction Direct Instruction Debates Structured Overview Role playing Explicit Teaching Panels Mastery Lecture Brainstorming Drill and Practice Peer Practice Compare and Contrast Discussion Didactic Questions Laboratory Groups Demonstrations Co-operative Learning Groups Guides for Reading, Problem Solving Learning, Viewing Circle of Knowledge Tutorial Groups Interviewing
Independent Study Indirect Instruction Essays Problem Solving Computer Assisted Instruction Inquiry Reports Reading for Meaning Learning Activity Packages Reflective Discussion Correspondence Lessons Concept Formation Learning Contracts Concept Mapping Homework Concept Attainment Research Projects Cloze Procedure Assigned Questions Learning Centres
Experiential Learning Field Trips Conducting Experiments Simulations Games
Focused Imaging Field Observations Role Playing Synectics Model Building Surveys
Using groups is an effective way to get all students involved in their own learning. If you believe in the social construction of knowledge, group process should be incorportated into your learning activities. Group processes may have to be taught so that all members of the group are clear about expectations, responsibilities and assessment. The optimum group size is 3 or 4. If groups become larger, make sure there is sufficient tasks for all to do. Typical duties of group members include task manager, time manager, recorder and reporter.
Ways of forming groups: - random assignment using student numbers - numbering off in class - using playing cards – all hearts or all 4’s - receiving an assignment card created by the Instructor (all flowers) - having to find group members through a game designed by the Instructor
Various Instructional Strategies http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/ctl/support/strategies.html
Application cards- ask students to think of and record/share at least one real-life application of an important concept learned.
One minute paper – students will write down and hand in what was the most significant learning today or questions about today’s topic. These can be anonymous.
Think-pair-share – students are requested to think about a problem/question on their own for a few minutes and then to share those thoughts/solutions with a partner and eventually the pair will share their solutions with the rest of the class.
Huddle groups – pairs or triads that discuss a specific issue for 2-3 minutes, students huddle without sitting down or getting comfortable, good for a quick break in the class
Concentric circles – students form a small circle within a larger one, the inner circle is given a discussion topic to proceed on while the outer circle listens and then they switch roles/circles
Phillips 66 – 6 people have 6 minutes to discuss a given topic in front of the class
Chain Reaction – subgroups on a topic come up with questions about the material for the instructor or for the whole class
Listening team – a group of students is designated to listen and raise questions after a presentation, lecture, guest speaker, video, etc.
Reaction sheet – instructor prepares a reaction sheet for the students to record on as they experience the instruction (reading, watching or listening); group discussion follows
For more instructional strategies, visit the website: http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/ctl/support/strategies.html Learning Activities without Talking:
• Read someone else’s notes • Read an article • Write a question on the lecture
• Set a problem • Write down an example • Think about it • List pros and cons • Observe a demonstration • Watch a video
Discussions give students the opportunity to become active in their learning, formulate principles and ideas in their own words and suggest and work with applications. Discussions promote interdependence and motivation. Discussions are an ideal way to spice up a lecture or to energize a tired class. Every discussion should have goals and structure. Students may need instruction on how to participate effectively. You can assign various roles for participants such as: information giver, information receiver (asks for relevant info), the starter, the direction-giver, the summarizer, the coordinator, the diagnoser, the energizer, the reality tester and the evaluator. Stimulating participation: - ask questions at a level most of the class can handle, success is encouragement for future participation - learn to wait for a response - use brainstorming - invite a student to summarize at the end
Tips for Large Classes
• Be efficient and organized in managerial aspects so the class flows smoothly • Establish rules of behavior at the very beginning • Put rules in writing on the course outline so there is no misunderstanding • Problems to be prepared for include inattentive behavior like talking during class, tardiness and chronic absence from class • Always begin and end on time • Return papers, assignments, etc in an organized manner that does not take too long • Be clear regarding the importance of attendance • Project the image of being accessible and concerned • Learn as many names as possible and as soon as possible
Assessment and Evaluation of Student Work
Assessment = The collection of information about student learning for the purpose of making judgments about progress.
Evaluation = Comparing assessment information across or against some standard to make a judgment or a decision.
Evaluation starts with assessing something.
ASSESSMENT PLAYS A KEY ROLE IN INFLUENCING HOW STUDENTS LEARN
ASSESSMENT NEEDS TO BE TIED TO OBJECTIVES/LEARNING OUTCOMES
Purposes of Assessment: • To assist students in learning • To diagnose strengths and weaknesses • To inform students what standard they have achieved • To provide feedback to the instructor
The assessment process is comprised of: Determining what is to be assessed Designing the means and criteria of assessment Assessing Interpreting results Giving and using feedback
Begin by consulting with department members about any policies or guidelines that you are to follow as a member of that faculty. The academic calendar also outlines policies that exist regarding assessment and evaluation. http://okanagan.students.ubc.ca/calendar/index.cfm?tree=3,41,0,0
Grading can be a major challenge for instructors. Grades inevitably reflect personal philosophy and human psychology even though our intent is to be objective by using standard criteria. Criterion-based grading evaluates each student independent of other students. Consider grading as assessment for learning, meaning that your feedback will result in further learning and not be an endpoint. Providing clear grading guidelines and enforcing them fairly will achieve conflict-free grading.
When designing exams and graded homework it is important to consider what learning outcomes you are measuring. Assessment should always be tied to the learning outcomes of the course. Weighting of assessments should follow the same rationale in that more weight is given to the more important aspects of the course. Decide what proportion of the course each assessment will represent. When constructing a test, weight points according to question type, amount of learning assessed, and the time students should spend answering. Weight the criteria of an assignment according to their importance in fulfilling the objectives of the course.
Give a detailed marking system to the students before they begin an assignment so they can see exactly how they will be marked and to better understand what is expected of them. Develop a policy for missed or failed tests and late assignments. Communicate your plan to the students and keep good records.
Responding to Grade Challenges
It is important to give the student a courteous hearing. The clearer your records, the easier it is to re-examine and justify the grades. If the student wishes for you to review the grade, take the assessment piece and look it over again without the student present. Also ask the student to prepare his/her rationale for an improved grade in writing, based on the criteria that were given at the outset of the assignment. This will give you and the student time to re-examine the criteria and the personalities and pride involved will have a chance to re-think the issue.
Note: Many believe that neatness, correctness in spelling and grammar and organizational ability are all worthwhile traits, but unless course objectives include instruction in these skills, students should not be graded on them. Student performance can be evaluated in many ways, but only information which relates to course goals should be used to assign the course grade. Class attendance should generally not be considered in grading although it may be part of the course requirement.
• Mark by question, moving through the same question in each paper • Prepare some acceptable responses in advance, listing key points to be made • Before marking any question, read through several papers to get a feel for the product • Return the assignments/tests as soon as possible. • Set aside a time for marking when you can get a good portion completed in one sitting. • Read through the marking criteria and keep it handy. • Go through all the assignments and give a provisional mark, then sort the assignments according to grade, review for consistency and amend marks as necessary. • If you find some assignments that are difficult to mark, set them aside for later. • Be accountable for the grade, have a rationale/criteria that the mark is based on. • There are programs that can assist you in detecting plagiarism – TurnItIn is one that is used at UBC-O.
Feedback . . (Feedforward?) • should encourage learning • should provide guidelines on how work can be improved • should be constructive and specific • should offer two or three points as goals for the next assignment
Options for Assessing Group Process: • Each student is responsible for handing in one portion of work • Self – evaluation (students must justify their mark) • Peer – evaluation (students evaluate everyone in their group, providing a short rationale) • Monitoring and assessing each group via a checklist • Group decision on mark split percentages (all agree that members receive a certain percentage based on real contributions – for example: In a group of 3, they must decide how the 10 marks are divided amongst them.)
The university recognizes the importance of high-quality teaching for the academic preparation of its students and accordingly requires that instructors be annually evaluated by procedures that include provision for assessment by students. Each term a Teacher Evaluation Questionnaire (TEQ) is administered to all classes and the results are sent to the instructor. This is only one measure of the instructor’s effectiveness. We encourage further efforts to gather information about your teaching. Triangulation is the best method for a true evaluation of one’s teaching – gathering evidence from 3 sources (you, through reflection and observation of self and others; students through written and/or verbal feedback; colleagues through written or verbal feedback). It is worthwhile to pursue formal evaluations so that they can be used for promotion and inclusion in your teaching dossier.
Timely ways to evaluate yourself: • Anonymous student questionnaire designed by you. • Midpoint feedback using WebCT Vista allowing anonymous feedback online. • Speak with students informally about how the class is going. • Ask a friend, colleague or a consultant from the Centre for Teaching and Learning to observe your class. Brief them on what you would like them to look for. • Be recorded. You can arrange this through the Centre for Teaching and Learning. This is the only method that allows you to see your teaching more or less as your students do. • Small group evaluation – a consultant from CTL discusses your class with groups of your students – they indicate what they value about the course, what areas need improvement and what specific suggestions they would make for change. • Student suggestion box.
Reflecting on Your Teaching (becoming aware of your teaching style/method) How do you teach? How do you begin and end each class? How do you emphasize main points? When do you change the volume or rate of your speech? How do you encourage participation? What are you enjoying about your teaching? What areas would you like to improve in? How do you learn best?
For more information and assistance in gathering feedback, contact a member of the Centre for Teaching and Learning staff. 250-807-9293
Teaching Portfolios at UBC Okanagan
The UBC Okanagan Teaching Evaluation Committee recommends that UBC Okanagan require faculty to create and keep up to date a Teaching Dossier/Portfolio which outlines the instructor’s teaching philosophy and methods, course outlines and innovations, participation in teaching workshops and team teaching, pedagogical publications or conference presentations, students’ achievements and their letters of appreciation, evidence of effective undergrad and grad research thesis supervision, etc.
A teaching dossier or portfolio is a factual description of an instructor’s teaching achievements and contains documentation that collectively suggests the scope and quality of his or her teaching. Faculty should address issues identified as "best practices" in UBC Okanagan’s Academic Plan. Dossiers can be used to present evidence about teaching quality for evaluative purposes such as tenure & promotion submissions, teaching award nominations, etc., as they can provide a useful context for analyzing other forms of teaching evaluation. Alternatively, dossiers can provide the framework for a systematic program of reflective analysis and peer collaboration leading to improvement of teaching and student learning.
Some form of the Teaching Dossier (or Teaching Portfolio, as it is called in the US and UK) is either required or strongly encouraged in a large number of universities for both reflection and assessment, and the numbers are growing. There is some evidence to support the claim that individuals using the Dossier demonstrate improvement in levels of teaching and learning (Seldin and Associates, 1993).
Suggested Teaching Portfolio Format:
A. Approach to Teaching
1. Philosophy 2. Teaching Goals & Strategies 3. Relationship to UBC Okanagan’s Academic Plan
B. Teaching Activities
1. Teaching Responsibilities 2. Supervising and Advising Students 3. Activities Engaged in to Improve Teaching and Learning 4. Committee Service 5. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
C. Evidence of Student Learning D. Teaching Reflections
For the complete guide, visit: http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/ctl/support/teachingportfolios.html
UBC Okanagan has many outstanding teachers. The Centre for Teaching and Learning provides nomination support for all of the following awards:
UBC Okanagan Award for Teaching Excellence and Innovation This award acknowledges teaching innovation and excellence. Nominations can come from students, faculty, deans/unit heads, field supervisors and alumni. For more information go to: http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/ctl/__shared/assets/Teaching_Excellence_and_Innovation_Award1729.pdf
3M Teaching Fellowships 3M Canada in collaboration with the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education recognize teaching excellence as well as educational leadership. Nomination forms may be downloaded from: http://www.mcmaster.ca/3Mteachingfellowships/index2.html.
The Alan Blizzard Award The Alan Blizzard Award is designed to stimulate and reward collaboration in teaching, and encourage and disseminate scholarship in teaching and learning. This award is sponsored by McGraw-Hill Ryerson in conjunction with the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Details regarding nomination process, award eligibility, etc. can be found at: http://www.mcmaster.ca/stlhe/awards/alan.blizzard.award.htm
Working with a Teaching Assistant
If you have an assigned teaching assistant, try to meet with them before classes start to go over expectations and allow them to participate in the first class. It is a good idea to continue to meet with your TA once a week. Share your goals for the course with the TA and what you will expect from them. Ask the TA to think about how he or she can most effectively contribute to the course. Ask them if there are specific teaching skills that they hope to practice and develop under your tutelage. CTL offers many TA workshops if your TA is inexperienced in teaching, running labs, grading, etc.
A CHECKLIST FOR INSTRUCTORS/TEACHING ASSISTANTS This list serves only as a starting point for discussion. We also include an area for estimated hours so that both parties are reminded of the expectation at UBC Okanagan of 12 hours per week. Planning and time management are crucial skills for a successful experience.
Course Information: ______Goals/objectives ______Textbook ______Student roster ______WebCT access Please ensure proper training in assignment dropbox, gradebook & OMR ______Placing items on reserve in library ______Assignment expectations and grading criteria (also below) Class Attendance Expectations: ______Required to attend all lectures? ______Duties during lectures? ___ teaching ___handing out materials ___monitoring group work ___answering questions ___setting up demonstrations ___collecting assignments, taking notes Teaching Assistant/Instructor Meetings: ______How often? ______Contact info & emergency procedures Office Hours: ______For TA and Instructor ______Contact information to share with students Materials: ______Audio Visual bookings? Obtaining? Returning? ______Photocopying – Where? Code? Exams: ______Preparation ______Delivery/Invigilation ______Organizing review sessions?
Marking: ______Rubric/template/grading criteria ______Protocol for complaints ______Record-keeping duties ______Posting marks Course Evaluation responsibilities? Evaluation of Teaching Assistant Performance: ______Formal observation? ______Peer observation ______Student evaluation of performance ______Department evaluation ______Mid semester? End of semester?
DUTY HOURS REQUIRED PER WEEK Attending lectures/field trips Preparing materials - creating/selecting/obtaining
- preparing labs/demonstrations Office hours
- student consultations - phone calls, e-mails
Leading labs/tutorials Meetings - with instructor - with other TA’s Attending training/development sessions Assessment - establishing grading criteria - grading papers/labs - supervision of exams - record-keeping Other
TOTAL HOURS = 12
This information outlines the minimum recommended levels of experience and support that would be expected of a faculty member supervising a graduate student. Faculty members who do not have the recommended experience or levels of support outlined below would be encouraged to co-supervise students with an active mentor who does.
Minimum recommended experience for supervising graduate students Normally, the supervisor would have: • experience teaching advanced undergraduate or graduate courses, • prior experience supervising undergraduate(honors)or graduate research, • evidence of an active research agenda, • evidence of resources to support graduate research including the research infrastructure and funding appropriate to the student’s area of research interest, and • a tenured or tenure-track appointment
Additional recommendations for Ph.D. Supervision Supervision of Ph.D. students requires an additional level of commitment, experience, and expertise. Normally, to qualify as a sole supervisor for Ph.D. students a faculty member should also have: • a programme of research, as shown by research grants, contracts, or other evidence, as appropriate to the area of research; • a regular flow of peer-reviewed publications, consistent with expectations in the discipline; • experience with the supervision of graduate research papers or Master’s theses; • experience with designing and teaching a graduate course; • prior membership on Ph.D. supervisory committees, or involvement with graduate supervision as a secondary supervisor. For more information see: http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/gradstudies/advising.html
The following paragraphs are excerpts from the Academic Calendar. More information can be found at http://okanagan.students.ubc.ca/calendar/
Regular attendance is expected of students in all their classes (including lectures, laboratories, tutorials, seminars, etc.). Students who neglect their academic work and assignments may be excluded from final examinations.
The University of British Columbia is committed to providing a collegial, safe, and pleasant working and learning environment for all members of the University community, one that respects differences, champions fair treatment, and celebrates diversity. The University does not condone and will not tolerate acts of discrimination and harassment, including sexual harassment.
All members of the UBC community – students, faculty, staff, and visitors – have a responsibility to respect the rights of others and to cooperate in creating and maintaining an environment that is free of harassment and discrimination.
Academic honesty is essential to the continued functioning of the University of British Columbia as an institution of higher learning and research. All UBC students are expected to behave as honest and responsible members of an academic community. Failure to follow the appropriate policies, principles, rules, and guidelines of the University with respect to academic honesty may result in disciplinary action.
Ignorance of the appropriate standard of behavior is no defense to an allegation of non-academic misconduct. Non-academic misconduct that is subject to disciplinary measures includes, but is not limited to, the following:
- disrupting instructional activities, including making it difficult to proceed with scheduled lectures, seminars, etc., and with examinations and tests;
- damaging, removing, or making unauthorized use of University property, or the personal property of faculty, staff, students, or others at the University. Without restricting the generality of the meaning of "property," it includes information, however it be recorded or stored;
- injuring a person or damaging property in any way which demonstrates or results from hate, prejudice, or bias against an individual or group based on race, national or ethnic origin, language, colour, religion, sex, age, mental or physical disability, sexual orientation, or any other similar factor; and
- assaulting individuals, including conduct which leads to the physical or emotional injury of faculty, staff, students, or others at the University, or which threatens the physical or emotional well-being of faculty, staff, students, or others at the University.
Most discipline issues can be avoided if you share your expectations at the first meeting and remind them as the term goes on. Let the students know what you feel is disruptive and ways to avoid that. Communicate that the class is a learning community that has to work together cooperatively and all participants have responsibilities associated with creating a comfortable, successful learning environment.
Videoconferencing at UBC Okanagan
UBC Okanagan Videoconferencing services are available for meetings and classroom instruction. Videoconferencing allows two or more groups or individuals at different locations to see and hear each other at the same time. Participants can share computer applications. There are endless possibilities for instruction, connection with guest speakers and experts, project collaboration and community building to name a few. If you have questions about using this technology, please contact the Centre for Teaching and Learning.
The mission of library staff is to provide library services, collection resources and facilities of the highest quality for students and faculty in support of the educational mission of UBC Okanagan. Using UBC’s virtual private network (VPN), you can access full library services from home.
The UBC Okanagan Library is committed to developing and maintaining strong ties and good communication between faculty and librarians. The UBC-O librarians serve as subject liaisons to ensure the collections and services of the Library support the teaching and research needs of the faculties and departments at UBC-O.
The Library encourages all faculty to contact the librarian for their subject area to arrange group or individual instruction, request new acquisitions for the UBC-O Library, and consult on library resources to support teaching, research, courses and programmes.
Melody Burton—Chief Librarian email@example.com 250-807-9126
Laura Briggs – Learning Services Librarian (Collections) Subject Responsibilities: Agroecology, Applied Science: Engineering, Chemistry, Computer Science, Earth & Environmental Science, Film, Geography (Physical), Mathematics, Physics/Astronomy, and Statistics firstname.lastname@example.org 250-807-9329
Jan Gattrell—Learning Services Librarian Subject Responsibilities: Creative Writing, Education, English, Higher Education, History and Theatre email@example.com 250-807-9125
Robert Janke—Learning Services Librarian Subject Responsibilities: Biology, Health Studies, Human Kinetics, Nursing, Psychology and Social Work firstname.lastname@example.org 250-807-9109
Marjorie Mitchell—Learning Services Librarian Subject Responsibilities: Anthropology, Art History, Cultural Studies, Fine Arts, French, Geography (Human), Indigenous Studies, Japanese, Sociology, Spanish, Women’s Studies and Visual Arts email@example.com 250-807-9147
Barbara Sobol – Learning Services Librarian (Research) Subject Responsibilities: Economics, Management, Philosophy and Political Science firstname.lastname@example.org 250-807-8063
Library Hours of Operation: Monday – Thursday: 7:30am to 11:00pm Friday: 7:30am to 8:00pm Saturday: 9:00am to 6:00pm Sunday: 11:00am to 11:00pm
Learning Lab The Learning Lab, and the 26 student-use computers, is open whenever the library is open. The only time when it is unavailable is when the Lab has been booked for an instructional session.
Study Rooms There are currently 7 study rooms that students/instructors can reserve for student meetings, group study, instruction or workshop settings. This can be very helpful for team work and finding new spaces for learning outside the classroom.
Reading Room Although contemporary libraries are not as ‘quiet’ as traditional libraries, ours offers a new Reading Room equipped with soft lighting and comfortable space for quiet reading.
Laptop Loan Program
Information Technology Services (IT)
This department will assist you in your computing resources. Their website (http://web.ubc.ca/okanagan/itservices/welcome.html) has easy access to the following services: Accounts and access—getting access and managing accounts Security and Anti-virus—protecting your system from threats Internet and Web—getting online (wireless, web hosting and content management) E-mail and Calendaring—getting access to e-mail and your calendar Computer Labs—using their campus labs Phones—meeting your telecommunication needs Learning Applications—accessing course materials online (WebCT) Software and Hardware—options for purchase and software licensing information.
IT Services Helpdesk (general problems and inquiries) 250-807-9000 8am-4pm Mon—Fri
Continuing Studies UBC Okanagan Community and Continuing Studies is an academic unit that inspires curiosity, develops ingenuity, stimulates dialogue and facilitates change among lifelong learners locally and internationally. We anticipate and respond to emerging learner needs and broaden access to UBC by offering innovative educational programs that advance our students’ careers, enrich their lives and inform their role in a civil and sustainable society. Current programs include Intercultural Studies, Language, Physical Theatre, Travel and Wine Studies. Program Leader: Tia-Maria Hoeller email@example.com Phone: 250.807.8177 Fax: 250.807.9155 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Education Technology Centre
The Education Technology Centre in Arts 180 serves the UBC Okanagan Faculty of Education as well as the broad university population. Technical services and support are given priority to the Faculty of Education and students of the Bachelor of Education and Masters of Education programs. For your convenience, the Centre for Teaching and Learning has set up a scanner and Remark Office software to scan your multiple choice exams and research surveys. This location operates on a first come first serve basis and respects the Educational Technology Centre hours of operation. The Centre is also used as a training facility on occasion, so please check the schedule. Students and faculty from other departments may utilize computers and equipment in the Centre as directed by the Coordinator.
Deb Carter Ed Tech Centre Tel: 250.807.8033 E-mail: email@example.com
Angelo, T. & Cross, K. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques.
Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for Quality Learning at University.
Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
Boyle, T., Bradley, C., Chalk, P., Jones, R., & Pickard, P. (2003). Using blended learning to improve student success rates in learning to program. Journal of Educational Media, 28.
Chickering, A., & Ehrmann, S. (2003). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever.
Entwistle, N. (1998). Approaches to learning and forms of understanding.
Fink, L. (2003). A Self-Directed Guide to Designing Courses for Significant Learning.
Gross-Davis, B. (1993). Tools for Teaching.
Kolb, D. (1983).Learning Styles and the Adult Learner.
Marton, F. and Saljo, R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46:4-11.
McAlpine, L. (2004). Designing Learning as well as Teaching.
Murray, H., Gillese, M. Ethical Principles in University Teaching. (STLHE)
Ralph, E. (2004). Pursuing Instructional Effectiveness in Higher Education.
Ramsden, P. (2003). Assessing for Understanding.
Seldin, P. (1993). Successful Use of Teaching Portfolios.
Teaching at Stanford- An Introductory Handbook for Faculty, Academic Staff and
Teaching Assistants (2004)
Teaching Resource Manual by Dr. M. Naeth, University Teaching Services, University of
Teaching and Learning at the University of Saskatchewan – A Guide for Instructors,
Gwenna Moss Teaching and Learning Centre (2001)
Teaching at the University of Toronto: A Resource for New Faculty, Office of Teaching
Weimer, M. (2003). Focus on Learning. Transforming Teaching.