MET:Media Literacy and Education

From UBC Wiki

This page originally authored by John Stringer (2008).

This page has been modified by Chantal Drolet (January, 2009). See: Last paragraph of the introduction; "The Validity of Digital Film Communication Literacy" and related references.

This page has been modified by Jesse Anast (January, 2009). Section 1.3 - Consumer Generated Media CCGM)

This page has been modified by Jackie Crowell (March 2010). fixed spelling See: Sections 1.1 and 1.2 updated and additional statistics Added: Section 1.4

This page has been modified by Adora Tang solo (January 2011). With the additions of "Section 1.5", references, and external links to Internet safety

This page has been modified by Michael Godwin (January, 2018) With an addition to the opening paragraph (last line) and to Section 1.2 - additional statistics regarding social media and political news.

In today's world of information technology, youth are exposed to a vast amount of information that was not available 10 years ago. As such, it is imperative that they develop information literacy skills to determine what is factual and what is not. While we have seen that media can have a positive influence on education (see Frank Chan's Wiki on Edutainment), we must also remember that mass media can also play a detrimental role in how students form their ideas, values, and cultural beliefs. Today's youth must be aware that global media networks (such as CNN, Fox News, and the BBC) and Hollywood movies, can have a profound influence on how they interpret their world. However, with the ascendance of Facebook and Twitter as primary news providers, media literacy is becoming critically important in education.

This Wiki will begin by analyzing the amount of time that students spend accessing media (in terms of which media is most frequently used, and the time that they devote to the various categories of media) and will then discuss how the media can shape public opinion and fabricate untruths and stereotypes. For example, how the media portrays that youth crime is on the rise and how media portrays ethnic minorities. The impact this has on the perception of the public education system will be discussed and will conclude with recommendations for teaching students to critically analyze media.

To substantiate the recommendations for students and teachers, digital film communication will be presented as a valid activity to deconstruct and reconstruct media. Based on the escalating use of digital films on the web, as well as the increasing availability of this type of technology in schools, digital film literacy can play a valuable role in the nurturing of global awareness and engaged citizenry. The deconstruction, or analysis, necessary to produce student-made public service announcements and documentaries on racism, environmental issues or religious diversity (to give only a few examples) can have a strong influence on young people’s values and conduct (Kline, Steward, Murphy, 2006). Learning the techniques employed to create meaning in moviemaking empowers students with the capabilities of reconstructing similar products. The difference is that this time, they control the content and the depiction of the characters.

Youth and Media

Traditional Media

In 1999, a study by Donald Roberts showed that the average American youth would finish high school having spent anywhere from 2000 – 6000 more hours watching television than is spent in the classroom (Roberts, 2000).That would mean students ages 8 to 18 were watching 21.35 hours of television a week. According to Statistics Canada, the average number of hours a Canadian youth watched television per week in 1999 was fifteen. This, however, is only television; it does not include watching movies, reading newspapers, magazines, video-games, etc. When Roberts did a follow up study in 2008, television use remained virtually the same but computer, video games and movie usage had doubled. The total media use by this age group remained the same. Interestingly enough, the increased use of the afore mentioned media was due to media multitasking (Roberts,2008).There has been a huge explosion in alternative media: in 2001 ninety-one percent of Canadian families owned a VCR and twenty percent owned a DVD player ( Statistics Canada) and since 1990, the Internet has expanded exponentially. Households using the Internet in Canada went from twenty-nine percent in 1999 to fifty-four percent by 2003 (Statistics Canada, 2005a). Roberts believes that, if we are to understand the impact media has on today's youth, then we must also understand how and why they are making use of today's media.

Youth and Alternate Types of Media

Roberts (2008) drew on five separate studies by the Kaiser Family Foundation to discover the alternate types of media that youth ages 8 to 18 were using. Television, video players, radio, audio players, video game players, computer, cable or satellite, internet access, instant messaging, cell phones, MP3 players, personal digital assistants and handheld devices (video game and internet) were included in the alternative media. In Robert’s 2000 study the typical youth that he interviewed had three television sets, three tape players, three radios, two VCRs, two CD players, one video game player, and one computer. Lenhart discovered in 2003 that 45% of all teens owned cell phones. Two thirds of teens who owned cell phones used instant messaging at least once a day. By 2008, Lenhart found that 71% of teens owned cell phones and 66% of teens use text messaging. Unsurprisingly, the immense exposure to mass-media has had a profound effect on today's youth both historically and today.

According to a survey done by the PEW Research Center, alternate forms of media now represent the primary source for political news for Millennials: 61% of Millennials reported receiving political news from Facebook, while only 37% rely on local TV (

Consumer Generated Media (CGM)

Consumer Generated Media (CGM) was first coined by Pete Blackshaw CMO for Nielsen Buzzmetrics. The term CGM refers to the consumer generated content being placed on the Internet.

CGM describes a variety of new and emerging sources that are created, initiated and circulated and used by individuals on the internet. The use of CGM can range from blogs, podcasts, youtube and consumer feedback sites. More and more students are becoming part of the global distributors of information.

With the proliferation of the internet over the last decade more and more individuals are gaining access to the internet. According to Pew Internet & American Life Project, of the 93% of teens that are online 64% of them have created content online. Now teens possess the opportunity to be heard by all.

Youth and Sexting

Lenhart in 2009 discovered that 4% of cell-owning teens (12 -17) have sent sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images of themselves through text messaging. Of those cell owning teens 15% have received sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images of someone they know through text messaging. Texting has become an important part of teenage life. There has been a great deal of press regarding the use and misuse of cell phones as part of a teenager’s sexual interactions and explorations. A large amount of this has focussed on sexting. Students are being charged under the child pornography laws (Lenhart, 2009).

Educational Concerns

With the creation of online content we must prepare today's youth with the tools to successfully negotiate the mass of information in cyberspace. Advertisers and marketers are now finding the use of consumer generated content as a means by which to track and respond to teen initiatives.

Social networking sites such as facebook and myspace as well as online video sites such as youtube are becoming more and more popular with today’s youth.

Teens are no longer consumers of digital media, but they are also producers. Preparing students to become literate in the new arena of consumer generated content is a skill that must be developed.

Youth, 'Privacy', and Cyber Abuse

Youth today are frequent users of technology, the Internet in particular, to communicate and socialize. They are using it for education and for social interactions through social networking sites (Mishna, Cook, Saini, Wu, & MacFadden, 2010). A social network is defined as relations among people who see other members as important and/or relevant to them in some form (Lange, 2008). Therefore a social network site is defined as a website that allows people to create public or semi-public profiles for others to view and can express their relationships with other members they are connected to (Lange, 2008). Examples of social network sites are YouTube, Myspace, and Facebook.

In the definition of ‘social network site’, the idea of public and semi-public profiles brings the definition of privacy into the forefront. What does ‘semi-public’ mean? According to Livingstone, social network sites allow for globalization of social circles and communication (2008). With the convergence of instant messaging, photo sharing, website creation, and so on, language is changing (Lange, 2008). The definitions of ‘friend’ is now used to show that one member is connected to another in some form, it does not necessary mean ‘friend’ in the traditional sense (Tufekci, 2008). Since the a simple definition of ‘friend’ has changed, so has that of ‘privacy’. Traditionally, privacy is understood to be keeping information and events to oneself. Privacy within social network sites means visibility; can other site members see your profile and/or how much is shared with other members (Tufekci, 2008). Social network sites and privacy force users to make judgments on what information will be disclosed and to whom can see this information, whether they are messages, personal information, photographs, and so on (Livingstone, 2008). Two terms have been developed through Livingstone’s research of YouTube users which can be applied to other social network sites. The first is ‘publicly private’ which means disclosing information about the user’s identity but limiting access to content (2008). The second is ‘privately public’ which means there is a willingness to connect to others and share content but not personal information about their whole identity (2008). Reasons for seeking different levels of privacy is to control others from passing judgments and self-embarrassment, and to control what information is disclosed to protect self-image and personal information (Fogel & Nehmad, 2009). Because of the large amounts of information disclosure, there are true threats to user privacy.

Teenagers want some of their actions to be private but only to a certain degree. They seek to be seen and are using the Internet as a medium for self-expression (Livingstone, 2008). They want to connect with other people but simultaneously, they want to avoid certain peers and direct authority figures such as parents, teachers, and coaches from accessing and seeing their content; they are limiting their visibility (Tufekci, 2008). Although they have some ideas of privacy and most of their online interactions and behaviors are positive, they are somewhat unaware of the negative behaviors and interactions. Cyber abuse is the result of aggressive online behaviors and activities such as cyber bullying, cyberstalking, sexual solicitation, and problematic exposure to pornography (Mishna et al., 2010). Cyber bullying is also known as electronic bullying or online social cruelty which uses technology to exclude, harass, embarrass, threaten individuals. Cyberstalking is using the Internet to contact, harass, threaten, pursue another in an unsolicited manner. Sexual solicitation is the request to engage in sexual activities through technology. Pornography exposure can be due to unknowingly and inadvertently opening an email or through a topic search, or deliberately seeking out the material which can interfere with the youth’s life or leading to criminal offenses (Mishna et al., 2010).

Educational Implications

An individual’s participation of social network sites involves email, instant messaging, uploading videos and photographs, editing one’s profile, and adding or changing one’s status (Hogan & Quan-Haase, 2010). These activities and other online activities leave digital footprints or traces. It is important for youth to understand that even though they are able to control who sees their profiles and content, it is searchable and the data is persistent - does not go away (Tufeki, 2008). Because they do not realize this aspect of the Internet, some youth might engage in risky behaviors online which can lead to risky behaviors offline. Risky behaviors would include uploading suggestive photographs, engaging in intimate relationships with online users (Mishna et al., 2010). These youth might engage in such activities because of the anonymity of the Internet; therefore it is vital to increase Internet literacy amongst all youth and parents. It is important for youth to realize the implication that their behavior may affect future employment because firms might refrain hiring individuals based on what they find online (Tufekci, 2008). Thus, prevention and intervention programs may not stop cyber abuse entirely but it could help to reduce risky online behavior (Mishna et al., 2010). It is important for youth to seek help if their privacy has been threatened and cyber abuse is taking place. Authority figures need to remember that teenagers want to be seen and express themselves and that is why it is imperative that Internet literacy increases. Ordering teenagers not to go online or telling them what information to exclude from their profiles will not work; they need to understand the risks and this is accomplished through education.

How Media Can Affect Public Opinion

The Perception of Youth Crime in the Media

Youth crime (ages 12-17) decreased steadily between 1992 and 1999. This was followed by a slight increase in 2000 and 2001, and again decreased by 2002 (Statistics Canada, 2005b). In fact Steve Mattson, a defence lawyer, stated that there was a 20 percent drop in youth crime between 1992 and 2003 (Fairclough, 2004). For example, in 1998 the total number of youths (ages 12-17) who were tried and found guilty in court was 59, 835, by 2002 that number fell to 50, 433 (Statistics Canada, 2005b). Although those numbers seem high, it must be noted that in 2002 "youths between the ages of 12-17 committed 29 percent of property crime, and 17 percent of violent crime" (McCormick, 2004). This means that 83 percent of violent crimes and 71 percent of property crimes are committed by adults.

Despite the statistics, the public's perception of youth crime is that it is on the rise. For example, a national survey conducted in 2000 asked respondents whether they believed youth crime had increased over the past five years. Seventy-four percent responded that it had. When asked if they believed that youth crime would increase over the next five years, fifty-eight percent responded that it would. Much of this hyped up sensationalism has been created by the media. Claims such as "[t]he issue of youth crime is causing widespread anxiety. Toronto has witnessed some vicious and deplorable acts of youth violence of late" (Hurst, 2003), and "the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA), like the Young Offenders Act before it, is fundamentally defective - lopsidedly oriented toward the liberal notion of "rehabilitation" rather than punitive justice, with incarceration, even for the eyeblink-duration sentences permitted, considered as a last resort" (Moore, 2004), continue to create the illusion that youth crime is on the rise.

The above illustrate only a few examples of how youth are being portrayed in the media and how this influences public perception. Despite the continual decline of crimes committed by young offenders, the public's perception of youth crime is on the rise. The media sensationalizes many youth crimes which has resulted in causing widespread anxiety amongst the general public. This in turn affects decisions made by politicians, who then put the pressure on the public sector (policing, schools, etc.) to get the 'problem' under control.

Visible Minorities in News Media

Stereotyping by the media through advertising, entertainment and news industries is unavoidable. When viewers see these stereotypes they often fabricate and misconstrue opinions about the group of people, usually relating to their gender, socio-economic status, occupation, or ethnicity. If these messages are repeated enough, and if enough people begin to believe them, they soon become a fabricated reality.

A 1997 study conducted over four months by Frances Henry found that fifty-four percent of the articles in the Toronto Sun that mentioned the word "Jamaican" were about criminal activity (Henry, 2000). A similar study including the Vancouver Sun, the Winnipeg Free Press, the Montreal Gazette, the Toronto Sun, and the Calgary Herald concluded that the coverage of people of colour was both stereotypical and negative. Forty-nine percent of local stories were negative and fifty percent of the articles dealt with either athletes or entertainers (Miller, 1994). Henry believes that this "reveals the complex vocabulary of crime related language that includes phrases like "cultural deviance," "Jamaican or Black crime." The press creates a sense of moral panic in which isolated cases of violence are represented as an indication of a profound societal crisis that imperils the nation. The linking of race and crime by the media becomes a wake-up call to all Canadians, and especially politicians, to re-evaluate their ideas about authority, control and public policy" (Henry, 2000). Further, a 1999 study conducted by David Pritchard and Florian Sauvageau (1999) revealed that a staggering ninety-seven percent of Canadian journalists are white.

Visible Minorities in Entertainment Media

Visible minorities are also misrepresented in entertainment media. A 1994 study published in the US Journal of Pediatrics revealed that popular music videos exceedingly portray black men as aggressors and white women as victims (Globe and Mail, 1998). In the analysis of 73 violent music videos, researchers found that twenty-five percent of the aggressors were black and of that twenty-five percent, ninety-eight percent were male. In the same set of videos, forty-seven percent of the victims were white females. Michael Eric Dyson, a professor from the African-American studies at Columbia University, stated that the study was "lamentable but predictable proof that television reinforces the perception that blacks are predators and should be viewed with suspicion" (Globe and Mail, 1998). For example, in the movie Pay it Forward, the bullies in schools are still perceived as 'Greasy Latinos' while the good kid is the white kid with a European background. These cultural biases also transcend into movies portraying the teacher as the savior (again, usually white, European) who comes to save the inner-city black or Latin-American students.

Impact on public education

In Xaé Alicia Reyes' (2003) article, "Imaging Teachers: In Fact and in the Mass Media", the author look at the impact of statements made by mass media that generate negative images when seen by the public, who often see these images as absolute truth when they are in fact misconstrued social stereotypes based on gender, race, and ethnicity. Unfortunately as David Domke states, "news media are in the position of providing the symbolic, cognitive, and affective contexts in which Whites come to understand race relations and form their opinions on various racial policies" (Domke, 2001). As such, much of the above discussion on media affects how today's youth form their opinions of society.


How we can educate

Because a critical analysis of mass-media and the pervasiveness of mass media is often overlooked in schools, we have to accept that much of our students' experience, interaction, and perceptions of the world are potentially based on something of which they have never taken time to question. The message that Reyes and Domke are trying to convey is that, we as teachers, have an obligation to show students how to critically analyze media, and show them that they must question what they are being told. We must show them that the negative images of race, skin color, and ethnicity by the media are pretentious and false. Further, we must show students that "[w]hen stereotypical views are a part of the creative process, the broader and richer textures of the cultural beliefs and lifestyles of these groups are denied to both the minority and nonminority adolescent" (Berry, 2000).

The Validity of Digital Film Communication Literacy

Entered by Chantal Drolet (January 2009).

One of the best ways to create awareness concerning the pervasive influence of the media on behaviors and attitudes is to engage students in the production of their own media projects. Digital film making, for example, is an alternative form of media literacy well suited to develop youth’s critical analysis of the mass media.

For instance, one of the important aspects of film making is selecting a theme, researching it and devising an original angle to promote the chosen concept. In order to create a public service announcement on a social issue students must spend a great deal of time finding data and statistics about this issue. Once a clear mental picture is created around this topic, young cinematographers must use the grammar of film making to invent an innovative and enticing way of communicating their message. Like any professional advertisement campaign, the endeavor is to hook the members of the audience; or in other words, to convey a powerful message and influence the public’s behavior.

A major difference between digital film communication and commercial media, however, is that the educational aspect of film making centers its attention on social contribution, rather than consumption. Furthermore, the intent behind the creation of media shared among adolescents is to promote citizenship and awareness (Greenhow, 2008), not to concoct artificial needs in order to increase financial gains.

This is not to say that mainstream media only produce rubbish messages, detrimental to the public. On the contrary, if chosen with discernment, valuable information can be disseminated among citizens by a number of legitimate agents such as journalists, editors, documentary makers and bloggers. The key issues reside in a clear understanding of the iteration involved in the process of media production (Stables, 1997) as well as the critical assessment needed to decide which documents to access or avoid; believe or distrust. These are the intellectual outcomes of a digital film communication program.

As mentioned earlier on this page, a number of ethnographic studies have recognized that youth is often represented with a negative bias in conventional media. For example, “girls [may be presented] as fashion obsessed and impressionable” and “teen mothers as […] welfare bums”, to give only a few examples (Kelly, 2006). Moreover, no one will refute the fact that women’s and men's bodies, young and old, are ruthlessly exploited by advertising firms to sell innumerable products; from cars to cigarettes. Magazines, television commercials, and even newspapers disseminate these kinds of images and contribute to the distortion of young people's self-identity, while also cultivating a passive attitude.

Students involved in digital film communication become more aware of the stratagems that promotional media utilize to influence their self-image, their choices, and by extension, their lives. Equipped with such powerful incentives to act, adolescents easily become enthralled with technological tools enabling them to take action. The creative and critical processes involved when using communication technology can be highly motivating. Analyzing the media and creating their own scripts and stories also provides them with effective strategies to respond to commoditization of youth image in commercial broadcasting (T. Riecken, Conibear, Michel, Lyall, Scott, Tanaka, Stewart, J. Riecken, & Strong-Wilson, 2006).

Film making using digital technologies generates a language of transcendence, which facilitates the articulation of a discourse surpassing the limits set by the mass media’s ordinary hubbub. Digital film communication allows students to develop healthy self-representations, responsible voices (Riecken et al., 2006) and to promote active social contributions among their peers. From this point of view, media literacy and the grammar of film making offer powerful means of combating apathy (Bell, 2005) toward some of the manipulative effects of mainstream communication channels.

Finally, the hands-on experience of movie making brings about an appreciation for the spin involved when publishing media content. It also cultivates a point of reference from which to analyze the validity of information distributed by conventional communication agencies.

Example of Student film


The following link is a TeacherTube public service announcement created by Middle School students. Contrary to the usual negative treatment that "at risk" students receive from conventional media, this production portrays them in a positive light.


"At Risk" Students is a Public Service announcement that is trying to inspire students to succeed despite the odds. This video was the 2007 Jere Baxter Middle School entry for the Panasonic Kid Witness News (KWN) program in the Public Service Announcement (PSA) Category. This video was awarded the KWN New Vision Award for PSA, the Technical Award for Writing, the Online Voting Award for Best Video, and the KWN New Vision Video of the Year-Best in the United States. Of the 14 awards given this video won four of them. Jere Baxter is an inner-city school located in Nashville, Tennessee. The group was sponsored by Mr. Sam Frey. For winning the KWN awards, Mr. Frey was able to take three students on an all-expense-paid trip to New York/ New Jersey for the awards show sponsored by Panasonic. Then for winning Video of the Year for this video, Mr. Frey was asked to take three different students along with his wife on an all-expense-paid to Japan, sponsored by Panasonic and Japan Airlines. This video was also entered into the Tennessee eTales contest and won one of the awards given to teachers.

Stop Motion Animation

Stop Motion Animation

Stop Motion Animation January 2018

See Also

A Stop Motion Video about Media Literacy, Critical Thinking and Education

The following sites are excellent resources for media awareness in your classrooms. You will find lesson plans, articles, project ideas etc.

Center for Media Literacy

Media Awareness Network

Creating media savvy students

Perceptions of Youth and Crime

The following sites offer more information on the validity of digital film literacy:

Poyntz, S. R. (2006). Independent media, youth agency and the promise of media education. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(1): 154-175. Retrieved October 8, 2008 from:

Welsch, M., personal blog, A vision of students today (& what teachers must do - brave new classroom 2.0), October 21, 2008. Retrieved from: --ValentynaZolotarova (talk) 01:53, 8 February 2015 (PST)

External Links

Statistics Canada - Tables by subject: Individual and household Internet use

Statistics Canada - Tables by subject: Crime and justice (youth)


The following site offers more examples of digital films created by students:


For sites about Internet safety:


Wired Safety

For an article on Internet literacy:

New Literacy article from McMaster University


Berry, Gordon L., (2000). Multicultural media portrayals and the changing demographic landscape: the psychosocial impact of television representations on the adolescent of color, Journal of Adolescent Health. Volume. 27S. p. 57–60.

Domke, David. (2001). The Press, Race Relations, and Social Change. Journal of Communication.

Fairclough, Ian. (Thursday, December 2, 2004). Judge bucks stats in teen's sentencing; Disagrees youth crime is declining and violent offences are fewer. "The Chronicle-Herald". p. B7.

Fogel J., & Nehmad, E. (2009). Internet social network communities: Risk taking, trust, and privacy concerns. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 153-160. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2008.08.006

Henry, Frances. Tator, Carol. (2000). Racist Discourse In Canada’s English Print Media. The Canadian Race Relations Foundation Toronto.

Hogan, B. & Quan-Haase, A. (2010). Persistence and Change in Social Media. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 30, 309-315. doi:10.1177/0270467610380012

Hurst, Lynda. (July 26, 2003). Why fear remains high as crime rates fall. "Toronto Star NEWS, Saturday". p. A01.

Lange, P. G. (2008), Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13: 361–380. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00400.x

Lenhart, A., Hitlin, P., & Madden, M. (2005). Teens and technology. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet &American Life Project.

Lenhart, A. (2009). Teens and sexting. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet & American Life Project.

Livingstone, S. (2008). taking risky opportunities in youthful content creation: Teenagers'use of social netowrking sites for intimacy, privacy and self-expression. New Media & Society, 10, 393-411, doi: 10.1177/1461444808089415

McCormick, Chris. (August 11, 2004). Curfews don't reduce youth crime. "The Fredericton Daily Gleaner". p. A8.

Miller, John and Prince, K. (1994). The Imperfect Mirror: Analysis of Minority Pictures and News in Six Canadian Newspapers. "Toronto: School of Journalism. Ryerson Polytechnic University".

Mishna, F., Cook, C., Wu, M.J., & MacFadden, R. (2010). Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth: A Systematic Review. Research on Social Work Practice, 1(21), 5-14, doi:10.1177/1049731509351988

Mitchell, A., Gottfried, J., Matsa. K.E. (2015). Social Media - the Local TV for the Next Generation? Pew Research Center,. Retrieved January 28, 2018, from

Moore, Charles, W. (November 18, 2004). The Youth Criminal Justice Act is a bad joke. "The New Brunswick Telegraph Journal". p. D6.

Pritchard, David. & Sauvageau, Florian (1999). Les journalistes canadiens: Un portrait de fin de siècle. "Quebec City, Quebec: Presses de l'Université Laval".

Reyes, Xaé Alicia Reyes (2003). Imaging Teachers: In Fact and in the Mass Media. Journal of Latinos and Education. Vol. 2, No. 1. p. 3-11.

Roberts, D., Foehr, U., Rideout, V., & Brodie, M. (1999). Kids and media @the new millennium: A comprehensive national analysis of children’s media use. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Foundation.

Roberts, Donald, F. (2000). Media and Youth: Access, Exposure, and Privatization. Journal of Adolescent Health. Vol. 27s. p. 8-14.

Roberts., & Foehr, U. (2008). Trends in media use. Project MUSE: Scholarly Journals Online, 18, 11-37. doi:10.1353/foc.0.0000

Statistics Canada. (2005a). Household Internet use, by location of access, by province . Retrieved March 2, 2008, from

Statistics Canada. (2005b). Cases in youth criminal court. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from

Statistics Canada. (2003). Watching the box. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from from

Stereotypes Enforced in Music Videos, Study Shows Globe and Mail (Apr. 8, 1998). Retrieved March 2, 2008, from

Tufekci, Z. (2008). Can You See Me Now? Audience and Disclosure Regulation in Online Social Network Sites. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 28: 20-36, doi:10.1177/0270467607311484

References related to the validity of digital film literacy:

Greenhow, C. (2008). Connecting informal and formal learning experiences in the age of participatory media: Commentary on Bull et al. (2008). Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 8(3), 187-194. Retrieved November 8, 2008 from:

Kelly, D. M. (2006). Frame work: helping youth counter their misrepresentations in media. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(1): 27-48. Retrieved October 8, 2008 from:

Kline, S., Stewart, K., & Murphy, D. (2006). Media literacy in the risk society: toward a risk reduction strategy. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(1): 131-153. Retrieved October 8, 2008 from:

Riecken, T., Conibear, F., Michel, C., Lyall, J., Scott, T., Tanaka, M., Stewart, S., Riecken, J., & Strong-Wilson, T. (2006). Resistance through re-presenting culture: aboriginal students filmmakers and participatory action research project on health and wellness. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(1): 265-286. Retrieved October 8, 2008 from:

Stables, K. (1997). Critical issues to consider when introducing technology education in the curriculum of young learners. Journal of Technology Education, vol. 8, No. 2. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from:

References related to Consumer Generated Media:

Jenkins, Henry. "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century (part one)." October 20, 2006.