Library:Library Research Skills For Biologists/Module 6/Page 04

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This table shows how to format citations within your written work (CITATIONS IN TEXT) and in the list at end of your assignment (LITERATURE CITED / REFERENCES).

1 author
McMillan, V.E. 1988. Writing papers in the biological sciences. Bedford/St. Martin's Press, Boston, Mass. (McMillan 1988)
2 authors
Humm, H.J., and Wicks, S.R. 1980. Introduction and guide to the marine bluegreen algae. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. (Humm and Wicks 1980)
3 or more authors
Purves, W.K., Orians, G.H., and Heller, H.C. 1992. Life: The science of biology, 3rd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., W. H. Freeman and Company, Sunderland, Mass. (Purves et al. 1992)
Edited book German, J. (ed.). 1974. Chromosomes and cancer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. (German 1974)
Book in a series
(monographic series)
Scott, W.B., and Crossman, E.J. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. No. 184 (Scott and Crossman 1973)
Edited book
Muldal, S., and Lajtha, L.G. 1974. Chromosomes and leukemia. pp. 451-480 In: J. German, (ed.), Chromosomes and cancer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. (Muldal and Lajtha 1974)
Journal article
1 author
Pratt, B.T. 1978. The real thing. Soda News, 8: 456-457. (Pratt 1978)
Journal article
2 authors
(paginated by issue)
Birle, R.A. and Suthers, W.C. 1981. The effects of soft drinks and their constituents on the stamina of rats. Journal of Rat Physiology, 23 (2): 14-22. (Birle and Suthers 1981)
Journal article
3 or more authors
Bonilla, I., Bolanos, L., and Mateo, P. 1994. Interaction of boron and calcium in the cyanobacteria Anabaena and Synechococcus. Physiologia Plantarum, 94: 31-36. (Bonilla et al. 1994)
Journal article
(same as print)
Han, S.O., and New, P.B. 1998. Variation in nitrogen fixing ability among natural isolates of Azospirillum. Microbial Ecology, 36: 193-201. (Han and New 1998)
Journal article
with DOI
Van der Sanden, J.J., and Hoekman, D.H. 2005. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches [online]. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 31 (3): 207-213. doi:10.1139/rs03-011 (Van der Sanden and Hoekman 2005)
Pamphlet or
Government Report
Thompson, G.A. 1985. Vegetation classification of the Endowment Lands. UBC. Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands, G.V.R.D. Parks Department, Technical Paper #4. (Thompson 1985)
Thesis Brown, J.H. 1969. The life history and ecology of the northern lake chub (Couesius plumbeus) in the La Ronge region of Saskatchewan. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. (Brown 1969)
Conference paper Gilbert, J.J. 1998. Differential sensitivity of Synchaeta and Daphnia to nucleosides from Anabaena affinis. in: E. Wurdak, R. Wallace, and H. Segers (ed.), International Rotifer: Rotifera VIII: a Comparative Approach. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht. pp. 277-281. (Gilbert 1998)
Unrefereed Websites Saffell, B. 1982. A resource center for rearing beneficial insects [online]. Available from [accessed 4 December 1997]. (Saffell 1982)

Print version: Citing the literature

More examples here. See: “How to Cite and List References” .

Copy down the complete reference/citation when you first use it. This will make your life easier when you go to write up your list of references at the end.