Library:How to Cite/Who

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Who wrote or created it? Examples:

  • An individual author, musician, artist or other type of creator? a group of authors/creators? a corporation or organization (also known as corporate author)?
  • Is the author/creator anonymous or pseudonymous?

In all these cases the author or creator must be credited. The sole exception is if the author is genuinely unknown - your style guide will explain how to format a citation with an unknown author. Check your style guide's index to find instructions for "author, unknown" or similar phrases.

Depending on the material type:

  • Who published it? (primarily print materials)
  • Who produced it? (primarily cds/dvds/videos)

Other points to consider:

Does the work that you are citing appear within a larger work? Examples include journal articles, encyclopedia or dictionary entries and anthologies.

  • Depending on the exact type of material you may have to credit the author/creator/editor of the larger work as well.

Was the work originally created in another language?

  • The translator will need to be credited, as well as the original author/creator.