Library:How to Cite/Citation Elements

From UBC Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Citation Elements

Note that you will need to cite each source that you have used twice. First, in the text of your paper at the exact point where you have quoted or paraphrased some else’s work – otherwise known as an “in-text citation,” “footnote,” or “endnote,” depending on which style you are using. Then, you will have to type out your citation a second time at the end of your paper, in your list of “References,” “Works Cited,” or “Bibliography.”

Here are some examples of the most common citation styles that you will see.  Each of these styles has an official guide which provides more detailed instructions for:

  • Determining which elements you must cite,
  • Formatting your citations – both in the body of your paper, and in your bibliography/list of references, and
  • Adjusting your citation to reflect the various formats that your sources will come in.

If you need to cite something which is not covered here, check out the style guide that you are using for specific assistance, or contact the library for more help. Please note that we have provided links to all of the major style guides under the heading “Major Styles” below. You may also find further helpful hints in the other sections of this guide.

Elements of a citation: Print Book, MLA style.

Edited Book citation Chicago Style


Print Book, anthology with editor, APA Style

Edited Book citation APA Style


Article, single author, Chicago Style

Footnote citation Chicago Style
Bibliography citation Chicago Style