- 1 What is Open Teaching?
- 2 Spectrum of Openness in a Learning Environment
- 3 How to Engage in Open Teaching?
- 4 Consideration and Challenges
- 5 Additional Resources
What is Open Teaching?
Teaching in the open means that you are making some or all aspects of your learning environment available and accessible to the public. For some, this may mean the adoption of an open text or learning resource, or contributing open educational resources created by you and/or your students. For others, it may mean adopting a set of open practices - related to all aspects of the course including planning, learning, assessment and reflection on the process. As evidenced in the great work that faculty and students are engaged in at UBC, there is no one right way to "do open."
Open teaching may include:
- Use of an open textbook and open resources in a course (see the Guide to Finding OER and the Guide to Finding Open Textbooks for more information)
- Using student blogs as open portfolios where they can document, share experiences and get feedback on their work (or works in progress) from a wider audience than their course mates or instructors. Example: UBC Blogsquad.
- Opening a class discussion to the public via open course blog or via Twitter hashtag. Example: ArtsOne Open
- Students creating openly licensed learning resources and publishing them (via YouTube, Flickr, Google docs or other platforms). Example: Digital Tattoo Project
- A fully open course using open resources and engaging students from all over the world. Example: (UBCx)
In general, openness isn't a single expression and exists on a spectrum as shown below.
Spectrum of Openness in a Learning Environment
- Low touch vs. high touch: the concept of "touch" that we have articulated here refers to notions of interaction between and among participants in the course as well as interactions with "public" communities and individuals. This may also have an impact on the design effort related to the course. For example courses supporting interaction with various external communities and resources over a period of time (wikipedia editing; publishing on YouTube; etc) require a high touch approach to the design and also to the ongoing support of those interactions.
Adoption of an open copyright licensed (e.g. Creative Commons) resource is a good first step to engaging in open practice. Replacing a high cost textbook with an open textbook or other open resources (e.g. videos, simulations, etc.) reduces barriers for students to access course material needed for their success. In the UBC AMS 2018 Academic Experience Survey Report, 66% of students surveyed did not buy textbooks due to the cost. Adoption of an open resource supports all students achieve success by providing equal access to all resources available in the course regardless of their finances.
The following are examples of open resource adoption by faculty at UBC:
- Introduction to Physics (PHYS 100) adopted an Open Stax Textbook at UBC in 2015 saving $90,000 in textbook costs
- Math, CS lead in adopting open education resources at UBC
Adaption is the modification or alteration of an open copyright licensed resource for use within a course. Adaption provides the opportunity to improve teaching materials, provide important local context, and sharing knowledge to ensure sustainability and the ongoing health of open content. There are a variety of ways content can be adapted for course use - instructors adapt content and/or students adapt content for their own use. Including students in the adaption process encourages peer-to-peer learning, authentic learning opportunities, and digital and information literacy development.
The following are examples of open resource adaption by faculty at UBC:
Creating open resources
Many teaching materials can be openly licensed and made available for others to revise or reuse, such as syllabi, lecture notes, presentation slides, case studies, videos, podcasts, study questions, quizzes and more. Some faculty choose to create entire open textbooks. Of course, there may be some you don't want to share because you want to reuse them in future years yourself (e.g. exams). But you may be willing to share other materials. Even if you think other teachers or students might not find them valuable, even if you think they are very specifically tied to your course context, you might be surprised at how they could spark ideas in others to use in their own teaching.
To make your teaching materials open, you need to give them an open license; see here for how to do so.
For more on creating open educational resources, see the Guide to Creating OER .
The following are examples of open resources created by faculty at UBC:
One can also go a bit further into the realm of open teaching, beyond using open resources in courses. Many of these involve posting work publicly, but without an open license that allows others to revise and reuse it. Please see the licensing guide for instructors for more information on open licenses.
- One could post teaching materials such as syllabi and assignment instructions on a publicly viewable site, but without an open license.
- One could ask students to do course assignments on open platforms such as blogs (e.g. UBC Blogs) or wikis (e.g., UBC Wiki); these are publicly available but may not automatically have open licenses attached
- Students might post some of their coursework publicly, without an open license
- One could open up parts of a course to the public for discussion.
- For example, one might allow comments on student blog posts that are open to anyone to contribute to (they can also be moderated to avoid spam and other unwanted comments).
The following are examples of open assignments at UBC:
- Students in Geography at UBC are creating multiple kinds of educational resources that are posted on a public site, including case studies, infographics, videos and more: http://environment.geog.ubc.ca
- Students in Spanish 312 at UBC wrote several Wikipedia articles in a project called "Murder, Madness and Mayhem"
- Students in Food, Nutrition and Health at UBC wrote or edited Wikipedia articles on various foods
Defining open pedagogy is challenging. Some would say that open access and permissions for re-use are key: "Open pedagogy is that set of teaching and learning practices only possible in the context of the free access and 5R permissions characteristic of open educational resources." David Wiley: Defining Open Pedagogy
Others would offer a broader definition:
Looking at open pedagogy as a general philosophy of openness (and connection) in all elements of the pedagogical process, while messy, provides some interesting possibilities. Open is a purposeful path towards connection and community. Open pedagogy could be considered as a blend of strategies, technologies, and networked communities that make the process and products of education more transparent, understandable, and available to all the people involved. - Tom Woodward in an excerpt from an interview in Campus Technology
Tom Woodward highlights 3 features of open pedagogy:
- open planning: Prior to the start of a course built on open pedagogy there is a focus on collaboration regarding what the course might be — the content, the lessons, the tools of construction, and the teaching strategies...You can see what other instructors have done — their resources, their lessons, or their reflections on what happened during their course. As Tom points out, these processes are often hidden from public view. Making them open and accessible means that others can learn from them.
- open products: Students are publishing for an audience greater than their instructor. That matters. Their work, being open, has the potential to be used for something larger than the course itself and to be part of a larger global conversation. This changes the experience of doing the work, but just as importantly it changes the kind of work you ask students to do.
- open reflection: After the course, reflecting and documenting how the course went is valuable both to the instructor and to those who might be considering similar courses or pedagogical strategies. People are happy enough to present and document success but it's still not common practice to reflect on elements that don't work well. Documenting reflections on what worked and what didn't and making those public can lead to connections between people working to address the same challenges.
One could also consider a fourth feature:
- open process (of creating OER): If you or your students create open educational resources for a course, it's useful to share not just the finished resources but also the processes of creating them. Sharing the process can mean many things, e.g., talking about how you made a teaching resource such as a video or podcast (what tools, software, what steps you took, pitfalls you ran into), describing why you created the resource in the way you did (what goals you had, what research underlies the creation of this resource), explaining how you have used the resource in a class and whether it was successful.
The following are examples of open pedagogy in practice at UBC:
"Open practice" is a term that could actually cover any open teaching and learning activities, but we are using it here to designate teaching and learning activities that are further towards the "fully open" side of the spectrum. In this sense, open practice involves going beyond adopting a few open resources in one's courses or posting faculty or student work publicly.
Open practice may involve:
- Using all and only open resources in one's course, such as readings that are not only free to read, but also openly licensed to allow downloading, revision, annotating, etc.
- One's entire course site is public and openly licensed even if one doesn't post ALL aspects of a course publicly. Of course, things such as student marks should remain private, and one may also choose to not post exams so they can be reused later.
- Any student work or instructor teaching and learning resources that are posted to a public site are also given an open license.
- Openness extends to getting and incorporating feedback on the course and its open resources, whether instructor-produced or student-produced.
- Not only products are open (such as the course site, teaching and learning resources, student work), but also processes. For example, one shares the processes of designing a course, of how a video was created, of how well a particular open assignment worked, etc.
- One could open an entire course to participants from outside the institution (such as in a MOOC), still ensuring that the course elements are openly licensed
The following are examples of open practice at UBC:
- Paul Hibbitts planned a course on a public site and asked for feedback from social media as well as the students who had registered for the course. Slides from a presentation he did about this open course planning can be seen here.
How to Engage in Open Teaching?
One way to do so is to have a blog on teaching and learning. UBC provides faculty, staff and students with a free blog site on UBC Blogs. The FAQ on the UBC Blogs page has extensive information to help you get started, and information about drop-in support if you need it.
Teaching with open assignments
In the post What is Open Pedagogy?, David Wiley defines open pedagogy by way of example. He writes about how he blended principles for effective teaching and learning with open practice to create an assignment that has endured the test of time and resulted in some excellent student contributions to open educational resources (OERs).
The components of open teaching practice highlighted by Wiley's example include:
- Building trust with students - by way of being explicit about the goals and purpose of the open assignment and clear guidelines for what is to be developed.
- Authentic assignments - offer students the opportunity to create something to be immediately used by a real audience (in this case, students were creating a learning resource for peers in their classroom). Since students will be using their resource to teach others, they get immediate and practical feedback. This is in contrast to what Wiley calls "disposable assignments" which are created for the instructor, seen by no-one else, and often discarded at the end of term.
- Offer a clear description of the assignment and examples where possible - many students will be unfamiliar with the process of finding open resources to used in a project and remixing them to create something new - offering a detailed example is helpful.
- Provide scaffolds for learning - Divide the assignment into steps and offer opportunities for feedback after each step so that students are supported in building and improving their work.
- Invite students to license their work - with a Creative Commons license resources can be freely remixed and improved upon by others. Talk about the reason for licensing and offer options for students who choose not to publicly share what they create.
- Offer opportunities for students' work to be incorporated into the course - either as an example to work from or as a remix to build on and improve.
Renewable, not disposable assignments
Many assignments given in post secondary institutions are what David Wiley calls "disposable". Renewable assignments, on the other hand, add value to the world beyond earning a mark from an instructor--they provide resources that are useful and usable by others, whether other students in the course or the wider public. Examples could include students creating notes or demonstrations for other students in the same course (and possibly also posted publicly for others), students editing articles on Wikipedia or an institutional wiki site like the UBC Wiki, and students producing research that can be used by a community group. Even those assignments that might otherwise be "disposable" can be made renewable by sharing them with other students in a course and, if the student agrees, publicly.
In order for such work to be truly "renewable," though, it should be openly licensed to allow others to not only view it but also revise and reuse for their own purposes.
Consideration and Challenges
A concern that comes up for both students and instructors is privacy. Aspects of both learning and teaching be a private endeavour and teaching in the open requires making decisions about what elements, or course assignments can be completed in the open and what elements may require sharing only between student and teacher or students and their peers.
As with any change to an instructors practice, developing open assignments can take considerable time on the part of the instructor and in some cases students. To deal with this challenge, instructors can work with instructors who have taught using a similar approach or tool, work with faculty or central support units or with organizations such as Wikimedia that can support these projects
Tools and Technologies
Finding tools that can be used for open teaching can be challenging. There are privacy and FIPPA issues that require navigation. For a better understanding of these issues, see CTLT's Student Privacy and Consent Guidelines for Instructors.
At UBC we do have open services and frameworks, the UBC Wiki and the WordPress that can support open teaching and learning.
- Christina Hendricks, "Renewable Assignments: Student Work Adding Value to the World"
- David Wiley, "What is Open Pedagogy?"
- David Wiley, "An Obstacle to the Ubiquitous Adoption of OER in US Higher Education"
- Tom Woodward, Open Pedagogy: Connection, Community, and Transparency