Course:Hist105/Kenya

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' The Slave Trade in East Africa During the second half of the 18th century, France opened up larger sugar plantations on the islands of Reunion, Mauritius and in the Indian Ocean. African slaves were recruited from East Africa to go and work in those plantations. Africans were considered physically fit to work in harsh climatic conditions compared to the native red Indians and Europeans. This greatly increased the demand for the slaves. The increased demand for sugar and cotton in Europe led to their increase in price and therefore more labour was needed in the British colonies of West Indies and America. The existence and recognition of slavery in East Africa such as domestic and child slavery already existed therefore Africans were willing to exchange slaves for European goods. http://www.myelimu.com/thread-The-Slave-Trade-In-East-Africa

Contemporary exploitation End Child Prostitution in Kenya (ECPIK) reported that more than 50,000 children are forced to different forms of commercial child prostitution. The Kenyan Coast is the most problematic area know for vast amounts of sex tourists. Often children are forced to work in brothels to guarantee their survival. Some children are hoping to eventually meet a foreign rich man to save them. Children are even more vulnerable as they can earn up to 500$ (what a teacher makes in a month) a day. You can sign a petition on this website https://www.walkfree.org/help-end-sexual-exploitation-of-children-in-kenya/ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27427630

National Labour Law Articles 70 to 86 of the current Constitution deal with fundamental rights. The Constitution provides for principles, such as the prohibition of inhuman treatment and the protection from slavery and forced labour. Related to an employee’s freedom are also the protection of right to personal liberty, his or her freedom of movement (Art. 81), and the protection from discrimination. http://www.ilo.org/ifpdial/information-resources/national-labour-law-profiles/WCMS_158910/lang--en/index.htm

Opportunities to unionize and get information The website Africapay.org/Kenya let's workers organize by helping to find the right union. In general this website offers a lot of information about salary, labour laws and even career opportunities. Africapay.org is part of the WageIndicator Foundation. This is a great tool for workers to unite and and gain knowledge about their rights . http://www.africapay.org/kenya/home/labour-laws/legal-advice

JUSTEA This is information rather unrelated to the course but I started buying tea called JUSTEA which is fairly produced in Kenya. They have a very informative but compact website but the main point is that farmers sell their hand picked and processed directly to JUSTEA. Therefore, farmers wages are 2,5 times more compared to farmers who sell to big companies. Find out more: http://justea.com/

Women and African History Women have been neglected and marginalized in the standard texts of African history. Women used a variety of routes to exercise authority—through women’s organizations, as spiritual leaders, and sometimes as queen mothers, advising male rulers and serving as co-rulers or regents. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199846733/obo-9780199846733-0005.xml

A movement for peace - Mercy Corps, Kenya, March 1, 2013 Five year before 2013 presidential elections in Kenya triggered many violent incidents. Mostly youths were paid by politicians to start riots and so young people turned against each other. The grass-roots non-governmental organization Mercy Corps ever since tried to stand up for peace. The Mercy Corps Yes Youth Can program has been of great value to young people in Kenya, building peace, giving young people support to start up community projects and raise their standard of living. http://www.mercycorps.org/articles/kenya/movement-for-peace

Kenyan Struggle for Independence Successful large-scale farming depended to a great degree upon an adequate labor force, namely Africans. They, however, did not see any advantage or gain in working for the European's. In response, the colonial authorities introduced hut taxes and other laws that forced the Africans into low-paying wage employment. This marked the introduction of a cash economy into a land dominated by the barter system. http://www.glpinc.org/Classroom%20Activities/Kenya%20Articles/Struggle%20for%20Independence.htm

Kenya's role in the Apartheid in South Africa Kenya was extremely dependent on the European colonists in mostly trade. Kenya did not use any pressure on the South African regime because of his relations to the Western world. It is suggested that Kenya heavily relied on European partners for trade. An other way of interpreting Kenya's behaviour is to claim that Kenya's principle of ‘non-interference’ which limited Kenya from interfering more in South Africa’s liberation movement. http://africanhistory.about.com/od/kenya/p/KenyaHist.htm

Resistance to Colanialism The British Government founded the East African Protectorate in 1895 and soon after, opened the fertile highlands to white settlers. Even before it was officially declared a British colony in 1920, these settlers were allowed a voice in government, while the Africans and the Asians were banned from direct political participation until 1944. Thousands of Indians were brought into Kenya to work on building the Kenya Uganda Railway Line and subsequently settled there. In 1942, members of the Kikuyu, Embu, Meru and Kamba tribes took an oath of unity and secrecy to fight for freedom from British rule. http://www.kenyarep-jp.com/kenya/history_e.html

Mau Mau Britain, after the Second World War, had begun the difficult and lengthy process of decolonization. Many British people had settled in Kenya permanently so a conflict of power and interests emerged. In the late 1940s, the Kikuyu (Black Africans) founded a guerrilla organization called Mau Mau. By 1952 they become more visible. Their targets were not only Whites but fellow Kikuyu and Africans whom they suspected of collaborating with the British. Therefore, the Mau Mau alienated the support of many of their countrymen. There approach was extremely violent including murder. They were defeated by the British government by 1960 but nevertheless, reforms in favour of the African population were passed and in 1963 Kenya gained independence. http://www.historyinanhour.com/2012/10/06/the-mau-mau-uprising-summary/

Kenya’s abolition of school fees offers lessons for rest of Africa Kenya joined the league of countries in eastern and southern Africa that had abolished school fees. In a matter of weeks, 1.3 million new pupils poured into the country’s schools, overwhelming school infrastructure and surprising ill-prepared teachers. Schools in urban slum areas found it especially difficult to cope with the large numbers . The government immediately disbursed $6.8 million in emergency grants to provide for basic needs like chalk, dusters and exercise books. This amounted to $380 per school, hardly enough to cover the overwhelming needs for extra textbooks, classrooms, and water and sanitation facilities. http://www.unicef.org/education/kenya_33391.html

Kenyan sexual offences act An Act of Parliament to make provision about sexual offences, their definition, prevention and the protection of all persons from harm from unlawful sexual acts, and for connected purposes. This doccument was created in 2006. http://www.chr.up.ac.za/undp/domestic/docs/legislation_40.pdf

Kenyan ethnic minorities Kenya is a country of great ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious diversity. Ethnic/national minorities, such as the Nubians and Somalis, are not recognized as such by the Kenyan government and have problems accessing citizenship documents. In recent years political conflict on ethnic lines has increased dramatically, exacerbated by the combination of divisive politicians and economic decline. Nevertheless, ethnic categorizations are complex and sometimes overlapping. Such linguistic minorities as the Terik, Sengwer and Suba are challenged by the near- extinction of their languages. Agriculturalists and pastoralists often have competing claims to land, and nomadic pastoralists are in ceaseless conflict with the authorities, most of whom come from farming tribes. Although the relationship has generally been one of tolerance, divisions between Christians and Muslims are of growing significance.http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce2a30.html

Green Belt Movement (GBM) "When we plant trees, we plant the seeds of peace and hope." The Green Belt Movement (GBM) is an environmental organization that empowers communities, particularly women, to conserve the environment and improve livelihoods. GBM was founded by Professor Wangari Maathai in 1977 under the auspices of the National Council of Women of Kenya (NCWK) to respond to the needs of rural Kenyan women who reported that their streams were drying up, their food supply was less secure, and they had to walk further and further to get firewood for fuel and fencing. GBM encouraged the women to work together to grow seedlings and plant trees to bind the soil, store rainwater, provide food and firewood, and receive a small monetary token for their work. http://www.greenbeltmovement.org/

Democratic Party of Kenya This party strives to create a democratic government that works towards social and economic welfare. As well as ensure that all citizens have equal opprotunities. They take less radical approaches to things and extensively debate on issues before acting out upon them. They work towards nurturing and sustaining the country so that the land can provide for as many Kneyan's as possible. http://www.democraticpartyofkenya.co.ke