|Important Course Pages|
Slavery In Greece
Slavery in Greece dates all the way back in the Mycenaean Ages known as the "Bronze Age" in 1600-1100BCE. Slaves were often recruited for agriculture work, which was the premise of the economy in Greece. A fair amount of slaves were used for craftsmenship and tradesmenship, while female slaves performed domestic tasks such as chores, cooking, baking, and sewing. Athenian slaves faced the most brutality as they were "the property of their master" and they could be traded, bought, or killed' by the master. The Spartan slave system was more like a serfdom system unlike the Athenian Slavery System. The conditions of slaves depended on their status; as private slaves such as the mine and brothel slaves faced brutal working condition unlike public slaves whom worked as craftsmen and tradesmen, they were given a relative amount of independence if they paid a fee to their master. Historians stated "slavery was an inevitable consequence of war" while philosophers described the idea of slavery as "natural."
Ioannis Kapodistrias first stepped foot onto Greece mainland in 1827 after touring around Europe to rally support for Greece. He got to Greece in the middle of two civil wars against the Ottomans which left the country bankrupt. Kapodistrias called for reform by reorganizing military unity which ultimately defeated the Ottomans and reclaimed its territory that the Ottomans took during the war. He also introduced a ass quarantine system which brought down major epidemics such as "typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery." He also negotiated with the Ottoman Empire and Great Powers to end the war of Independence by signing a peace treaty. In order to raise living standards and help boost the economy, he also introduced the "cultivation of potato" into Greece.
Feminism in Greece
In 1952, women earned the right to vote, but it did not change nor tilt the equality scale between men and women. In addition, the New Family Law was passes as both spouses are able to make conclusions and decisions about family matters and issues as there should be "mutual responsibility in marriage and family household. Regardless of these motions passes, greek women's restrictions range from "cultural and political to religious limitations." Greece has been known as the "birthplace of democracy" but letting women enter politics has been a very slow process.
The Greek Revolution, also known as the Greek War of Independence, occurred in 1821-1829, as the Greeks fought for their independence from the Ottoman Empire. After 8 bloody years of struggle, the Treaty of Constantinople was written up in July of 1832. Thousands were killed and independence heroes lives such as Laskarina Boubouline and Odysseas Androutsos were assassinated during the war. FInally, near the end of war, Ioannis Kapodistrias was elected the head of state of independent Greece.
Sexual Revolutions/ Gay Rights/LGBT Movement
Same sex activity are legal in Greece but "gays, lesbians, and trasngenders may face legal and social challenges" as it is legal but not socially acceptable. It states that same sex couples do not have the same legal protections as opposite sex couples. In 2005, anti-gay discrimination laws were prohibited in the workplace to provide protection. Public affection between same sex couples are frowned upon and especially lesbians whom are also not recognized in the Greek criminal code. As religion is a major part of Greek life, the orthodox churches threatened to "excommunicate any MPs who should vote for it." Although same sex couples are recognized, it is still not socially acceptable for Greek life despite the gay pride parades in Athens.
Golden Dawn is a neo-nazi far right political party in Greece, led by Nikolaos Michaloliakos. This political party emulates the figure of Adolf Hitler and is reportedly racist and xenophobic. In its movements, it is expressed that they want Greece to return to a "right-wing military dictatorship." Golden Dawn uses acts of violence and hate crimes towards LGBTs/gays, immigrants, and political opponents. In 2000, they vandalized the Monastirioton synagogue (memorial/cementary for Holocaust victims). This party has assaulted, attacked, and even attempted murder on the people of their country since their political party rose. This organization is still active in Greece today as it is gaining power in government through terrorizing greek citizens.
Environmentalism in Greece
Since 2007, Greece has hit an all time low in its unemployment rates. Due to low unemployment rates, greek air pollution levels have decreased by 40 percent due to the recession and to less people using their cars. Nevertheless, smog has increased as "it is poverty that drives environmental damage." The smog is destructive to the atmosphere and even the forests. As Greece becomes poorer (which is currently an ongoing issue), its environment suffers more due to the smog.