Course:Hist105/China

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Information on social movements in China


In the 1850's the Chinese arrived in Cuba to work in the Sugarcane fields. Due to the diminishing number of black slaves due to England's abolition in 1833. Many arrived after signing 8 year contracts not knowing the conditions they were about to work under. http://chineseculture.about.com/od/thechinesediaspora/a/ChineseinCuba.htm - Matt McPhedrian

After the British began the abolishment of slavery many other countries followed in their footsteps. Due to the new rules against slavery people began to look into new ways for their work to get done. This led to a large demand for Chinese farmers who worked for cheap and under poor conditions just like the slaves would have done. Eventually in the 1860s these Chinese workers were forced to work under the dangerous conditions of the building of the central pacific railroad. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_China


There was a civil war in China between Mao Zedong and Chian Kai Shek. China Kai Shek lost and fled to current Taiwan. Democracy was introduced in Taiwan in 1980s and since then, Democratic Progressive Party started a clear aim for independence from China. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/asia_pac/04/taiwan_flashpoint/html/independence_debate.stm


Speaking of The slavery in ancient China started, since there was no records to tell us when the slavery society started exactly, and Xia is the dynasty which is believed to be the first dynasty to use bronze tools in the history of China. https://slaveryinjustice.wordpress.com/slavery-in-ancient-china/

All-China Women’s Federation was one of the first groups that advocated for women's equality. The Federation was formed in 1949.. http://www.britannica.com/topic/All-China-Womens-Federation - Matt McPhedrian

The president of China and Taiwan met in Singapore to discuss the relationship of the two nations. In this historic meeting, China indirectly stated that Taiwan should be part of China, but Taiwan claimed that their democracy should be maintained and respect each nations' values. http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/11/07/china-taiwan-idUSL3N1316GJ20151107#cHjkhpA35AIbBcvy.97

Kevin is a guy who strongly believes that he is Taiwanese, but due to how his parents grew up, they still believe that they are Chinese. Even among families, how they identify themselves differ depending on where they are educated. Therefore, Kevin, joined Sunflower movement, which took over the parliament to speak against an unfair trade agreement with China. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-32157210

Tibet has been claiming for independence from China, but Chinese government responds by enforcing violent suppression. Tibet was originally an independent state until 1950, when the Chinese troops invaded the country and incorporated into China. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16689779

Since Mao came to power in China, he sent troops to occupy Tibet. However, as Tibetan exile grew in the west, non-Tibetan supporters increased, which helped their movement. The document claims some success the movement had, for instance, securing release of political prisoners and stopping International Financial Institution to collaborate with China. https://www.studentsforafreetibet.org/Plone/about-tibet/tibet-movements-history

The website shows the brutality of the Chinese government, and how they tried to exploit Tibet and torture people. For instance, as a result of brutal occupation about 1 million people died and the country is wiped off the map. http://www.freetibet.org/about

This organization advocates for independence of Tibet by using nonviolent method, such as marching. http://www.rangzen.org/rangzen-splash/

The Tibetan exiles have long been working for independence support abroad, but due to expansion of the Chinese economy, the movement lost some international support. Therefore, the formal independence should be initiated led by Dalai Lama. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/22/world/asia/22tibet.html?ref=asia

All-China Federation of Trade Unions is officially founded on 1 May 1925, as the labour movement had grown enormously, particularly in the three industrial and commercial centres. Though experiencing dissolving, it successfully became the largest trade union in the world with 134 million members in 1,713,000 primary trade union organizations later on. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All-China_Federation_of_Trade_Unions

Although woman's rights in China continues to be an issue today improvements in the past have been made. The start of the Peoples Republic of China was one of the first groups to recognize gender equality in China. Specifically during the Cultural Revolution, The Peoples Republic of China took interest in women's health which led to woman in the workforce being provided health care. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_China


Although this is very modern and occurred in 2015. Women's activists in China planned a protest over sexual harassment are being criminally detained. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-03-12/womens-rights-activists-arrested-china/6310194 - Matt M

In 2010 workers at Honda auto parts went on strike for the right to form their own union which was not allowed in China. The workers main goal was to have their wages increased. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/11/business/global/11strike.html?_r=0

As tourist from mainland China to Taiwan increase, people in Taiwan do not feel good about it as it accelerates economic dependence to China. Especially among young Taiwanese more about 90 percent of population would identify themselves as Taiwanese instead of Chinese. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jnylander/2015/02/14/strong-support-for-independence-in-taiwan/

Even though Hong Kong and Taiwan is considered to be part of china, number of people identifying themselves as Chinese decreased massively over time. Because not many people there think they are Chinese, Beijing now realized that this is not what they wish to happen. However, they struggle to win the hearts from them. https://www.aei.org/publication/chinese-check-forging-new-identities-hong-kong-taiwan/

Cheap labour has always been controversal in China. In 2014, 30,000 Chinese factory workers stood up for 'exploitation', striking against maker of nike sneakers, allegeing the company has failed to adequately fund social security pensions and contribute to housing funds.http://therealnews.com/t2/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=74&jumival=11777

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in Gandhian philosophy and values among Chinese citizens. And what the scholar Shang focused on in this interview is his ongoing research on Gandhi studies in China today and the relevance of Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence, social harmony, and environmental protection to today’s China. http://www.indiawrites.org/china-connect/relevance-gandhi-china-today/

People in China began to support Gandhi and his idea of non-violence and they even referred to him as "the founder of modern India." Many Chinese joined Gandhi's original peaceful protest in 1906 which involved the new laws of property and identity cards among Asians. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-25942584

China had originally supported Nelson Mandela and his movement in South Africa in the 1950s, however, Chinas rivalry with Taiwan got in the way of their relationship with South Africa. Mandela's plan was to create a relationship with China without ruining its relationship with Taiwan but China would not agree to that. http://www.economist.com/blogs/analects/2013/12/nelson-mandela-and-china

In the last couple of year's there has been a gray zone in defending human rights case,by case. It appears the government has put an end to this and began making arrests. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/narrowing-a-tiny-civil-rights-gray-zone-in-china/2015/07/15/e4aad038-2a4c-11e5-bd33-395c05608059_story.html

Mandela was the first South African president to visit China. Chinese media and internet users hail Mandela's diplomatic contribution. Here is the first video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLgvr79bBC0

Ethnic issues in China has always been complex and basically arise from the influences of Chinese history, Chinese nationalism, and many other factors. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_issues_in_China Also, the human rights in China has long been controversial around the world for a long time. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_China

In 1978 China introduced the one-child policy in hopes to control the population from over expansion. During this time free contraception at family planning offices was available to woman, however this policy was accused of violating human rights. It violated human rights by taking away a woman's right to choose how big their families would be and it forced woman to abort all pregnancy's if they already had one child. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-child_policy

This article claims that China's Sexual Revolution Has Reached The Point Of No Return, which made me interpret the idea of the first and the second feminism more deeply.http://www.businessinsider.com/the-incredible-story-of-chinas-sexual-revolution-2012-8

This document briefly introduces the facts about the indigenous people in China, which is also konwn as the Chinese minorities. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce5b23.html

The Han are a Native group in China whose name originates from the Han Dynasty. Aside from occupying a significant part of Asia they are also the largest ethnic group in the world. This group of native people exerts a strong influence on the culture in China. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Han_Chinese

Protesters in China successfully stopped the building of a new uranium processing facility. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2013/07/15/china-evironment-protest/2518221/

This article gives us a hint about the social impacts of climate change in ancient China, indicating the relationship between environment and the social core value back then.http://www.iflscience.com/environment/ancient-chinese-cave-writing-describes-social-impacts-climate-change

http://www.thenational.ae/arts-lifestyle/the-review/the-long-read-once-a-united-fortress-chinas-centre-is-crumbling-under-pressures-of-diversity

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YeFzeNAHEhU This video from CNN back in 1989 at Tiananmen square gives us a closer look of the "famous" tank man who stopped the tank in the middle of the streets.

Uighur or xinjiang is located in the western China, which they currently face problems with Beijing. The inhabitants are mainly Muslim and they do not share the same history as China http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-26414014

Recently, China has launched its own "war on terror" to fend off ongoing threats in Uighur or Xinjiang where they are originally independent. There was a movement called "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement", but it did not turn out to be successful. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/asia/2002-07-01/chinas-war-terror-september-11-and-uighur-separatism

The East Turkestan Islamic Movement is the separatist movement founded by the militant Uighur who always sought to achieve independence from China. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179