Course:Hist105/Chile

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Chile

Week 1: ???

The first day of school in Chile is March 1st, or the first Monday after March 1st if it falls on a Friday Saturday or Sunday. Introductory weeks are given in Chile similar to the first week of classes in North American universities.

Week 2: Independence for Democracy

September 18th, 1810 Chile declares its independence from Spain. Mismanagement resulting in death of civilians by a spanish government sparked anger and need for change in 1808. France conquered Spain and colonists did not want to send taxes to France. Following the trend on 'breaking off' from colonial rule in Latin America at the time, Chileans fought Spaniards for ten years until they were able to self govern. The new government had four main goals: a congress, trade, contact with newly independent Argentina and to form an Army. The Fiestas Patrias (National Parties) are celebrated yearly on the week of the 18th of September.

Week 3: Slavery

In 2011, new legislature acknowledges existence of human trafficking in Chile. Recently Chile has become a hub for human trafficking, although most taken people remain within the country. http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/02/modern-slavery-rears-its-ugly-head-in-chile/

In 1811 Chile's first national convention declares Freedom of Wombs, which set free children of slaves. It also recognized as free men or women those passing through the country for six months or more and abolished the slave trade. In 1823 Chile outright abolishes slavery. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abolition_of_slavery_timeline

Week 4: Labour Movements

Chileans have the right to form and maintain labor unions. 10% of the labour force is unionized currently. In early 2015 construction workers and miners went on strike to ensure that labor legislation was working in the interest of the workers. The movement was for the creation of a minimum wage tied to Chile's Consumer Price Index and to sanction unions that acted without the consent of its members and employers. http://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Chilean-Unions-Launch-Nationwide-Strike--20150421-0018.html

Week 5: Working Class Heroes
In 1907 Tarifs on Argentinian beef were passed by the Chilean congress. Meat prices had dropped due to new infrastructure allowing the cattle to pass more easily over the Andes mountain range, however staple food prices were on the rise. Large, destructive riots broke out in the capital city, Santiago. A group of working class people 12,000 strong stormed La Moneda (the presidents office) and were disappointed to find his absence. A small group of protestors went to the presidents home to petition against the tariff but the majority thought that the president had fled. This led to rioting and looting. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meat_riots

Week 6: Satyagraha, Revolution and the Indian Independence Movement(s),
Around 1983 various groups like the Alianza Democratica, SERPAJ and the National Accord for Full Transition to Democracy trained many in non-violent tactics to end the regime of Pinochet. They claim to be inspired by the Gandhi and Poland's solidarity movement in their tactics. A host of non-violent tactics such as singing, marching, banging on things at specific times of day, boycotts, small strikes (for fear of violence), mine slowdowns and even a literal slowdown, day where the entire country walked at half speed in protest. Eventually the majority, the people of Chile, were able to prove themselves more in power then Pinochet's regime. https://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/index.php/movements-and-campaigns/movements-and-campaigns-summaries?sobi2Task=sobi2Details&sobi2Id=25

Week Seven: Freedom Struggles in South Africa
The president of Chile, Michelle Bachalet, gave the 12th annual Nelson Mandella Lecture in 2014. Here she announced scholarships for students from South Africa to continue their education at Chilean Universities. https://www.nelsonmandela.org/news/entry/president-michelle-bachelet-of-chile-to-present-12th-nelson-mandela-annual

Week Eight: The Civil Rights Movement
The Mapuche people, the main group of indigenous people in Chile, gained state proclaimed rights in 1993. They overcame societal discrimination and a lower class living and are considered by law as Chileans. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_in_Chile

Week Nine: Sexual Revolutions
Homosexual sexual activity is legal, as well as all legal rights couples have in households minus the title of marriage. In the past ten years legislation granting rights and publicly funded health benefits to LGBT Chileans has come about. Almost everyone is pretty happy about this." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT_rights_in_Chile

Week Ten: Indigenous Peoples
4.6 percent of Chileans identify themselves as belonging to one of nine indigenous groups recognized by the chilean government. They have a long history of marginalization, discrimination and poverty. In 2008 a law was changed that guaranteed long sought after rights of consultation, property and self determination. http://indigenousnews.org/indigenous-peoples/chile/

Week Eleven: The Environment
Chile passes the first carbon tax in South America. 20 percent of energy used in the country is planned to be clean by 2025. Chile is the most environmentally forward thinking country in South America, and is still developing, pointing to the possibility of development without envirnmental exploitation. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/30/business/international/climate-change-concerns-push-chile-to-forefront-of-carbon-tax-movement.html

Week Twelve: Democracy Redux
Chile faced many problems with its own democracy, especially with the Pinochet regime. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/chile/1989-12-01/chiles-return-democracy During this regime, a Chilean Diplomat to Chile provided a eyewitness account of the events at Tiananmen Square refuting the massacre. The dilomat is quoted in a cable to the State Department of the USA from the embassy in China. http://www.workers.org/2011/world/tiananmen_0707/

Week Thirteen: The 99 Percent
Protests for equality in education to be mandated by law started in 2011. Goals were for free and equal higher education, and centralized school regulation for grades Preschool to 12. Universities were occupied and protests of up to one million people were held. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011%E2%80%9313_Chilean_student_protests