Course:FRST370/Projects/Bikes, Bears and Beauty: Community Trail Maintenance in Fernie, British Columbia, Canada

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Image 1: View from Montane trail area

Bikes, Bears and Beauty: Community Trail Maintenance in Fernie, British Columbia, Canada

At the base of the Montane land boundary, a map outlines the trails and their level of difficulty. Beginning the ascent up the ‘Montane Blue’, riders bask in the silence and peace of the forest. The quiet is broken by the chorus of ‘hoots and hollers’ from bikers above letting everyone know that they are on their way down. The callout is a mixture of joy and adrenaline, adding to the sense of camaraderie present within the trail network. Biking on upwards, the well-maintained trail passes by a housing development, then on through a forest of new growth, signifying the economic importance of the area to various industries. Beyond the trees lays an open meadow, serving as a window to admire the Elk Valley and the Rocky Mountains that surround it.

'Montane Blue’ is one of 100 trails within the Fernie trail network. The trail system is one of the main reasons why Fernie is commonly referred to as “outdoor recreational mecca” (Knowles, 2014 n.p).[1]


Image 2: Map of British Columbia. Red dot indicates Fernie location.

Located in the Elk Valley of the East Kootenay Region of British Columbia, the Fernie trail network includes over 100 trails in the area surrounding the Resort Municipality of Fernie.[2] Built and managed almost entirely by volunteers, the trails are free and for non-motorized use only, a condition formalized through land-use agreements with Crown and private land owners. The Fernie Trail Alliance Association (FTA) secures land use agreements on behalf of “Fernie area recreation clubs whose objectives are to legitimize and maintain public access to a non-motorized trail infrastructure" (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2012, p 2).[3]This case study will examine the network’s systems of organization - from building new trails to the creation of land use agreements. The history of the network will be explored, and its various stakeholders presented, to demonstrate key factors in its success.


History of Fernie

The Elk Valley area is included in the Ktunaxa Nation’s 70,000 square kilometers traditional territory, which covers “the Kootenay region of south-eastern British Columbia” (Ktunaxa, 2018, n.p).[4] The Ktunaxa Nation, which is comprised of four member bands, have occupied the area for over 10,000 years with European settlement starting in the late 1800s[4]. Currently, the Ktunaxa Kinbasket Treaty council is in stage 4 of treaty negotiations, and have an ‘agreement in Principle’ with Canada and BC.[5] It is unclear how this treaty will impact land-use agreements within the Fernie area. 

Fernie owes its existence to the establishment of coal mining and forestry operations in the area. The Canadian Pacific Railway began traveling through the Elk Valley in 1898, allowing for coal mines to begin operation and a informal settlement began to take shape.[6] The settlement was named 'Fernie' in honour of William Fernie, who was one of the "driving forces behind the coal mines" (Tourism Fernie, n.d, n.p).[2]  In 1904, Fernie became incorporated as a municipality. Forestry quickly emerged as the second industry in the area due to the prime “dense forests in the area, made up of fir, pine, spruce, and cedar” (City of Fernie, n.d, n.p). [7]

Fernie’s economy remained dependent on mining and resource extraction until the opening of the Snow Valley Ski Resort in 1963.[8] In 1997, the Resorts of the Canadian Rockies (RCR), a private ski hill owner and operator bought Snow Valley.[8]The purchase of Snow Valley helped diversify Fernie’s economy by adding tourism and tourism-related development. In 2009, Fernie became designated as a resort municipality. This qualification came with certain perks and responsibilities, including the Resort Municipality Initiative (RMI), which provides “incentive-based funding designed to support tourism-related infrastructure and amenity development” (P.W Williams et al., 2016, p. 101).[8] However, tourism has not replaced Fernie’s original industries. Forestry and mining both remain an integral part of the area, providing many jobs and business opportunities in the area.[6] In fact, with five coal mines operating in the area, the Elk Valley is the largest coalfield broader in BC.[9]

Fernie’s permanent population now is over 5000 people, though during the winter season, the population is said to double due to seasonal workers and tourism.[10]

Image 3: 2017 Fernie Trail Map

History of the Trail Network

Mountain biking became popular throughout the 1980s and 1990s, resulting in informal trail networks popping up throughout the Canadian Rockies.[11] Many communities in the Rockies established relationships with local mountain bike communities and the BC Forest Service to help control and monitor trail growth. However, Fernie had “seemingly uncontrolled growth of mountain biking” and many of the trails were created without the proper permissions from land owners (Mosedale, 2001, p. 71).[11] Trail degradation was one of the frequent resulting issues. ATVs and other motorized vehicles also often used the trails causing even further damage to the trails.[11]

Mount Fernie Provincial Park was no exception to illegal trail building. The park saw at least 12 illegal trails being regularly used by riders.[11] As a solution, in the early 2000s Mount Fernie Provincial Park signed its first stewardship agreement with the Elk Valley Ski Touring Club (now the Fernie Trails and Ski Touring Club), which formalized existing trails in the area and outlined a maintenance procedure.[12]

 In 1990, Fernie Mountain Bike Club (FMBC) was also created to maintain and monitor the trails.[11] Later in the 1990s, FMBC worked with Crestbrook Forest Industries, a forest products company who, at the time owned a huge portion of land in the area surrounding Fernie. Crestbrook and the FMBC worked together to regulate trails and to “advise trail builders on potential harvesting areas and to re-establish trails after harvesting operations” (Mosedale, 2001, p. 74).[11] Allowing public access to their lands helped Crestbrook fulfill the requirement for their voluntary environmental management certification system.[11]

  In 1996, Fernie Alpine Resort followed suit and opened mountain bike operations for the summer season. They too had also been experiencing unsanctioned trail construction.[11] Overall, creating a monitoring system and legitimizing the trail network was a solution to the problems caused by trail building.

 The establishment of the Fernie Trail Alliance (FTA) in 2008 was the next step in legitimizing the trail system. It was created to serve as the governing body for recreational clubs in the Fernie area  “whose objectives [were] to legitimize and maintain public access to a non-motorized trail infrastructure” (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2012, n.p).[13]

Regional, Provincial and Federal context

The City of Fernie recognizes the importance of the trail network at a local and regional level. In 2015, they funded the Fernie Trails Alliance Master Plan. The plan provides a strategy for the ongoing development of trails in the Great Fernie Area for the next 10-15 years” (Langhorst, 2015, p. 1).[14] In the document, the trail network was defined as 574 square kilometer of “urban, semi-rural, rural and backcountry lands” (Langhorst, 2015, p. 1).[14]

            Recreational trail development is also important to the provincial government. The ‘Recreation Trails Strategy for British Columbia’, created in 2008 by the Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural resources, in collaboration with BC Parks and the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure, aims to produce a world-class sustainable trail network within BC.

            Even beyond the province of BC there is a shared understanding about the benefits of trails. In 2017, the ‘Trans Canada Trail’ was completed. This trail is 24,000 km long and stretches from the west coast of Canada to the east coast.[15] 130 km of the trail runs through the Elk Valley area, linking the various communities within it. This portion of the trail is referred to as the Elk Valley Trail.[15] Provinces are responsible to implement their portion of the trail, as it falls under their jurisdiction.

Tenure arrangements

Image 4: Example of private property signage posted on trails

The Fernie Trails Alliance operates on a land-use agreement system with private land owners and crown land in the Fernie area. The agreements, which last 5 years, renew automatically for another 5 years unless notice is given by either party (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2012).[13] A signed agreement means that the land owner has granted the FTA “a right to use and maintain the list of trails” outlined in their specific agreements (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2012, p. 3).[13]Therefore, the agreement pertains to access, not ownership and does not give any exclusionary title to the FTA.

Key components from the standard land agreement include:

  • “The Agreement does not grant anything else besides the Trails nor does it grant the exclusive use or occupancy of the Trails” (p. 1)
  • “Nothing constitutes the Trails Alliance as the agent, joint venture, or partner” (p. 1)
  • The Trails Alliance does not have any power or authority “to bind the Land Owner in any way (p. 2)
  • The “land owner may close all or part of the trail(s) on the Lands at any time by notifying the Trails Alliance” (p. 4)
  • In order to build new trails, a trail development plan must be given to the land owner and approved prior to beginning

Source: Fernie Trails Alliance, 2012[13]

When the Fernie Trails Master Plan was publication in 2015, the FTA held land use agreements with Tembec, Mount Fernie Provincial Park, East Kootenay Land Corporation, Shoesmith Enterprises, Island Lake Resort and Crown lands (Langhorst, 2015).[9]  The 2017 Fernie Trail Map (image 3) shows the trail network crossing over six different land boundaries. The table below describes those boundaries.

Institution Management Tenure Designation
Mt. Fernie Provincial Park Managed by BC Parks, under the jurisdiction of the BC Ministry

of Environment      

Crown land Provincial Park
Island Lake Lodge Parent company: Island Lake Holdings Ltd.  Private ownership backcountry catskiing operator     
Ridgemont Holdings Ltd. Parent company: Pollyco Group of Companies Private ownership Real estate and land development     
CanWel N/A Unclear if land involved in land-use agreement

is in the boundary of their private timberlands or one of their strategic crown licenses 

logging and wood-treatment services. Building materials distributor 
Montane Fernie Parent company: Parastone Developments Private ownership real estate development and construction company    

Details on two recent land sales are included below to highlight the strategic importance of the area surrounding Fernie to various industries.

A) In 2007, Tembec Inc., a forest products company, sold 345 hectares of land for $16 million to Ridgemont Holdings Ltd. (Pulp and Paper Canada, 2018).[16] The parent company of Ridgemont holdings is Pollyco Group of Companies, a real estate investment and land development company based out of Vancouver (Vlasic, 2018).[17] The sale appears to be of free-hold property, and not a forestry license.

B) In 2016, CanWel Building Materials Group Ltd purchased JemiFibre Corp, a forest products company. This meant the translations of “136,000 acres of private timberlands, strategic crown licenses and tenures, log harvesting and trucking operations” as well as other processing facilities (Market Wired, 2016, n.p).[18] Reports indicated “the majority of these timberlands are located in the Elk Valley” surrounding Fernie  (Market Wired, 2016, n.p).[18]

Administrative arrangements

Fernie Trails Alliance Overview

Since becoming a registered society in 2008, the FTA has continued its mission to “maintain responsible non-motorized trail access on Crown lands and private lands in the Fernie area” on behalf of its four member clubs and individual members (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2012, n.p).[3] The principles of the network are: integrity, safety, environmental responsibility and a “respectful and collaborative approach to diverse land issues” (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2012, n.p).[3] The four member clubs are the Fernie Mountain Bike Club, the Fernie Trails and Ski Touring Club, the Fernie Nordic Society and Island Lake Lodge. No data is available on the number of FTA members and their demographics.

The FTA is governed by a board of directors elected each year at the annual general meeting held in the autumn. The FTA manager is the only paid employee.[9] Duties of the FTA are divided up into committees, which include specific trail building projects, fundraising, trail maintenance and construction, trail signage and infrastructure inventory.[19]

Two of the main goals of the network are:

A) Establish a first class trail network

B) Secure land use agreements


Membership in one of the FTA clubs automatically translates into FTA membership, as these clubs donate part of their revenues back to the FTA. According to Fernie Mountain Bike Club’s year end video, they donated $34, 934 dollars to the FTA in 2018.[20]

The FTA has a yearly membership fee of $25 for an individual and $200 for a corporation. Membership is seen as a way to contribute to the trail system and work towards a collective goal. The fees are advertised in a creative manner, as translating “directly into meters of trail maintained” (Fernie Trails Alliance, n.d, n.p).[19] Increasing membership numbers also helps the FTA demonstrate “public support when applying for grant applications” (Fernie Trails Alliance, n.d).[19]

There is currently discussion within the FTA about creating a trail access fee for spring/summer season targeted specially at tourists (F. de Lotbiniere-Bassett, personal communication, November 2, 2018).[21] How this system would be implemented and monitored is not yet clear.


Image 5: Example of trail signage found in the network

            Workers employed by the city maintain trails falling within Fernie city boundaries. The rest of the network is almost entirely maintained by FTA volunteers.[14] In 2017, The FTA recorded over 4,446 volunteer hours.[19] This number alone showcases the strength and dedication of the volunteers involved in the system.

            Weekly trail maintenance sessions, known informally as ‘Work Parties’, occur during the spring and summer months on Thursday evenings at 6pm. Volunteers meet at the local aquatic center and carpool to work on a pre assigned trail indicated by a member of the trail maintenance and construction committee.[19] A reminder is posted on the Fernie Trails Alliances Facebook page as well as a follow up post with photos and a description of the work done. A routine maintenance system seems to play a key component in its success. The sessions also seem to be fun and serve as a space to engage with fellow outdoor enthusiasts.

Trail Construction

 Rather than develop a new set of standards, the FTA follows the ‘Whistler Standard’ for trail management and the International Mountain Bike Association (IMBA) protocols.[3]

 The Whistler Standard was a document developed by the Municipality of Whistler that details the “standard by which trails will be managed in the whistler valley” (Deboer, 2003, p. 3).[22] Trails are not simply built. They have a planning process and require an intricate understanding of the landscape. The Whistler Standard includes a land use compatibility matrix to aid in the process of determining what type of trail and maintenance “is appropriate to the setting” (Deboer, 2003, p. 3).[22] The Whistler Standard also includes ‘trail type plans’. For example, a “Type III trail involves an un-surfaced single-track trail, have a 50-70 cm thread width on native soil” (Deboer, 2003, p. 6).[22] The trails are then categorized according to their difficulty, similarly to ski hill runs, with levels of difficulty ranging from Novice to Expert. These categorizes are known more commonly by their associated colours: green, blue and black. For example, A ‘Most difficult’ (Black diamond) trail has a maximum climbing grade of 30% (Deboert, 2003, p. 8).[22] The maintenance standards are also just as detailed, allowing for anybody to participate. For example, one task is to “remove all juvenile trees and woody brush for 0.5 meters on either side of tread within 3 centimeters of ground level” (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2012, p. 6).[3]


The principles that govern the trail network are based on the International Mountain Bike Association (IMBA) ‘rules of the trial’. The rules were created to “promote responsible and courteous conduct on shared-use trails” (International Mountain Bike Association, n.d. n.p).[23] Rule enforcement would be difficult within the structure of trail network and it is even further limited by the land-use agreements. Therefore, the rules rely on the cooperation of the users.

Two key rules are:

1.    Ride Open Trails: Respect trail and road closures. Do not trespass on private land.

2.     Leave No Trace:  Wet and muddy trails are more vulnerable to damage than dry ones. Stay on existing trails and do not create new ones.       

 Source: (Kelly, 2016)[24]

Affected Stakeholders

Stakeholder Primary Relavent Objective Relative Power (low-high)
Ktunaxa Nation     Recognition of their traditional territory. Fernie and the trail network falls within these boundaries.     Low
Fernie Trails Alliance and its members Maintain trail network and establish land-use


Non-motorized trail users      Maintain and expand non-motorized trail network Medium
Mobility aid users Expand the number of accessibility trails in the network Medium
Electric bicycle users Establish electric bikes as non-motorized, which allows them to use the trails Low

Interested Outside Stakeholders

Stakeholder Primary Relevant Objective Relative Power (low-high)
Land owners      1) Develop or maintain land according to their respective industries.

2) Secondary relevant objective: land-use agreements maintains good relationship with community and mitigate building of unsanctioned trails on their property 

Contracted Forestry companies     Fulfill contract duties agreed to by land-owners or tenure holders     Medium
BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations     Establish a BC trail network. Success of Fernie trail network aids in this strategy      Medium
City of Fernie Encourage and increase opportunities for citizens to engage in healthy lifestyle. Trail system also helps fulfill requirements of resort municipality initiative .      High
Fernie Alpine Resort Increase visitation rates to the resort. Success of trail network increases awareness and visitation to the Fernie area and the resort     Medium
Tourism Fernie/Hotels/Local Businesses     Increase vitiation rates to Fernie. Supporting trail network enhances opportunities for tourism.       Medium
Motorized vehicle users Increase network of motorized trails Low



With trail network firmly established, priorities have shifted to improve the accessibility, safety and quality of the already existing trails. In recent years the FTA has designed and created trails that are accessible by wheelchair and other mobility aids. Other projects include the Fernie Valley Pathway 2020, which is a major trail project currently underway that would run from the edge of the City of Fernie to the ski hill. The 7 Km pathway is advertised as an “all-inclusive pathway […] that allows for safe passage” between the two main areas and the communities in between (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2018 p. 2).[25] Currently, bikers and other non-motorized users commute alongside Highway 3 without any safety divides from passing vehicles. As described, a paved pathway gives access to all different types of non-motorized commuter modes, “including users of mobility aids, bicycles and all forms of foot traffic” (Fernie Trails Alliance, 2018 p.2).[25] This focus on accessibility is setting a new stand for Fernie.

 Electronic bikes (internal conflict)

Currently, the FTA Facebook is the site of an electronic bike (e-bikes) classification debate. Public opinion seems to be divided about whether the bikes should be classified as motorized or non-motorized. An online survey was recently distributed by the Fernie Mountain Bike Club to gauge public opinion on the issue. However, the FTA communicated that they are waiting for a classification decision by the provincial government, and indicated that whatever the government decides they will implement (F. de Lotbiniere-Bassett, personal communication, November 2, 2018).[21] The FTA’s strategy seems to be to reduce the risk of conflict between itself and member groups.

Logging (external conflict)

This past October, land owners Ridgemont Holdings Ltd. implemented a harvesting plan for their property with the purpose of creating a “fire-smart post-harvest stand structure” (Kelly, 2018, n.p).[26] Trail preservation was included in the initial plan, there was to be an “eight meter machine free zone surrounds the trails” (Fernie Mountain Bike Club, 2018, n.p).[27] However, there was still controversy surrounding the closure of a major section to the trail network and fair of damaging the visual landscape. Residents living in the Ridgemont area were also concerned due to the close proximity of logging activities to their homes. A ‘Concerned Citizens for Ridgemont’ group formed and presented to city council at the end of September, 2018.[28] After the council meeting, Ridgemont Holdings took into consideration the citizens concerns and agreed to adapt the harvesting plan. A walkabout was also organized for community representatives, including the FTA to review the plan. The harvesting began later in October and the trails will remain until the end of April.[26] Trail closure signs are posted at various trail heads in the area and the FTA and it’s member groups communicated the trail closures through their Facebook pages and websites.[26]

The process for resolving this conflict was quite democratic, highlighting the mutual respect between interest groups and further demonstrating the ability of varying stakeholders to get along. Terry Nelson, the president of the FTA mentioned a similar success story when the FTA had worked with forestry company Jemi Fibre. Terry Nelson believes that land owners tend to understand the importance of maintaining the trails and work well with the FTA (T. Nelson, personal communication, November 2, 2018).[21]


Private land owners involved with the FTA hold the majority, if not all the power due to their ownership and tenure rights. They have the agency to support the trail system until they have other more beneficial opportunities. The trail system is essentially dependent on the willingness of land owners to cooperate. On paper, this does appear troubling. However, the success of the Ridgemont logging renegotiations highlights the strength of the relationship between the FTA, land owners and the community. Despite their power, Ridgemont Holdings Ltd. chose to prioritize their relationship with the public and changed their harvesting plan. From the perspective of the land owners, it seems that partnering with the FTA is also a way of contributing to the community.

The establishment of the FTA as a central governing body has lead to a stronger, more well organized and managed trail network. As a nonprofit, they seem to know their limitations, making smart management decisions and establishing partnerships. Using already established riding rules and maintenance standards mitigates potential disapproval of decisions.

Much of the FTA’s power also comes from a shared understanding and appreciation for trails held between various nonprofit groups and partnerships. For example, in 2012 the park ranger for Mount Fernie Provincial Park wrote to his superiors showing support for the FTA application for a Stewardship Cooperative agreement (Gentile, 2012).[29] He highlighted how the FTA should be seen as a partner, helping BC Parks fulfill their mandate of providing outdoor recreational activities (Gentile, 2012).[29]  


Inclusion: two step approach

            Gear rental: addressing affordability

Mountain biking is one of the pillars of the trail network. However; it is worth considering who has the agency to participate. The sport is quite expensive. Mountain bikes easily cost over a thousand dollars and additional costs include helmets and proper attire. Local gear stores in Fernie do rent out bikes and equipment but not at an affordable price. The FTA could work with the local businesses to facilitate a second hand gear rental, which would allow for locals and seasonal workers an opportunity to participate. 

            Volunteering: who participates

In Fernie, seasonal workers often only interact with other seasonal people and remain isolated from the rest of the community. Seasonal workers can be described as young adults between the ages of 18-30 that move to the Fernie area for the ski season on working holidays or international visitors on short term work visas. There is no research available on their participation in local initiatives though recently the City of Fernie recognized the need to track seasonal populations in order to better understand their needs.[30]

            The Fernie Trails Master Plan highlighted the need to “keep attracting new members to revitalize the volunteer base” (Langhorst, 2015 p. 60).[14] A risk to the network is that it becomes too big to be adequately maintained by the labour available. A potential solution would be for the FTA to reach out to seasonal workers and encourage their participation in the weekly trail maintenance sessions. This could easily be done through social media channels as well as advertising in the downtown area. The BanffLIFE program from Banff, Alberta, is a great example of an initiative created to improve the seasonal workers experience. The program is for 18-30 year olds, created for the purpose of promoting “accessible and educational connections for healthy, well-rounded lifestyle for youth adults” while also fostering a sense of community (Town of Banff, n.d, n.p).[31] The FTA volunteer initiative is a potential win-win, where seasonal workers would engage with the local community and the FTA would gain access to an untapped volunteer base.            


  1. Knowles, D. (2014, August 10). Fernie, BC – Adventure in the Canadian Rockies Is Closer Than You Think. Out There Monthly. Retrieved from            
  2. 2.0 2.1 Tourism Fernie. (n.d). An Overview of Fernie’s History. Retrieved from
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Fernie Trails Alliance. (2012). Standard Appendix. Received from Manager of Fernie Trail Alliance.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ktunaxa Nation. (2018). Who We are. Retrieved from
  5. Ministry of Indigenous Relations and Reconciliation. (2018). Ktunaxa Nation. Retrieved from
  6. 6.0 6.1 City of Fernie. (n.d). Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Retrieved from 
  7. City of Fernie. (n.d). Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Retrieved from 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 P.W Williams et al. (2016). Tourism-led Amenity Migration in a Mountain Community: Quality of Life Implications for Fernie, British Columbia. In J Richins & J. Jull (Eds.), Mountain Tourism Experiences, Communities, Environments and Sustainable Futures, (97-110). UK:CAB International
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Langhorst, D. (2015). Fernie Trails Master Plan. Final Draft. Retrieved from City of Fernie website 
  10. Tourism Fernie. (n.d). Fernie Facts. Retrieved from
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Mosedale, Jan. (2001). Mountain Biking in the Canadian Rocky Mountains: A Situational Analysis. (Master’s thesis, York University, Toronto, Canada)
  12. Gentile, C. (2012, January 26). [Letter Written to Minister of Environment, BC Parks]. Received from Manger of Fernie Trails Alliance
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Fernie Trails Alliance. (2012). Standard Land Agreement. Received from Manager of Fernie Trail Alliance.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Langhorst, D. (2015). Fernie Trails Master Plan. Final Draft. Retrieved from City of Fernie website 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Tourism Fernie. (n.d.). Elk Valley Trail. Retrieved from        
  16. Pulp & Paper Canada. (2007, October 31). National News. Pulp and Paper Canada. Retrieved from
  17. Vlasic, K. (2018, October 22). Fernie’s Ridgemont Area Now Off Limits. The Free Press. Retrieved from   now-off-limits/
  18. 18.0 18.1 Market Wired. (2016, March 9). CanWel Announces Acquisition of Jemi Fibre and Concurrent Bought Deal Equity Financing.[Press Release]. Retrieved from
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 Fernie Trails Alliance. (n.d). About us. Retrieved from
  20. Fernie Mountain Bike Club. (2018). Ridgemont Logging and Closures. Retrieved from 
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Nelson, T. (2018, November 2). [Phone Interview by F. de Lotbiniere-Bassett]
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 DeBoer, A. (2003). Whistler Trail Standards: Environmental and Technical Trail Features. Resort Municipality of Whistler. Retrieved from
  23. International Mountain Bicycling Association Canada. (n.d) Rules of the Trail. Retrieved from
  24. Kelly, J. (April 17, 2016). Trail Stewardship. Retrieved from 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Fernie Trails Alliance. (2018). Fernie Valley Pathway 2020. Retrieved from 
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Kelly, J. (2018, August 28). Ridgemont Firesmart Harvesting. Fernie Fix. Retrieved from 
  27. Fernie Mountain Bike Club. (2018). Ridgemont Logging and Closures. Retrieved from 
  28. Mclachlan, P. (2018, September 27). Ridgemont residents raise concerns about logging. The Free Press. Retrieved from
  29. 29.0 29.1 Gentile, C. (2012, January 26). [Letter Written to Minister of Environment, BC Parks]. Received from Manger of Fernie Trails Alliance
  30. Halcow Consulting. (2010). Fernie Liveability Report. Final Report. Received from
  31. Town of Banff. (n.d). BanffLIFE. Retrieved from

Seekiefer (Pinus halepensis) 9months-fromtop.jpg
This conservation resource was created by Francine de Lotbiniere-Bassett.