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Advances in Food Science
FOOD 510
Instructor: Eunice Li-Chan, Ph.D.
Office: FNH 212
Office Hours: By appointment
Class Schedule: Mon/Wed 9:00-10:30am
Classroom: FNH 30
Important Course Pages
Lecture Notes
Course Discussion

Course Description

This course examines key concepts, current issues, and advances in food science that are pertinent to professionals working in food industry, academia, and government.

Given the diversity of students in the Food Science graduate program, a primary objective of this graduate course is to provide a sound basis for the exploration of topics in food science at a graduate level. It seeks to achieve this by fostering an intellectual milieu that acknowledges and benefits from integrating the knowledge and experiences of students with different academic, work experience, and cultural backgrounds.

Fundamental concepts as well as recent advances in food science will be explored on topics including:

  • the food processing operations that are used to convert primary agricultural and fishery crops into consumable foods
  • the chemistry and analysis of food systems that are related to food quality and sensory perception
  • factors and processes affecting safety and shelf-life of foods
  • food laws and regulatory agencies
  • new technologies, research, and development

In the context of examining these topics, a second objective of this course is to facilitate a learning environment that encourages diversity and cooperation in team work, the sharing of objective knowledge and subjective views, as well as opportunities for personal reflection, exploration, and creativity. It is hoped that the experiences of this course will cultivate a passion for lifelong learning of the ongoing advances in food science.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course, students will:

  • have acquired a fundamental understanding of the multidisciplinary components that define the field of food science;
  • develop skills to research and critique scientific literature, and to objectively evaluate the validity or credibility of information heard or seen in the media related to food science;
  • have experience in conveying factual information and personal views through oral and written communication, both in informal settings and in formal presentations and reports;
  • have participated actively and effectively in team work;
  • be aware of the network of professional associations or societies involved in food science and technology;
  • be able to select topics and areas in food science that are of particular interest for more in-depth learning, investigation, and research;
  • gain confidence in integrating and applying this information to:
    • identify and control the factors that impact food quality and safety
    • define problems in food science and generate ideas to solve these problems
    • examine the present state of knowledge and practice in the food industry
    • assess the impact of emerging trends
    • generate new knowledge through basic or applied research.

Structure/Format of Course

The class will usually meet for 1.5 hours each on Mondays and Wednesdays, during which time:

  • Students will share "food-bites" - short presentations on current news and trends of interest to the food science community;
  • The instructor will introduce topics under consideration, and then facilitate class discussions to promote more in-depth exploration;
  • Students will give two oral group presentations and lead the class in discussions on these topics.

Outside of class time:

  • Students will complete background readings (if necessary), and explore supplementary readings and news related to advances in food science, in order to be prepared to actively participate in class on the topics under discussion;
  • Students will work in groups to conduct more in-depth research on specific sub-topics and will prepare a short summary report and oral presentation to share in class for each of two group assignments;
  • Students will write a final term paper on a specific topic of their choice related to advances in food science.


Students will be evaluated as follows:

Activity Percent of Grade
"Food Bites" (individual) 5%
Participation in discussions (in-class and on Connect) 10%
Group Assignment #1 20%
Group Assignment #2 20%
Term Paper (individual) 45%
TOTAL: 100%

Note that there is no written final examination for this course.

Assignment Schedule

Assignment Date Topic †
Assignment #1(group) October 20, 22, and 27 in class ‡ Group selection, by October 1
Assignment #2 (group) November 19, 24, and 26 in class ‡ Group selection, by November 5
"Food Bites" (individual) At the beginning of each class ∞ (ongoing during the term) Current news and advances in Food Science (sign up for a date by September 17)
Term Paper (individual) December 15 § Your selection, by November 17

† Please refer to below descriptions of group assignments, "Food bites", and term paper. Dates shown in this column are the deadline for approval of the topic by the instructor or for scheduling a date for the Food Bites presentation.

‡ An electronic copy of your summary report must be posted on the Connect Discussion board at least 24 hours prior to your group's presentation in class.

∞ Please post on the Connect Discussion board a copy of the current news article (credit the source), or alternatively, the URL link to the website with the current news article. This should be posted within 24 hours of your presentation in class.

§ Please submit a hard copy of the term report before 4PM on the date noted above, either directly to the instructor (office FNH 212) or via the FNH office on the 2nd floor. An electronic copy (doc or docx or pdf file) of the final version of your term report should also be submitted to the Turn-It-In website (see below) by 4PM of the date noted above.

Please note: a 5% mark deduction per day will be applied to all late assignments.

Course Resources

Background Reading

For those who have not previously taken any general food science courses, or for anyone who wishes to obtain a refresher, please read through "background readings" from an undergraduate introductory course on food science: "Exploring our Food" (FNH 200). You can access the 13 lessons at the course wiki site: course:FNH200 (courtesy of Dr. Judy Chan):

  • Lesson 1: Food Science & the Canadian Food System
  • Lesson 2: Chemical and Physical Properties of Food
  • Lesson 3: Fat & Sugar Substitutes
  • Lesson 4: Food Standards, Regulations & Guides
  • Lesson 5: Food Preservation
  • Lesson 6: Thermal Preservation of Foods
  • Lesson 7: Low Temperature Food Preservation
  • Lesson 8: Dehydration for Food Preservation
  • Lesson 9: Food Preservation with Biotechnology
  • Lesson 10: Preservation of Food with Ionizing Energy
  • Lesson 11: Effects of Food Processing on Nutrient Retention
  • Lesson 12: Toxicants in Food & Food-borne disease
  • Lesson 13: Trends in Foods for Nutrition and Health

Note: You are welcome to explore the "activities" and "questions" that are posed in these lessons, but you are not expected or required to complete them as part of our graduate course.

Supplementary Readings on Advances in Food Science

Readings related to the topics under discussion (see tentative schedule below) have been selected from various scientific publications, including IFT Scientific Status Summaries, Trends in Food Science & Technology, Food Technology, Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, and several other journals. The supplementary readings, which are listed at the end of this syllabus, can be accessed from our course on Connect.

UBC Library

Students will need to conduct library research to complete the course assignments. For some tips on resources available from the UBC library website, follow this link on "Research Help": Also, has useful tips on "Evaluating and Citing Sources".

Please follow the APA Style for the group assignments and for your term paper.

Academic Integrity and Avoiding Plagiarism

"Academic integrity is honest and responsible scholarship. As a university student, you are expected to submit original work and give credit to other peoples' ideas."

Please check out the Guide to Academic Integrity and Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism at and ensure that you understand what qualifies as plagiarism when working on your assignments and final term paper.

You are encouraged to use "Turn-It-In" at as a resource for checking your draft assignments and making any revisions necessary to avoid plagiarism before submitting the final version. Our FOOD 510 course ID is 8374369 and the password is 2014w.

The final version of the term paper MUST be submitted to "Turn-It-In" by the due date.

Group Assignments

The objective of the group assignments is to work as a team to research, understand, and communicate information about a specific topic related to advances in food science.

Guidelines for group work: Each group will consist of 3 students. You may self-select into a group, as long as you meet the following criteria:

  1. You cannot have previously studied at the same university as another student in your group, and
  2. At least one group member must be from a different country of birth, and/or must have studied in a different discipline for their previous academic program.

Please inform the instructor once you and two others have formed a group, or if you would like assistance to identify a group that you can join. You will remain in the same group for both assignments.

Assignment Description:

  • Assignment #1 - Each group will give a 25 minute presentation on a specific topic within the indicated subject areas.
  • Assignment #2 - Pairs of groups will give 20 minute presentations to provide different perspectives on one of the three specific topics, and then lead the class in a discussion or debate on those topics.

Please refer below for more details on each of the assignments.

Grading of Assignments: Assignments #1 and #2 are each worth 20% of your total mark.

  • Your assignments will be assessed both by your peers and by the instructor for the content (quality of information), as well as the effectiveness and clarity of the oral presentation and written summary report.
  • Please refer to the evaluation template sheets and grading rubrics on Connect.

Group evaluation: Group assignments will earn an overall group mark, which may then be adjusted to reflect participation of individual students in the group.

At the end of the term, please complete the group self-evaluation form using the template posted on Connect. Submit it to your instructor on or before the last class.

Group Assignment #1

In this assignment, you should explore an interesting problem, issue, or advance in food science within one or more of the following general areas:

  • Trends in food consumption or recent issues related to farm-to-fork food production;
  • Chemical and physical properties of food;
  • Regulations;
  • Food additives;
  • Functional foods & nutraceuticals & natural health products

The following are examples of topics that would be suitable for Assignment #1. You are strongly encouraged to identify other specific topics that are of particular interest to your own group:

  • Organically versus conventionally grown produce: myths versus facts
  • Low-sodium processed meats: strategies and challenges
  • Steviol glycosides: the new sweet kid?
  • Carrageenan: function and safety
  • Pro- & pre-biotics in dairy products: traditional or new functional food?
  • Pulses: a viable option for gluten-free products?

NOTE: Your topic must be approved by the instructor no later than October 1st.

Suggested steps to complete Assignment #1:

  1. Brainstorm, discuss, and decide on a specific topic of mutual interest within the designated general areas for this assignment.
  2. Inform the instructor of your proposed topic as soon as possible. For assignment #1, each group must present on a different specific topic. In case of duplicate topic selection from more than one group, approval by the instructor will be on a first-come-first-serve basis.
  3. Organize yourselves to conduct further research on the approved selected topic.
  4. Meet to share your findings and to select appropriate information for presentation in class. Although you may use 1-2 review articles to get an overview of the topic, please be sure to dig deeper via primary peer-reviewed articles in the scientific literature. You should aim to gain a solid understanding of the topic, and have a clear focus in developing the topic to a level appropriate for a graduate level course.
  5. Prepare a 25 minute oral presentation using visual aids and/or supporting material such as Powerpoint slides, hard copy handouts, sample products, etc.
  6. Write a summary report (one per group) including the following:
    • Abstract (up to 150 words)
    • 1-2 page Summary of the topic (up to 500 words; don't repeat the abstract)
    • References (no limit, but please asterisk 3 key references)
  7. Hand in a hard copy of the summary report to instructor and post an electronic copy to the Connect Discussion Board at least 24 hours before the presentation.
  8. Present your topic in class; initiate further discussions and answer questions.

Presentation Dates TBA (two groups per day). 25 minute presentations plus 10 minute Q/A period.

Group Assignment #2

Select one of the three topics below, and choose to present either the pros or the cons of applying the proposed technology for the stated purpose:

  1. Nanotechnology for omega-3 fatty acid fortification of low-fat yogurt
  2. Biotechnology for enhancing omega-3 fatty acid composition of soybean oil
  3. Irradiation for improving quality and safety of omega-3 fatty acid enriched eggs

Note: for each topic, two groups will collaborate to present an introduction (background information on the technology), and then one group will present on the pros (advantages, opportunities, benefits...) while the other group will present on the cons (disadvantages, challenges, risks...) of the technology for the specific purpose noted.

Suggested steps to complete Assignment #2:

  1. Brainstorm, discuss and decide which of the three designated topics your group wishes to research and present.
  2. Inform the instructor of your proposed selection as soon as possible. Since there can only be two groups presenting on each of the three topics, approval by the instructor will be on a first-come-first-serve basis, and finalized no later than Nov 5th.
  3. Organize yourselves to conduct further research on the approved selected topic.
  4. Meet with your group to share your findings and to select appropriate information for presentation in class. Although you may use 1-2 review articles to get an overview of the topic, please be sure to dig deeper via primary peer-reviewed articles in the scientific literature.
  5. Meet with the other group that is working on the same topic as your group, and decide on which group will present on the pros and which group on the cons.
  6. Each group should prepare a 20 minute oral presentation, using visual aids such a s Powerpoint slides, hard copy handouts, etc. You may wish to coordinate with the other group regarding the organization of your two presentations (total 40 minute presentation time for both groups). Note that you should also coordinate yourselves regarding a general introduction to the technology.
  7. Write a summary report (one per group) including the following:
    • Abstract (up to 150 words)
    • 1-2 page Summary of the topic (up to 500 words; don't repeat the abstract)
    • References (no limit, but please asterisk 3 key references)
  8. Hand in hard copy of summary report to instructor and post an electronic copy to the Connect Discussion Board at least 24 hours before the presentation.
  9. Present your topic in class; initiate further discussions and debate by everyone in the class.

Presentation Dates TBA (two groups per day). 20 minute presentation per group (total 40 minutes) plus 40 minute Q/A & debate period.

"Food Bites" (Individual Work)

The objectives of this assignment are to (1) be informed of news, trends, and world events that influence or are of interest to the food industry; (2) reflect on and discuss how these affect us as food scientists; and (3) be exposed to the diverse sources of news related to food science.

Guidelines for a "Food Bites" presentation:

  • The news, article, or event (1) should be current/recent, i.e. dated no earlier that an month before your presentation, and (2) may be taken from a range of electronic or print resources, including newspapers, professional association newsletters or announcements, as well as scientific or trade journals.
  • Your oral presentation should be brief (~5 minutes), and will be followed by 5 minutes of class Q/A/discussion period. Visual aids may be used to support your presentation, but are not mandatory.

Structure of a "Food Bites" presentation:

  • Give a concise summary of the main point(s) of the news, article, or event; remember to state the date/source of the information.
  • Explain why you were interested in this news, article, or event. For example,
    • How has it changed your opinion and understanding or informed you about specific aspects of food and food science? Did it prompt you to do further research into the topic?
    • Explain why/how you think it could influence/impact different stakeholders (consumers, government, food industry, academia, researchers).

Scheduling of your "Food Bites" presentation:

  • The presentations will usually be given at the beginning of each class.
  • There will be a maximum of two presentations per class.
  • Available dates: Any M/W class with the exception of the six dates assigned to group assignments.
  • Please contact the Instructor to sign up for a date to give your "Food Bites" presentation.

Sharing information on the topic of your "Food Bites" presentation: Please post on the Connect Discussion Board a copy of the current news article (remember to cite/credit the source), or alternatively the URL link to the website with the current news article. This should be posted within 24 hours of your "Food Bites" presentation in class.

Grading: The "Food Bites" assignment is worth 5% of your total mark. Your presentation will be assessed for content (relevance, interest), your critical analysis or reflections on the topic, as well as the effectiveness and clarity of your presentation. Please refer to the "Forms" on our Connect course for the grading rubrics.

Term Paper

The objective of the term paper is to integrate and apply what you have learned in this course with your particular interest in a specific topic in food science, to conduct library research on this topic, and to communicate your findings in a written paper.

Guidelines for the Term Paper:

  • Topic - You may select any topic related to advances in food science. The term paper is a scholarly work written with a clear focus and specific objectives. It should not simply be a general review of a broad topic. Ideas generated from class discussions may be suitable for further development as topics for the paper, but the depth and/or scope of the term paper must go beyond what has already been discussed in class. Each student must research and write on a different specific topic. To avoid overlap or duplication of topics among students, please discuss your proposed topic with your instructor early in the term. You must convey your final selected topic (tentative title of your paper) to the instructor either in person or by Connect Mail for approval no later than November 17th.
  • You must demonstrate adequate research into the literature in preparation for the term paper. The bibliography for your paper may include some review articles and information from credible websites, but the majority of references must be from primary, peer-reviewed sources (scientific journals).
  • Format for the term paper - This is a formal research paper, and should be typed in double-spaced format, with minimum font size equivalent to Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11. Please use the APA style for citing and listing the references. The paper should be about 10-12 double spaced pages (~ 2,500-3,000 words), not including the cover page, reference list, and any tables or illustrations used as supporting material. You may wish to organize your paper into the following sections:
    • Cover page (Title of paper, name, student number, course name, date)
    • Abstract
    • Introduction (briefly introduce the topic and why you selected it)
    • Main Content (use specific descriptors for this heading and/or additional subheadings based on your topic: include tables and figures to illustrate key information)
    • Conclusions
    • Bibliography or List of References
  • Hand in a hard copy to the instructor, and submit the e-file on Turn-It-In by 4PM December 15, 2014.

Grading: This paper is worth 45% of your total mark. The paper will be graded for quality of the content as well as clarity of writing - please refer to the "Forms" on our Connect course for the evaluation template and grading rubrics.

Tentative Schedule, Topics and Readings

Please see course:FOOD510/schedule.

Supplementary Readings

This reading list was compiled to illustrate some of the issues and advances in food science, beyond the fundamental concepts described in the "Background readings". You can access the articles from our course on Connect.

You do not need to study the details of these supplementary readings. The readings are intended to serve as a starting point for ideas that may be developed into topics for further investigation as part of your assignments and/or end-of-term report. We may also explore some of these topics during our class discussions.

  1. Consumer Trends and Food Scientist Role:
    • Robbins 2005. Canadian trends to 2020 (pdf copy of a powerpoint presentation)
    • Canadian Food Trends to 2020 (2005) 113-page report by Serecon Mgmt Consulting Inc.
    • Floros et al. 2010. Feeding the world today and tomorrow: The importance of food science and food technology.
    • Cheatham 2014. Protein: A plant based look at this power macronutrient.
  2. Farm-to-Fork Issues:
    • Winter and Davis. 2006. Organic Foods (An IFT Scientific Status Summary)
    • Forman and Silverstein. 2012. Organic Foods. Health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.
    • Smith-Spangler et al. 2012. Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives? A systematic review.
    • Govt of Canada Organic Production Systems 032_0310_2008-eng_Amendments to 2011.
    • Govt of Canada Organic Production Permitted Substances List 032_0311_2006-eng_Amendments to 2011.
    • Shewry et al. 2007. Are GM and conventionally bred cereals really different?
    • Herman. 2013. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.
    • Alonso et al. 2010. Contributing to fisheries sustainability by making the best possible use of their resources: the BEFAIR initiative.
  3. Chemical, Physical, Functional Properties:
    • Goesaert et al. 2005. Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality.
    • Health Canada. 2012. Health Canada's position on gluten free claims.
    • Hüttner and Arendt. 2010. Recent advances in gluten-free baking and current status of oats.
    • Marti and Pagani. 2013. What can play the role of gluten in gluten free pasta?
    • Susanna and Prabhasankar. 2013. A study on development of gluten free pasta and its biochemical and immunological validation.
    • Doehlert et al. 2009. The green oat story. Possible mechanisms of green colour formation in oat products during cooking.
  4. Fat, Sugar and Sodium Replacers:
    • Finger and Kinnamon. 2011. Matters of Taste.
    • Chattopathyay et al. 2012. Artificial sweeteners: a review.
    • Health Canada. 2012. Info and Consultation Document on Steviol Glycosides.
    • Lim et al. 2010. Responses to consumer demand for reduced fat foods: multi-functional fat replacers.
    • Tepper and keller. 2011. Sensing fat.
    • Health Canada. 2012. Guidance for the food industry on reducing sodium in processed foods.
    • Dotsch et al, 2009. Strategies to reduce sodium consumption. A food industry perspective.
    • Barr. 2010. Reducing dietary sodium intake - the Canadian context.
    • Loie et al. 2010. Soy sauce and its umami taste Link from past to current situation JFS concise review.
    • Kuo & Lee 2014. Effect of food matrix on saltiness perception - Implications for sodium reduction.
  5. Regulations and Risk Benefit Analysis:
    • FAO. 2006. Food Safety Risk Analysis. A guide for food safety authorities.
    • Govt of Canada. 2011. Action on Weatherill Report. Recommendations to strengthen the food safety system.
    • IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2012. Ensuring Safe Foods and Medical Products Through Stronger Regulatory Systems Abroad.
    • Palou et al. 2009. Integration of Risk Benefit Analysis.
    • Health Canada. 2010. Regulatory proj1220- Enhanced labelling for food allergens, gluten sources, and added sulphites.
    • Health Canada. 2013. Health Canada's position on highly refined oils derived from food allergen sources.
    • Health Canada. 2008. Policy for differentiating food additives and processing aids.
    • Health Canada Trans Fat Task Force. 2006. TRANSforming the food supply.
    • Health Canada. 2009. Fourth set of monitoring data. Trans fat monitoring program.
  6. Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, Natural Health Products:
    • Bigiardi and Galati. 2013. Innovation trends in the food industry: The case of functional foods.
    • Sloan. 2012. Top ten functional food trends.
    • Shahidi. 2009. Nutraceuticals and functional foods: whole vs processed foods.
    • Chau and Wu. 2006. The development and regulations of Chinese herbal medicines for both medicinal and food uses.
    • Health Canada. 2010. Classification of products at the food-NHP interface: Products in food formats.
    • Health Canada. 2010. Summary of assessment of a health claim about plant sterols in foods and blood cholesterol lowering.
    • Health Canada. 2011. Guidance document for preparing a health claim submission for food health claims using an existing systematic review.
    • Health Canada. 2012. Draft on the use of the term "prebiotic(s)" on food labels and in advertising.
    • Health Canada. 2009. Natural Health Product Monograph - Probiotics.
    • Health Canada. 2006. Guidelines for the safety assessment of novel foods.
    • Cliff et al. 2013. Descriptive analysis and early stage consumer acceptance of yogurts fermented with carrot juice.
  7. Advances in Analytical Methods, Quality Control:
    • Garcia-Canas et al. 2012. Present and future challenges in food analysis: Foodomics.
    • Monaci and Visconti. 2010. Immunochemical and DNA based methods for allergen analysis and QA.
    • Schubert-Ullrich et al. 2009. Commercialized immunochemical assays for food allergens.
    • Roder et al. 2011. RT PCR in comparison to ELISA for allergenic almond in complex food matrices.
    • Rasmussen et al. 2010. PCR for salmon species in US commercial products.
    • Wong and Hanner. 2008. DNA barcoding detects substitution in North American seafood.
    • ENGL. 2011. Verification of analytical methods for GMO testing.
    • Bremer et al. 2009. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil.
    • Wold et al. 2010. Rapid nondestructive determination of edible meat content in crabs by NIR imaging spectroscopy.
    • Rohman & Che Man. 2012. Corn and sunflower adulterants in olive oil using chemometrics and FTIR spectra.
    • Zheng & He. 2014. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the chemical analysis of food.
    • Lin et al. 2008. Detection of melamine in gluten, chicken feed, and processed foods by SERS and HPLC.
    • Feng et al. 2013. Determination of alpha-tocopherol in vegetable oils using MIP-SERS biosensor.
  8. Food Science and the "-omics" Era:
    • Cevallos-Cevallos et al. 2009. Metabolomic analysis in food science
    • Pedreschi et al. 2010. Proteomics for the food industry: Opportunities and Challenges.
    • Vèrgeres et al. 2012. The Nutri-chip project - translating technology into nutritional knowledge.
    • Masotti et al. 2010. Microarray technologies: A promising tool in nutrigenomics.
  9. Processing and Effects on Quality:
    • Dwyer et al. 2012. Is "processed" a four-letter word? The role of processed foods in achieving dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations.
    • Cliff et al. 2014. Survey reveals urban consumers' attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of wax on apples.
    • Rickman et al. 2007a Nutritional comparison of fresh frozen canned fruits and vegetables. Part I. Vit C and B and phenolic compounds.
    • Rickman et al. 2007b Nutritional comparison of fresh frozen canned fruits and vegetables. Part II. Vit A and carotenoids, vit E, mineral and fiber.
    • Galgano et al. 2007. The influence of processing and preservation on the retention of health promoting compounds in broccoli.
    • Moreno et al. 2007. Effects of stir-fry cooknig with different edible oils on phytochemical composition of broccoli.
    • Rico et al. 2007 Extending and measuring quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetables.
    • Allende et al. 2006. Minimal processing for healthy traditional foods.
    • USDA. 2007. Nutrient retention factors, release 6.
  10. Processing and Toxicants in Food:
    • American Council on Science and Health. 2004. ACSH Holiday dinner menu.
    • Codex Alimentarius. 2011. Agenda of joint FAO WHO Food Stds Programme Codex Committee on Contaminants in Food.
    • Codex CCCF. 2010. Proposed draft maximum levels for melamine in foods (liquid infant formula).
    • Codex Alimentarius (ALINORM 08/31/41) Draft codes of Practice... 3 MCPD, acrylamide, PAH, aflatoxin...
    • Visciano et al. 2012. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood.
    • Visciano et al. 2007. Effect of storage temperature on histamine formation in S pilchardus and E encrasicolus after catch.
    • Lineback et al. 2012. Acrylamide in foods: A review of the science and future considerations.
    • Belcalski et al. FAFC. 2003. Acrylamide in foods.
    • Health Canada. 2012. Revised exposure assessment of acrylamide in food.
    • Health Canada. 2010. Bisphenol A.
    • Health Canada. 2012. Health Canada's updated exposure assessment of BPA from food sources.
  11. Advances and Innovations in Processing Technologies:
    • Smith and Pillai. 2004. Irradiation and food safety.
    • EFSA. 2011. Scientific opinion on the chemical safety of irradiated foods.
    • Health Canada. 2002. Recommended Canadian code of practice for food irradiation.
    • Mahalik and Nambiar. 2010. Trends in food packaging and manufacturing systems technology.
    • Marsh & Bugusu. 2007. Food Packaging: Roles, materials and environmental issues.
    • Morris et al. 2007. Non-thermal food processing/preservation technologies: A review with packaging implications.
    • Ortega-Rivas. 2007. Processing effects for safety and quality in some non-predominant food technologies.
    • Sanchez-Moreno et al. 2009. Nutritional approaches and health related properties of plant foods processed by high pressure and pulsed electric fields.
    • Khosravi-Darani. 2010. Research activities on supercritical fluid science in biotechnology.
    • Zheng & Sun. 2006. Innovative application of power ultrasound during food freezing processes. A review.
    • Gomez-Lopez et al. 2007. Pulsed light for food decontamination. A review.
    • Vadivambal and Jayas. 2007. Changes in quality microwave-treated agricultural products.
  12. New Technologies - Bio, Nano, Green ...
    • Boye and Arcand. 2013. Current trends in green technologies in food production and processing.
    • Da Silva. 2004. The colours of biotechnology: Science, development and humankind.
    • Kovacs-Nolan and Mine. 2012. Egg yolk antibodies for passive immunity.
    • Forshee et al. 2009. Assessing the potential public health impacts of next generation foods derived from rDNA technology: A case study of omega-3 fatty acids enhanced vegetable oils.
    • Singh and Balla. 2008. Genetic engineering for removing food allergens from plants.
    • Venegas-Caleron et al. 2010. An alternative to fish oils: Metabolic engineering of oil-seed crops to produce omega-3 long chain PUFAs.
    • Sekhon et al. 2010. Food nanotechnology. An overview.
    • Huang et al. 2010. Bioavailability and delivery of nutraceuticals using nanotechnology.
    • McClements and Xiao. 2012. Potential biological fate of ingested nanoemulsions: influence of particle characteristics.
    • McClements et al. 2009. Structural design principles for bioactives delivery.
    • Weiss et al. 2006. Functional materials in food nanotechnology.
    • Committee on National Nanotechnology Initiative. 2013. Triennial review of the NNI (143-page report).
    • Raynes et al. 2014. Protein nanostructures in food - Should we be worried?