Course:FNH326

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Food Science Laboratory II
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FNH 326
Section: TBA
Instructor: Patricia Hingston
TA:
Email: Patricia.Hingston@ubc.ca
Phone: 604-827-1604
Office: MCML 223
Office Hours: TBA
Class Schedule: Tuesday 1pm-5pm
Classroom: MCML 220 - 240

Course Description and Learning Objectives

FNH 325 Laboratory I and FNH 326 Laboratory II course:FNH326 will provide you with an opportunity to integrate knowledge from the different areas of Food Science and to obtain a better understanding of food as a complete entity. The lab exercises have been designed to reinforce the theoretical concepts covered in the courses on food microbiology, chemistry, analysis, quality control, processing, and to give you the opportunity to develop practical skills that will be useful when you are working in the food industry. These practical skills include working cooperatively in a group and communication, in addition to developing expertise in commonly used laboratory techniques.

The course is divided into two modules. Module 325-1 will emphasize laboratory skill development, while 325-2 will deal with a specific food commodity. You will become familiar with the composition and characteristics of these materials, the equipment and procedures for analysis and processing, research and data analysis, and presentation of information in both written and oral formats.

Components of the course are available through the online courseware, Connect, which could be accessed by visiting http://elearning.ubc.ca/connect/. If you have not used Connect in a previous class, please visit: http://elearning.ubc.ca/connect/get-started-with-connect

Course Absences

Participation in all of the laboratories is required. Absence from any of the laboratories must be supported by documentation. For legitimate excuses, you may be required to attend a make-up session, to be arranged with the instructor. There will be no make-up sessions for failure to obtain results due to poor laboratory technique or inadequate preparation for the lab. This will result in the deduction of marks from your lab report and oral presentation.

Course Evaluation

FNH 326
Pre-lab exercises 10%
Pop quizzes 5%
Laboratory Techniques 15%
Laboratory reports 25%
Oral Presentation 10%
Practical Exam 15%
Final Examination 20%
TOTAL: 100%

Please note that pre-lab exercises include pre-lab preparation listed in each session, as well as the online quizzes posted on Connect.

Examinations: The written examinations will be open book. No library books are allowed.

Readings

Useful References: Books and Websites The UBC library resource page for FNH 325 is available at: http://guides.library.ubc.ca/FNH325. This site has many useful links to resources useful for finding relevant information and writing reports.

AOAC International. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International 16th ed Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1998. S587.A7 CD-ROM http://webcat1.library.ubc.ca/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=2121000
Downes, F.P.; Ito, K., ed. Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. 4th. Washington: American Public Health Association, 2001.ISBN: 087553175X. WOODWARD LIBRARY stacks, QW85.A44 2001.
Fennema, O. R. Food Chemistry. 3rd Edition. Marcel Dekker, New York,1996. [ISBN 0824793463 (cloth : alk. paper); ISBN 0824796918 (paper : alk. paper)]
Jay, J.M. Modern Food Microbiology 5th edition(ebook).Springer US, 1995. ISBN: 1-4615-7476-5, 978-1-4615-7476-7 Microbiology
Nielsen, S.S., ed. Food Analysis. 4th edition (ebook), New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2010. Food Analysis. It is highly recommended that you read this book for this course and FNH 302.
Poste, L.; Mackie, D.A.; Butler, G.; Larmond, E. Laboratory Methods for Sensory Analysis of Foods. Agriculture Canada Publication 1864/E, Ottawa, 1991.
Singh, R. P.; Heldman, D. R. Introduction to Food Engineering 4th Edition (ebook). Elsevier/Academic Press, New York, 2009 ISBN 0-12-370900-8, 978-0-12-370900-4 Introduction to Food Engineering
US Department of Agriculture. Nutrient Data Laboratory Food Composition Data. 2016. http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/food-composition/usda-nutrient-data-laboratory, accessed July 22, 2016

Laboratory Reports: Requirements and Format

For modules 326-1, and 326-2, formal, results and memo reports are required; these are to be handed in the week immediately after the session, or otherwise as instructed by your instructor. The expectations for each type of report are listed below. Please see notes at the end of each session for the dates that reports are due. Overdue reports will be penalised at the rate of 10% per day, for the first five days. Lab reports will only be marked up to 5 days after the due date. You will receive a mark of 0 for reports more than 5 days late.

Academic Misconduct / Turn-It-In

The integrity of academic work depends on the honesty of all those who work and study at the university and the acknowledgement of the work of others through careful citation of all sources used in your work. Plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct are treated as serious offences at UBC, whether committed by faculty, staff, or students.

You should be aware of the sections of the University Calendar that address academic integrity (http://www.students.ubc.ca/calendar/index.cfm?tree=3,286,0,0) and plagiarism (http://www.calendar.ubc.ca/Vancouver/index.cfm?tree=3,54,111,959). The UBC library also has a useful web-based Plagiarism Resource Centre (http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/resource-guides/avoiding-plagiarism/) that explains what plagiarism is and how to avoid it.  The copying of passages from any sources, without proper reference will be considered plagiarism. Collaboration between students in writing reports is not tolerated. If you have questions or concerns about any of these policies or conventions in relation to how they apply to the work you do in this course, please discuss them with your instructor.

All reports must be submitted to Turn-It-In to receive a mark. Please remove any identifying information from the file that you submit. If you wish to use a coded sign-on name, you will need to send that to your instructor, so that your reports can be identified.

Results Reports

There are some sessions where you are asked to complete and hand in only the results. In these cases, your report should contain the following:

Cover Page (5%): This page should list the module and sessions, your name and group number, your lab partner or group member’s names, and the date when the report was handed in.

Methods and Materials (20%): Reference the page numbers of the lab manual. Make note of changes that are made to the lab protocols as they appear in the manual. Add any specific details on products, procedures, or equipment not included in the manual. Your teaching assistant will initial your pre-laboratory exercises at the beginning of the lab. Photocopies/duplicates of all pre-lab initialed sheets must be included here.

Results (75%): Include data and observations in tabular or graphical form wherever possible. Raw data should be presented as it was collected in the lab, from a photocopy/duplicate of the pages in your notebook. You must include the signed page in your results section of your lab report. The teaching assistant will initial your results prior to your leaving the lab. Do NOT recopy raw data into your tables. Remember to correctly label all tables and figures, and include a table caption or a figure legend. Neatness counts! You must include sample calculations whenever applicable. When applicable, report mean, standard deviation/range, and coefficient of variation. Do any other statistical analysis that is noted in the lab manual. Watch the number of significant figures used! You should be critically evaluating the data. If you have an outlier, you may eliminate it if it is justified. Do not extrapolate calculations from standard curves. The results section should also include a description of the data, with comparisons between exercises as necessary.

NOTE: Questions that are listed in these sessions are for study purposes only and should not be handed in with your report.

Memo Reports

The purpose of the memo is to communicate the required information quickly, accurately, and completely. The memo should be formatted with headings so that the organization, recipient, sender, date, and subject are identified. The maximum length of the memo is 3 pages, with minimum 0.75 inch margins on all sides, 12 font, and 1.5 line spacing. Additional material, other than sample calculations and lab data (see below) will not be marked! Please note that the writing style of the memo is very different from the formal scientific reports. It should be written as if addressing the person in the heading and have a business tone, and should show your professionalism. Your lab data should be attached to the memo reports, just as it is for the formal reports. Sample calculations should be included in an appendix.

Your memos will be “problem solving” type of memos that suggest actions to improve a situation, and should include the following information:

Cover Page (5%): This page should list the module and session, your name and group number, your lab partner or group member’s names, and the date when the report was handed in.

Brief introduction (10%): State the problem or purpose of work/analyses requested by the company and carried out.

Summary of data (30%): Tables and figures should be integrated into the discussion and must fall within the three-page limit. Present the data in a way that makes it easy to make comparisons and see trends. Make the data as compact and useful as possible; you might want to highlight the most important findings. Do not present raw data.

Discussion Points (35%): Analysis of the problem and recommendations. Give a thorough comparison/discussion of data. Clarity of information is important. Only provide background theory that is necessary to understand the results - think about the information that the company needs. You can make assumptions about what the company wants/needs, and what can be provided to them, as long as it is reasonable, and clearly described in your memo. For example, if you find an alternative method that seems to be better than the one used in this lab (cheaper, more sensitive, faster, more precise…), you might suggest that the company allows you to investigate it. As well, if you don't think the data you obtained was reliable, you can suggest how it could be improved, and request that the company give you the supplies/money/time to do this.

Conclusion (20%): This is a brief summary of findings. Make the recommendations the company is looking for, justified by your data.

References are not required for the memo unless specifically stated, but if you identify any key references that you feel the company would find useful, you can include them.

Formal Reports

Each formal report should be formatted with minimum 0.75 inch margins on all sides, 12 font, and 1.5 line spacing. Conciseness and clarity are essential – reports will have a 10-page limit (excluding title page, references, and raw data) unless otherwise specifically noted. The goal of the formal report is not to prove that you got the right answers; the goal of a formal report is to document your findings and communicate the knowledge you have acquired from a laboratory experiment.

Cover Page (5%): This page should list the module and sessions, your name and group number, your lab partner or group member’s names, and the date when the report was handed in.

Introduction (10%): An introduction to the purpose of the session, incorporating the learning objectives of all the session exercises, in paragraph format. Some general and brief background material for each objective should be included here. Your introduction should not be more than one page in length, and must include references.

Methods and Materials (5%): Reference the page numbers of the lab manual. Make note of changes that are made to the lab protocols as they appear in the manual. Add any specific details on products, procedures, or equipment not included in the manual. Your teaching assistant will initial your pre-laboratory exercises at the beginning of the lab. Photocopies/duplicates of all pre-lab initialed sheets must be included here.

Results (30%): Include data and observations in tabular or graphical form wherever possible. Raw data should be presented as it was collected in the lab, from a photocopy/duplicated of the pages in your notebook. You must include the signed page in your results section of your lab report. The teaching assistant will initial your results prior to your leaving the lab. Do NOT recopy raw data into your tables. Remember to correctly label all tables and figures, and include a table caption or figure legend. Neatness counts! You must include sample calculations whenever applicable. When applicable, report mean, standard deviation/range, and coefficient of variation. Watch the number of significant figures used! You should be critically evaluating the data. If you have an outlier, you may eliminate it if it is justified. Do not extrapolate calculations from standard curves.

Discussion (40%): In your discussion, comment on your data and answer such questions as: What did I observe? How do the results compare to what was expected? What factors are influencing the results? What is the mechanism involved? Do I trust this data?

You may comment on

  • significance of the results
  • comparison of results to literature or expected values, if appropriate
  • comparison between treatments used in an experiment, relating the results obtained to the theory of the experiment
  • inconsistencies in the data, including possible reasons why
  • advantages and disadvantages of methods used; roles of reagents, importance of reaction conditions, precision, accuracy, level of difficulty, sensitivity, etc.
  • answer all questions and address all points raised in the lab manual. You should incorporate the answers to the questions into the text of your discussion in a logical manner, not simply add them to the end of your discussion.
  • consider what the results suggest about the quality of the product from a legal, sensory, microbiological, and chemical point of view

You will also be required to incorporate answers to specific questions listed for each session into your discussion. References are required to support your statements and answer the questions.

Conclusion (10%): This is a summary of the information that was obtained from the module, and your comments on the significance of the findings. The conclusions should be based on your results. This should “answer” the objectives laid out in the introduction. You may briefly comment on suggestions for further study or recommendations made in the discussion. A conclusion should be one or two paragraphs in length.

References (5%): I strongly suggest that you use Refworks/EndNote to gather, format and share references used in your reports. Refworks is provided free to all UBC students. Information on how to use Refworks is available at http://help.library.ubc.ca/evaluating-and-citing-sources/refworks-write-n-cite/.

References should be cited using the format of Journal of Food Science. Please refer to http://www.ift.org/Knowledge-Center/Read-IFT-Publications/Journal-of-Food-Science/Authors-Corner/JFS-Author-Guidelines-2013.aspx for formatting. The only exception will be the use of “et al.” in place of “and others.” References used in text must be listed in the reference list in alphabetical order. Reference in text should follow the format of (author name(s), year of publication) or for more than 2 authors, (first author name et al., year of publication).

Notes taken in courses, and material from unpublished lab manuals will not be accepted as a reference. Less than half of the references used for a report may be web sites - these are not as reliable as textbooks or research papers. Please note that electronic journals and books are NOT websites.

Note the following examples of reference style that must be adhered to:

In text:
……. (Belcourt and Labuza 2007). Belcourt and Labuza (2007) found that …….

Reference list:
Journal Article: Belcourt LA, Labuza TP. 2007. Article title. J Food Sci 72:C65-71.

Chapter in a Book:
Smith L, Caldwell A. Year. Chapter title. In Book Title, edition no. Keys F, Park G, Eds. Publisher: City, Province or State, Country, page numbers.

Entire Book:
Nielsen LE. 1962. Mechanical Properties of Polymers. Reinhold Press, New York, pp.

e.book: e.g. from FoodnetBase database
Hester RE, Harrison RM. 2001. Food Safety and Food Quality.
http://www.knovel.com/knovel2/Toc.jsp?BookID=648 Accessed Jul 8 2009.

Web Sites: The standard format for a Web citation is:
Author’s name. Year of publication. Title of document/site name. URL. Accessed Date
Please see http://help.library.ubc.ca/evaluating-and-citing-sources/how-to-cite/ or http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/citation.htm for information on quoting web sites.

Laboratory Notebook

Each student must purchase and use a bound laboratory notebook - it is advisable to purchase one with tear-out duplicate pages. The notebook must be brought to the laboratory each day that experimental work is performed. All information in your notebook must be written in pen.

Notebook organization
The date should appear on each day’s work. A clear title should appear introducing the experiment with a sentence or two describing the objective. Make extensive use of subtitles and underline these to aid in the location of notes quickly. Record all information, including volumes of solutions, amounts of chemical weighed out, sample weights/volumes, observations, specifics regarding equipment used. Where appropriate, record data in tabular form. Every table should have a title. You will not be able to re-copy data from your notebook – it will appear in your lab report as you recorded it. Keep it accurate, complete, and neat.

Pre-lab Preparation:
(included in Materials and Methods section of your lab report) You are expected to come to the laboratory prepared to carry out the experiments. This will require you to read through your laboratory manual, do the pre-lab quiz on Connect, prepare a flow chart for each procedure that you will be doing, carry out required calculations, and answer all questions in the pre-lab section of the exercise. You will not be allowed to participate in the lab without these preparations. Your pre-lab flow charts should be detailed enough to carry out the procedure without reference to your lab book. This pre-lab material should be written in your lab notebook.

Prior to each lab, the TA will ask to see your pre-lab work and will initial it. The first time that your pre-lab exercises are not completed, you will be asked to leave the lab and complete the pre-lab before being allowed to work in the lab. If you fail to complete pre-lab exercises again, you will not be allowed to carry out the lab, and will be penalized in the marking of your report.

Flowcharts
The procedure flowchart is a visual representation of the sequence of the protocol, amounts of reagents used, and timed events. It is NOT the procedure given to you in your lab book, in point form. Your pre-lab flow charts should be detailed enough to carry out the procedure without reference to your lab book. See the example under “Data Presentation”.

Protocols for Working in the Laboratory

Required Materials/Equipment
You require a lab coat, goggles, a lab book, and a marking pen (Sharpie). Please label your supplies with your full name. You will not be allowed to participate in a lab if you do not have your lab coat or safety goggles. You will be required to purchase a disposable lab coat at $5.00 and safety goggles at $3.00 if you forget your own.

Water
Water used in all experimental procedures is distilled and de-ionized, and is referred to as ‘ddwater’. Tap water is only used for rinsing dirty glassware.

Proper Lab Technique and Etiquette
You should be professional when working in the laboratory. No foods and drinks will be allowed into the laboratory. You should follow proper instructions to handle equipment and delicate glassware. You should always read your pre-lab to know what equipment will be provided and what each should be used for. You should also perform your pre-lab calculations carefully to ensure you have enough reagents and samples for all the experiments.

Many of the instruments will be shared among the whole class so be sure to maintain the cleanliness and functionality of the instruments for the next user. If you accidentally spill some chemical from the reagent bottle when you are weighing, notify the TA and ask for proper clean up procedures. After weighing a reagent, pass to the next user in line, or if you are the last user, return to the supply area. All of these will be graded after each lab session, together with the observations on your technique throughout the lab session, and the below Clean-Up instructions, to constitute the grading for Laboratory Technique.

Clean-Up
You will be responsible for the glassware, equipment, and bench space that you use in the lab. Unused or extra samples containing solvents or hazardous chemicals must be disposed of properly following the instructions by TAs. Dirty glassware must be rinsed with tap water, all tape removed, and placed in the basins by the sinks. All serological pipettes in the microbiology sessions should be disposed of in the autoclave waste containers. Failure to clean your lab bench and equipment will result in marks being deducted from Laboratory Technique.

Communication
The official language of this lab is English. Please use it at all times during class!

Oral Presentations

A group oral presentation will be required for modules FNH 325-2, 326-1 and 326-2. Groups may send a copy of their presentation to their instructor by 4:30 on the Monday before the presentation for feedback.

The oral presentations will be 15 minutes in length, with approximately 10 minutes for questions. Time limits will be strictly enforced. Your presentation will be stopped after 15 minutes, and marks will be deducted for incomplete presentation of results and discussion.

One mark for the presentation will be given to the whole group. Oral presentations will be evaluated on the following basis:

  • Effectiveness of Delivery (30%)
  • Voice (inflection, clarity, loudness)
  • Posture and gestures
  • Visual aids (clear, effective)
  • Organization/clarity of presentation
  • Enthusiasm/professionalism
  • Participation of all group members
  • Presentation Content (70%)
  • Introduction of problem and theory
  • Correct and complete data analysis
  • Correct interpretation of results
  • Depth of discussion/critical evaluation
  • Appropriate conclusion
  • Ability to respond to questions

The following web sites and references contain valuable tips on giving oral presentations. Please take the time to have a look at them.

  • Ruponow, J.H., King, J.W., Johnson, L.K. Thinking verbally: communication tips for technical presentation, Food Technology 2001, 55, 46-48.
http://www.am-fe.ift.org/pdfs/ThinkingVerballyFoodTech2001CommunicationTips.pdf
  • King, J.W., Johnson, L.K., Ruponow, J.H. Thinking visually: graphic tips for technical presentations. Food Technology 2001, 55, 49-56.
http://www.am-fe.ift.org/pdfs/ThinkingVisuallyFoodTech2001GraphicTips.pdf

A typical format for the group presentations is:

  • A brief introduction (1 – 2 min): Brief background to the topics covered in the module and their relevance/importance; the objectives of the exercises.
  • A method section: The specific technique, sample, formulation, or equipment used by your group.
  • The presentation of the results and discussion for the assigned materials. You are NOT to present any raw data, only calculated values from standard curves, coefficient of determination, means, standard deviations, coefficients of variation. You should use charts, graphs, figures and/or tables. Some examples are given in the section “Data Presentation.”
  • A brief conclusion that includes a summary of the results and comments on the significance of the findings. You can also include suggestions for improvement, further work, etc.

Experiment Modules

Module 326-1: Dairy Products - Processing of Milk

Session 12: Thermal Processing (Formal Report)

Session 13: Yogurt Production (Memo Report)

  • Exercise 1: Yogurt formulation

Session 14: Yogurt Microflora/Descriptive Analysis (Results Report)

  • Exercise 1: Media preparation
  • Exercise 2: Direct microscopic counts
  • Exercise 3: Plate counts
  • Exercise 4: Descriptive sensory evaluation (Video Tutorial: https://youtu.be/DDyfzUb3Np4)

Session 15: Mineral Determination - Atomic Absorption and Titration (Formal Report)

Module 326-2: Animal Tissues - Analysis of Fish

Session 16: Lipid Extraction and Oxidation/Carotenoids Quantitation (Formal Report)

Session 17: Protein Extraction and Quantification/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate - Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

Session 18: Iso-Electric Focusing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate- PAGE (Results Report)

Session 19: Histamine Determination and Discriminative Sensory Evaluation (Memo Report)

Video Resources

For more video resources, please refer to the FNH Teaching Lab channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKcdm-WFh6CfVnXiAfELtg