Course:FNH200/Lessons/Lesson 09/Page 09.6

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9.6 Summary of Lesson 9

  • Fermentation has a long history of use in civilization. Biotechnology is the "new" term applied for such an ancient preservation process
  • When we speak of fermented foods we are referring to the foods which have been produced with the aid of microorganisms.
  • Preservation of food by biotechnology involves the use of live microorganisms to produce desirable changes in the food, including acids, alcohols and other (antimicrobial) substances that inhibit the growth of other microorganisms (microbial antagonism)
  • Food fermentation can be caused by bacteria, yeast, and mould
  • Cheese is an example of a fermented food or a product derived from biotechnology
  • Different and unique starter cultures are used in the fermentation of milk, to make different types of cheese
  • Genetically Modified Organisms ("GMOs") are plants, animals and microorganisms in which there is a change to the heritable trait(s) of the organism by intentional manipulation.
  • Fermented foods require additional preservation methods to enhance the shelf-life and stability of the product. Packaging materials also play an important role.

Supplemental Videos:

  1. LARGE scale production
  2. Cheese making process. This is a pretty easy to follow clip, a bit funny and has all necessary science content needed for FNH 200
  3. How is cheese made? This video is even clearer than the one above, but I feel there is less science content.


FNH 200 Course content on this wiki page and associated lesson pages was originally authored by Drs. Brent Skura, Andrea Liceaga, and Eunice Li-Chan. Ongoing edits and updates are contributed by past and current instructors including Drs. Andrea Liceaga, Azita Madadi-Noei, Nooshin Alizadeh-Pasdar, and Judy Chan.

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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document according to the terms in Creative Commons License, Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0. The full text of this license may be found here: CC by-nc-sa 3.0

1. Which two regulatory agencies are responsible for the regulations of products derived from biotechnology in Canada?

Health Canada
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
World Health Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
Codex Alimentarius Commission
Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee

2. Type text here or a no-break space code

Which microorganism leads to the production of alcoholic beverages?

3. Which one of the following is NOT an approved novel food in Canada?

Herbicide tolerant corn
Algal protein
Acrylamide-reducing yeast
Non-browning apple
All of the above
None of the above

4. Which is the best definition of a genetically modified organism?

Microorganisms that have had genetic material intentionally manipulated in order to produce enzymes or particular by products.
A plant that has a trait that has been produced intentionally through breeding or genetic engineering.
A living organism (plant, animal, microorganism) that has a trait that has been produced intentionally through manipulating genetic material (DNA).
Plants and animals that have had genetic material belonging to a different species inserted into their own genetic material to produce a desired trait.

5. Which are two components that produce microbial antagonism seen in fermentation?

Oxygen and Alcohols
Polysaccharides and Acids
Salts and Acids
Acids and Alcohols