Course:EOSC311/2021/High School Learning Resources for Offshore Oil

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High School Learning Resources on Marine Oil

On this wikipage, British Columbian high school teachers are provided with learning resources to explore the topic of marine oil, with a local focus on the Pacific Northwest. These resources will help to build a foundational understanding of the importance of oil, its unique geology, and its involvement in the greenhouse effect and carbon cycle. Marine oil includes the oil that is both derived from and transported in marine environments. Methods for exploring, extracting, processing, and transporting marine oil will also be addressed. A significant marine oil event for the Pacific Northwest was the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which occurred near Prince William Sound, Alaska in 1989[1]. While the Pacific Northwest coast is an insignificant source of marine oil[2], the demand for global energy has pushed both Canada[3] and the United States[4] [5] to reconsider current marine oil policy. After delivery of the curriculum provided on this page, BC students should have an intimate awareness of BC's dirty marine energy past and be propelled to consider sustainable energy solutions and policies.

Oil Geology

Why Oil?

In pairs, reflect on the following questions and later share your answers with the class.
  1. Why is oil important to you? Which oil resources are you dependent on?
  2. Describe what you would do if the world suddenly ran out of oil?

Next, watch the following two videos:

Even as humans develop alternative forms of energy, our need for oil will not change any time soon.

Oil Geology

Distribute a paper copy of the oil geology figure shown on the right. While watching the three videos below, please answer the following questions:

1. How long ago did fossil fuels form?

Over 2 billion years ago during the carboniferous period

2. What are the three types of fossil fuels made from?

Coal (plants & trees), Oil (algae & plankton), Gas (same as oil, but exposed to higher heat and pressure)

3. How does oil and gas form?

The decomposition of marine organisms on ancient ocean floors creates kerogen that is later turned into oil by additional heat and pressure.

4. What is an oil and gas reserve like and what is it composed of?

An oil and gas reserve is like a giant sponge of porous rocks that traps oil and gas under impermeable rock strata.

5. What does non-renewable mean?

Non-renewable means that a resource takes millions of years to form and once exhausted cannot be replenished within a lifetime.

6. What does hydrocarbon mean?

Hydrocarbon means that a substance is made from carbon and hydrogen atoms.

7. What are some methods for finding oil?

Seismic surveys, gravitational surveys, geological maps, core samples, and 4D projections and graphics.

8. What is an unconventional reserve?

A reserve that is difficult or expensive to extract.

This figure shows the necessary geology for the formation of oil generation, migration, and accumulation between layers of rock strata in the Earth's crust and lithosphere.

Create notes on oil geology using the following resource: http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2013/ph240/malyshev2/

(An example of these notes is presented below)

Necessary conditions for the formation of an oil reserve:

1. Marine organisms must be buried before oxidation occurs

2. Be buried for a significant amount of time (millions of years)

3. Buried deep enough to be exposed to high enough temperatures and pressures to transition into oil

4. Not be buried too deep that high temperatures and pressures cause the oil to transform into natural gas and graphite

5. Be contained within a reservoir rock of sand, gravel, pores, or cracks to hold the oil

6. A cap rock on top of the reserve that acts as an impermeable layer to prevent the oil from seeping up into the strata above

Oil uses:

- Electricity

- Transportation fuels

- Plastics

- Synthetic fibers

- Asphalt

- Cosmetics

- Some medicines

Three necessary components for an oil reserve are:

1. Source Rock - contains a high concentration of decomposed marine organisms (algae & plankton) that transforms into oil under significant temperatures (65-150°C) and pressures (2000-5500m deep) within "the oil window". Typical source rock consists of a fine-grain rock called shale derived mostly from clay, or consists of limestone derived from the calcite (CaCO3) of seashells. Over time, cracks in the source rock allow the compressed oil to flow upwards or between horizontal layers of strata.

2. Reservoir Rock - permeable strata made of high porosity sand, gravel, and/or cracks in rocks that can store and transmit oil. The higher the porosity or permeability of a reservoir rock allows for more fluid oil to transmit and be stored within the reserve. Typical reservoir rocks consist of sandstone composed of sand-sized grains and carbonates including calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2).

3. Cap Rock - Typical cap rock consists of shale, or consists of limestone and sandstone rocks immersed in shale. Ca rock, also called traps, helps to accumulate oil and gas by preventing the transmission of these substances to the Earth's surface. An anticline is a dome-like trap of cap rock over a reservoir rock. Anticlines can form as a result of folding. Since natural gas is formed with oil, the gas will be at the top of the dome unless it dissolves in the oil. Meanwhile, salty brine water is the densest and sits just below the layer of accumulated oil.

Supporting evidence for an organic, rather than an inorganic, origin of oil:

1. Oil is primarily found in sedimentary rocks rather than igneous rocks.

2. Oil has an optical rotary power (i.e. ability to rotate the polarization of light, which is typical of cholesterol in organic matter)

3. Crude oils contain porphyrins, from chlorophyll in plants or red blood cells.

4. Most oil contains nitrogen, which is an essential element in amino acids.

5. Oil is found in sedimentary rocks spanning many geological times from Precambrian (> 500 million years ago) to Pleistocene (~ 1 million years ago), indicating that oil forms continuously in the sedimentary rocks.

6. Sedimentary rocks contain enough organic material to form oil. The chemical composition of the oil is similar to the composition of the organic material.

Knowledge of oil generation, migration, and accumulation is used to search for and estimate the remaining oil reserves.

- Oil is formed and trapped in sedimentary rather than igneous rocks.

- Regions of exposed Precambrian igneous rocks are called shields.

- Oil reserves are not found in shields, but in orogens where plate deformation and the creation of sedimentary basins occur

- Plate deformation forces of the sedimentary rocks create traps necessary for oil and gas accumulation

- Basins and orogens coincide with many world oil reach regions: east and west coasts of America, around the Persian Gulf, along the Ural mountains, across the Caspian sea, in Siberia, in the north of Africa.

- Assuming that the current oil formation theory is correct, estimates of undiscovered oil reserves can be made since all of Earth's orogens and basins are known

- A USGS survey estimates the amount of undiscovered conventional oil to be below 600 billion barrels.

- The estimated proven world reserves are below 1700 billion barrels and would last for about 50 years.

- Adding the estimated undiscovered oil, gives at most 70 years for the conventional oil.

Greenhouse Effect & Carbon Cycle

Complete the following questions related to the video on the greenhouse effect: Complete the following questions related to the video on the carbon cycle:
1. What important function does the greenhouse effect achieve?

Keeps Earth at the appropriate temperature to maintain life as we know it.

2. What's Earth's equivalent of the glass material of the greenhouse analogy?

Earth's atmosphere and associated greenhouse gasses

3. How is the Earth like a greenhouse?

The sun's rays penetrate through Earth's atmosphere during the day to warm the surface. At night, the radiated heat from the surface is then trapped within Earth's atmosphere like the glass of a greenhouse.

4. What are some common greenhouse gases?

Common greenhouse gases are water, carbon, and methane.

5. Why does Earth need a balance of greenhouse gasses?

To maintain the temperature for all life to exist.

6. What are some human activities that are changing Earth's natural greenhouse effect?

The burning of fossil fuels, like oil, releases more carbon into the atmosphere, which traps more heat and increases temperatures globally.

7. How are NASA's satellites helping us to understand Earth's greenhouse effect?

NASA's satellites measure greenhouse gases and determine the sources of emissions to help understand the impacts that human-derived greenhouse gas transmissions have on Earth's temperature balance.


1. Where is carbon found on Earth?

In plants, animals, humans, non-living things like terrestrial rocks, the ocean, and the atmosphere.


2. Why is carbon important?

It's the building block of all living things and is the main source of energy provided by the burning of fossil fuels.


3. What is the carbon cycle?

The carbon cycle is one of Earth's natural cycles of where carbon moves and is stored. Carbon moves from:

Plants --> Atmosphere --> Plants

Ocean --> Atmosphere --> Ocean

From the ground in the form of fossil fuels such as oil --> Atmosphere --> Ocean or back to terrestrial environments


4. What is the fast carbon cycle and generally how long is carbon stored?

The fast carbon cycle involves the photosynthesis of plants, which store atmospheric carbon. Carbon is not generally stored for very long in the fast carbon cycle.


5. What is the slow carbon cycle and generally how long is carbon stored?

The slow carbon cycle involves the storage of atmospheric carbon in the oceans and in terrestrial environments. Historically, carbon is stored for very long periods of geologic time in the slow carbon cycle, but human activity has changed this by burning carbon stores of fossil fuels that further acidify the oceans, and reduces the oceans' ability to store carbon.

Marine Oil

Marine oil includes the oil that is derived from and transported in marine environments.

There are four main processes that marine oil reserves move through in order to be useable by humans: exploration, extraction, transportation, and refining. Please watch the following videos and answer the associated questions.

Marine Oil Reserves

1) Exploration

2) Extraction

After watching the video above, please answer the following questions:


1. What is the primary surveying technique used in finding marine oil? Seismic surveying.

2. How does this surveying technique work?

Compressed air is used to create sound waves that reflect off the seafloor and indicates the geology that lies beneath.

3. From the recorded data of this survey what is created?

Detailed three-dimensional maps are produced.

4. How does this data help engineers?

Engineers can use this data to identify the highest-yielding reserves and create a production plan to pinpoint the safest and most efficient drilling areas, which eliminates unnecessary drilling and dry wells.

5. How is marine life protected from this surveying technique?

Visual and acoustic monitoring ensures marine life has time to leave the area before surveying begins by gradually increasing the sound. If animals are detected at any time, then surveying stops until the area is clear.

After watching the video above, please answer the following questions:


1. How does the extraction process affect the cost of oil?

Depending on where oil is found and how much oil is available can affect cost.

2. Why is offshore oil not the first choice in oil extraction?

Offshore oil is a higher risk and a higher cost of oil extraction.

3. How is oil transported to the shore from an offshore oil rig?

Undersea pipes or oil tankers.

4. What are the 3 reasons that drilling rock mud is used?

- to lift rock cuttings from the wellbore

- keep the drill bit cool and lubricated

- fill the wellbore with fluid to equalize the pressure and prevent other fluids from flowing into the wellbore

5. What is used to permanently secure the well-casing in place?

Cement and then mud is pumped into the drill pipe. Sometimes a second casing is needed




3) Transportation

4) Refining

After watching the video above, please answer the following questions:


1. What methods are used to transport marine oil?

Pipelines and tankers.

2. How is oil typically transported on land?

pipelines

3. What is the biggest concern of pipeline transport?

A pipeline rupture

4. How is the oil movement controlled in a pipeline?

By control centers and monitoring. By opening and closing valves manually and through remote telemetry.

5. What is done with volatile organic compounds (VOCs)?

VOCs are piped to an area where they are concentrated and thermally oxidized to reduce the vapours by 95%.

6. What is the most economical way to transport large quantities of oil to global markets?

By ship.

After watching the video above, please answer the following questions:


1. What process begins the refining process?

Distilling.

2. How are oil-derived liquids separated?

By weight.

3. What is cracking?

Increases the usefulness of heavy oil by using a catalyst to break the long carbon chains to create lighter fluids.

4. What is reforming?

Reforming increases the amount of gasoline created from crude oil.

5. What is blending?

Mixes different refinery products to make finished petroleum fuels that meet the needs of different engine types.

6. What is treating?

A process to create cleaner gasoline to save our health and environment.

Marine Oil Disaster

After watching the video to the right, please complete the following questions:


1. Why is water considered a polar molecule? Water is considered a polar molecule since one side of the molecule is positive and the other negative.

2. What does hydrophobic mean?

Hydrophobic means "water-fearing."

3. In terms of density, which substance is less dense: oil or water?

Oil is less dense and floats on water.

After watching the video above, please complete the following questions:


1. What do mariners need to operate a tanker?

Receive special licensing and credentials and comply with ever-expanding regulations.


2. Why are redundant engine rooms needed?

For faster response and maneuverability.


3. Why are faster response and maneuverability systems needed?

To get the tanker out of danger and into safety faster.

4. Why is a double hull needed?

In order to prevent hull breaches!

...This type of marine disaster is explored in the next section on the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

After watching the video below, please complete the following questions:


1. What year did the explosion on the BP Deepwater Horizon occur?

2010.

2. How long did the rig burn for?

Two days until the rig sank to the ocean floor, creating the largest spill in US history.

3. Which oil spill was the biggest in history?

This one.

4. What key piece of technology failed?

The blowout preventer.

5. What is a kick?

Well fluids

6. Why are kicks dangerous?

A kick can lead to a blowout and uncontrolled release of oil and gas pressure.

7. How are kicks prevented?

Drilling mud is pumped into the well

8. What is the blow-out preventer for?

Essential for controlling the well to prevent a disaster on the rig's platform.

9. What is a blind shear ram for?

Permanently closing well access.

10. How did the blowout preventer fail and cause the final explosion?

The pressure caused the drill pipe to buckle.

11. How is the AMF deadman controlled? Automatically, after the electrical, hydraulic pressure and communications are lost with the blow-out preventer.

12. How did one dead battery cause the final failure to the blow-out preventer? Prevented the blind shear ram from fully closing the well.

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

Overview

Watch!

Map Prince-William-Sound AK.jpg
Review:

Take a look through the videos and photos from Gulf Watch Alaska: https://gulfwatchalaska.org/resources/educational-resources/

Fact:

"Since Exxon Valdez, more than 9,500 tanker spills have occurred worldwide. Some 20 years later, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico dumped 19 times more oil into the ocean than Exxon Valdez did.[6]"

Timeline

Activity - Create a skit

Create a skit using the Exxon Valdez oil spill timeline to gain an understanding of the progression of events that lead up to and follow after the spill event. https://evostc.state.ak.us/oil-spill-facts/details-about-the-accident/

Spill Engineering

The above video explains the use and importance of modeling and simulation technology.

Please click "Watch video on youtube."

The video above shows a tanker simulator reenacting the events leading up to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Enviro-Engineering Labs

In the following labs, students explore an important role of environmental engineers—cleaning the environment. They learn about the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which was one of the most publicized and studied human-caused environmental tragedies in history.

In this first activity, students experiment with many "engineered" strategies to clean up their own manufactured oil spill and learn the difficulties in dealing with oil released into our waters. Environmental engineers determine which type of cleanup method is best for different situations by examining the weather patterns of the area, the type of oil spilled, and what living creatures and natural environments are affected by the spill.

https://www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/cub_enveng_lesson01_activity1

In this second activity, students learn about oil spills and their environmental and economic effects. They experience the steps of the engineering design process, starting by brainstorming potential methods for oil spill cleanup. They model small-size oil spills in plastic bins, and then design, build and re-design oil booms to prevent the spread of oil spills.

https://www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/cub_enveng_lesson01_activity2

In this third activity, students will build and use a remote operational vehicle (ROV) to help clean an oil spill. Please see Lesson 6: Oil Spill Response/ROV Build using the following link: https://pwssc.org/education/ocean-and-oil-spill-technologies/

Environmental Impacts

Compare & Refelct

Please use the weblinks of the two resources on the right to compare and reflect on the persistent environmental effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

https://youtu.be/YMOGsDu3vqU
https://youtu.be/YMOGsDu3vqU
Virtual Field Trips

Two immersive field trip experiences are offered through the Gulf Watch Alaska website that includes plenty of visuals, figures, and videos, as well as descriptions that lead students through an exploration of key concepts and discipline-specific vocabulary. The focus of these field trips is primarily on oceanography and biological ecosystems.

https://gulfwatchalaska.org/resources/educational-resources/virtual-field-trips/

Activity - Create a presentation

Create a presentation of your favourite BC organism that is or could be affected by marine oil on the BC coast. Please use this resource to help you: https://www.raincoast.org/2010/03/whats-at-stake-the-cost-of-oil-on-british-columbias-priceless-coast/

Oil Policy

Activity - Compare marine oil policy

Compare oil spill prevention and response policy alongside the events that occurred before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Next, write a reflection on the events that influenced a change in marine policy for the Pacific Northwest.


A Comparison of marine oil policy before and after:

https://dec.alaska.gov/spar/ppr/response-resources/publications-conferences/exxon-valdez/

A visual timeline of the oil spill response: https://amp.theatlantic.com/amp/photo/100703/
A visual timeline of lingering oil in surface strata materials:

https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/lingering-oil-exxon-valdez-spill

Question

Please answer the question: Should BC lift the oil moratorium or consider alternate energy solutions? Use this resource to help formulate your answer: https://www.resourceworks.com/moratorium

Teacher Resources

Curriculum Development

The following background materials could be helpful for teachers in developing local marine oil curriculum.

Curriculum Resource Type Topic Brief Description URL
Primer Oil Geology and Spill Remediation "Oil Spills" webpage from the NOAA website

- this webpage that was last updated on August 1, 2020 is an excellent primer on oil geology and spill remediation by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website

https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/ocean-coasts/oil-spills
Brief Overview Oil Reserve Lifecyle "Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Life Cycle" webpage from the CAPP website

- this webpage by the Canadian Association of Oil Producers provides a brief overview of oil reserve exploration, development, production, and decommissioning

https://atlanticcanadaoffshore.ca/offshore-oil-gas-lifecycle/
Brief

Overview

Exxon Valdez

Oil Spill

"Exxon Valdez Oil Spill" webpage from the History.com website

- this webpage that was last updated on March 23rd, 2021 provides an overview of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

https://www.history.com/topics/1980s/exxon-valdez-oil-spill
Broad Overview Exxon Valdez

Oil Spill

"Oil Spill Facts" webpage of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council website

- this is a broad overview of the Exxon Valdez oil spill that provides common questions and answers, spill maps, a photo gallery, details about the accident, the economic impacts, the legal settlement, restoration plan, spill prevention and response, topical bibliographies, resources for educators and students, and where to find additional EVOS documents and items

https://evostc.state.ak.us/oil-spill-facts/
Timeline Exxon Valdez Oil Spill "Details about the accident" from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council website

- an excellent timeline of events around the Exxon Valdez oil spill

https://evostc.state.ak.us/oil-spill-facts/details-about-the-accident/
Resources for Teachers & Students Reference List Exxon Valdez

Oil Spill

"Resources for Teachers and Students" .pdf from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council

- this is a massive but dated repository of resources (circa the 1990s to 2000s) is for teachers and students on: where to find oil spill information; books for younger students; books for older students and adults; fiction and literature pertaining to oil spills; videos and dvds; websites; and organizations.

https://evostc.state.ak.us/media/4012/evos-resources-for-teachers-students-3-16-09pp.pdf
Brief facts Exxon Valdez Oil Spill "Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska. March 1989" by the National Oceanic and Atmosphere from darp.noaa.gov on August 17, 2020.

- this resource from 2020 provides brief facts about the Exxon Valdez oil spill from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

https://darrp.noaa.gov/oil-spills/exxon-valdez
Article Pacific Northwest Oil Reserves "US Pacific Northwest Offshore Oil and Gas: A Waste of Time, Ocean and Coast" by Andy Kerr from AndyKerr.net on January 19, 2018.

- this blog post from 2018 recognizes that the Pacific Northwest is not a significant source of offshore oil and provides several linked datasets from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

http://www.andykerr.net/kerr-public-lands-blog/2018/1/18/us-pacific-northwest-offshore-oil-and-gas-a-waste-of-time-ocean-and-coast
Article BC Oil Policy "Will Trudeau government action on tanker ban re-open painful wound?" by ResouceWorks Editors from ResourceWorks.com on June 22, 2016.

- this article from 2016 explores how the Trudeau government's recent actions on the BC tanker ban have less to do with environmental concerns and more to do with being a contested territory

https://www.resourceworks.com/moratorium
Article US OIl Policy "Offshore Oil, Gas Drilling Is Coming To The Pacific Northwest Under Trump Proposal" By Cassandra Profita from OPB.org, on June 4, 2018.

- this article from 2018 discusses Trump's proposal for offshore oil and gas drilling in the Pacific Northwest

https://www.opb.org/news/article/offshore-oil-gas-drilling-northwest-coast
Article US OIl Policy "Q&A: What Are The Chances Of Offshore Oil And Gas Drilling In The Northwest?" By Cassandra Profita and Tony Schick from OPB.org, on Jan. 25, 2018.

- this article from 2018 discusses the chances of offshore oil and gas drilling in the Northwest

https://www.opb.org/news/article/qa-what-are-the-chances-of-offshore-oil-and-gas-drilling-in-the-northwest/
Secondary Resource

(Overview)

Provincial, National, and Global

Oil Data

EnergyBC.ca website

- this website provides a generalized source of topics and figures on British Columbian, Canadian, and global oil issues, including political, economic, and environmental impacts

http://www.energybc.ca/oil.html
Secondary Resource

(Pointed)

BC Government Oil Data Government of BC website

- this provincial website discusses oil and gas in British Columbia

https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/industry/natural-gas-oil/petroleum-geoscience/petroleum-geology
Secondary Resource

(Broad)

Government of Canada Oil Data Goverment of Canada website

- this federal website provides links to more current data as well as a comprehensive guide from 1995 called, "Petroleum Exploration in Northern Canada: A Guide to Oil and Gas Exploration and Potential"

https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/1320162078672/1583413106462

Lessons & Activities

The following lessons and activities will help students to develop an awareness of oil geology, properties, environmental impacts, and the technologies used to contain and clean oil from an ecosystem. Students will also be able to reflect on the events of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the changes in oil spill prevention and response policy. Many of the learning opportunities provided emphasize the importance of hands-on project-based learning within a differentiated classroom for a variety of learners.

Curriculum type Brief Description URL
Activity - Create a skit Create a skit using the Exxon Valdez oil spill timeline to gain an understanding of the progression of events that lead up to and followed after the spill event. https://evostc.state.ak.us/oil-spill-facts/details-about-the-accident/
Locally developed repository of a complete Elementary curriculum This is a locally developed curriculum for the Alaskan, Prince William Sound Science Center to teach about the local marine ecosystem, oil reserve, and the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The curriculum provided includes lesson plans, presentations, activities, worksheets, labs, projects, games, etc.

There are 7 lessons in total:

Lesson 1 - Introduction to the Arctic Ecosystem

Lesson 2 - Water Properties and Ocean Technology

Lesson 3 - Climate Change and Oil in the Arctic

Lesson 4 - Oil Spill Sources and Effects

Lesson 5 - Oil Spill Cleanup

Lesson 6 - Oil Spill Response / ROV Build

Lesson 7 - Jeopardy Game

https://pwssc.org/education/ocean-and-oil-spill-technologies/
Exploration of Fossil Fuel Geology This activity highlights the importance of energy resources as well as the specific geological formations that identify coal, oil, and natural gas reserves. Students are encouraged to explore fossil fuel data from national and global resource assessments of the online National Geospatial Program and USGS Energy Resources Program.


Students are expected to answer the following questions:

- How are these fossil fuel formations identified?

- How are the resources extracted?

- Where are these resources located?

- How are they distributed among the continents?

- Compare this data to a topographic or relief map.

- Are these resources generally located near certain geological features?

https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Geo_p025/geology/energy#summary
Enviro-Engineering Lab Students explore an important role of environmental engineers—cleaning the environment. They learn about the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which was one of the most publicized and studied human-caused environmental tragedies in history.


In this first activity, students experiment with many "engineered" strategies to clean up their own manufactured oil spill and learn the difficulties in dealing with oil released into our waters. Environmental engineers determine which type of cleanup method is best for different situations by examining the weather patterns of the area, the type of oil spilled, and what living creatures and natural environments are affected by the spill.

https://www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/cub_enveng_lesson01_activity1
Enviro-Engineering Lab In this second activity, students learn about oil spills and their environmental and economic effects. They experience the steps of the engineering design process, starting by brainstorming potential methods for oil spill cleanup. They model small-size oil spills in plastic bins, and then design, build and re-design oil booms to prevent the spread of oil spills. https://www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/cub_enveng_lesson01_activity2
Virtual Field Trips Two immersive field trip experiences are offered through the Gulf Watch Alaska website that includes plenty of visuals, figures, and videos, as well as descriptions that lead students through an exploration of key concepts and discipline-specific vocabulary. The focus of these field trips is primarily on oceanography and biological ecosystems. https://gulfwatchalaska.org/resources/educational-resources/virtual-field-trips/
Activity - Create a presentation Create a presentation - What is a favorite BC organism that would be affected by oil on BC coast? https://www.raincoast.org/2010/03/whats-at-stake-the-cost-of-oil-on-british-columbias-priceless-coast/
Activity -

Compare marine oil policy

Compare oil spill prevention and response policy alongside the events that occurred before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Next, write a reflection on the events that influenced a change in marine policy for the Pacific Northwest. Comparison of marine oil policy before and after

https://dec.alaska.gov/spar/ppr/response-resources/publications-conferences/exxon-valdez/

A visual timeline of the oil spill responsehttps://amp.theatlantic.com/amp/photo/100703/

A visual timeline of lingering oil in surface strata materials

https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/lingering-oil-exxon-valdez-spill

Question Should BC lift the oil moratorium or consider alternate energy solutions? https://www.resourceworks.com/moratorium
Oil Spill Lab Video

(Secondary Resource)

The video outlines the steps and learnings involved oil spill lab. https://populationeducation.org/resource/like-oil-and-water/
Oil Spill Lab

(Secondary Resource)

Students learn how environmental engineers develop equipment and procedures to help reduce environmental impact from accidental oil spills. Students work in teams to design and build a system out of everyday items that will eliminate oil from a classroom waterway. They test their system, evaluate their own results and those of other students, and present their findings to the class. http://teachers.egfi-k12.org/lesson-plan-oil-spill-solutions/
Oil Spill Lab

(Secondary Resource)

Students will observe the effects of a simulated oil spill on land, water, and wildlife. In groups, students will then test different materials and tools used to clean up oil spills and evaluate them for their effectiveness. https://www.calacademy.org/educators/lesson-plans/slippery-shores-oil-spill-clean-up

Maps & Figures

Maps and figures help to form dynamic relationships between various concepts.

Resource type Decription URL
Firgure Visualcapitalist.com - How Oil is Formed

- stunning infographic detailing how oil is formed, its uses, and history.

https://www.visualcapitalist.com/how-oil-is-formed/
Figures Smithsonian: Ocean - Find Your Blue

- Static timeline of figures from extraction, to remediation, and environmental impacts of marine oil

https://ocean.si.edu/conservation/gulf-oil-spill/gulf-Modeling & Simulationsactive
Figure Alaskasealife.org - Alaska Regional Ecosystem

- extremely detailed figure of Alaska's regional ecosystem

https://www.alaskasealife.org/gw_Introduction
Figure Alaskasealife.org - Recovered Species and Habitat

- figure show which species have recovered, are recovering, and have not recovered from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

https://www.alaskasealife.org/gw_Updates
Figure Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council - Lingering Oil

- the link goes directly to a figure of lingering oil in the Prince William Sound, but also provides links to the 2010 and 2016 "Lingering Oil Updates" that are full of additional figures of the recovering ecosystem

https://evostc.state.ak.us/status-of-restoration/lingering-oil/
Figure National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Lingering Oil:

Monitoring decades of persistent Exxon Valdez Oil

- provides a visual timeline of what lingering oil remains in the soil of Prince William Sound

https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/lingering-oil-exxon-valdez-spill
Map National Geogrphic

- a 2009 map of the world's offshore oil production and the top 10 platform spills

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/photo/drilling-offshore-oil
Maps Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council

- provides three oil spill maps of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

https://evostc.state.ak.us/oil-spill-facts/spill-map/
Maps Living Oceans Society

- provides various GIS maps focusing on BC's coastal communities and ecosystem

https://www.livingoceans.org/maps/oil-water

Modeling & Simulations

Modeling and simulation technology is a powerful hands-on learning tool for students and professionals to gain deeply connected insights in a variety of applications.

Resource Type Resource Description URL
Video

(6:17min)

NTSA Today

This video explains the use and importance of modeling and simulation technology.

https://youtu.be/X-6zxImekOE
Video

(2:37min)

CNN

This video shows a tanker simulator of the Exxon Valdez and the events leading up to the oil spill.

https://youtu.be/Ovd7Zlni_Og
Interactive Modeling Map Living Oceans Society

provides an interactive modeling map that simulates different spill scenarios and their impacts on BC's coastal communities and ecosystem. Unfortunately, this model is not currently working due to the removal of Adobe Flash Player support. Hopefully, this map becomes available again in an alternate format.

https://livingoceans.org/maps/oil-spill-model

Videos

The videos provided below are ordered by a logical scope and sequence for delivery in a high school classroom. The brief descriptions provided are meant to help the teacher to select the best video by content, class needs, and available time.

Marine Oil Videos Exxon Valdez Videos
Video Title & Brief Description Time URL
Fossil Fuels 101

- Good primer on recognizing the general geological conditions needed for the formation of several fossil fuels, including oil. Also briefly mentions environmental impacts and need for sustainable alternatives

2:42 https://youtu.be/zaXBVYr9Ij0
Oil 101

- Excellent straightforward primer

2:16 https://youtu.be/UPAqfTNiais
Oil and gas formation

- Excellent visuals and also explains survey techniques for how oil reserves are found

3:04 https://youtu.be/8YHsxXEVB1M
If the world runs out of oil, what will happen next?

- Excellent introduction or conclusion video for oil resources

8:49 https://youtu.be/i2OXfUKqa4k
Petroleum Modern History of Oil

- Excellent visual timeline and geopolitical history of our global dependence on oil. Speed up playback!

14:15 https://youtu.be/xMQUGSrnbP8
Real World: The Carbon Cycle - Essential for Life on Earth

- Discusses the fast and slow carbon cycle. Lots of quick changes between concepts and visuals. Would be aided by pre-loading students with a static figure of the two cycles

5:42 https://youtu.be/hgFpvDNfXOk
What is the greenhouse effect?

- From NASA. Excellent animations and dynamic figures

2:29 https://youtu.be/SN5-DnOHQmE
Offshore Seismic Surveying

- shows how seismic surveying and 4D imaging is used to explore marine oil reserves

2:39 https://youtu.be/FN8IAb0rG9A
Drilling 101: How a deep water well is drilled

- Excellent visuals and description

5:31 https://youtu.be/Do9dz6ypD7w
How offshore oil rigs work

- Discusses economic considerations including logistical costs in relation to the supply and demand

12:04 https://youtu.be/ABIkWS_YavM 
Petroleum Refining Processes Explained Simply

- Excellent oil processing video

2:48 https://youtu.be/vD0kbdIS6kE
Transportation of Crude Oil and Petroleum products

- Explains global oil network technologies, including extraction, processing, storage, and transport. Ends by briefly mentioning oil tankers

5:11 https://youtu.be/JXRFIqtCMzM
Deepwater Horizon Blowout Animation

- highlights the events and mechanical failures from the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

11:22 https://youtu.be/9NQ8LehUWSE
Tankers

- Good description and excellent visuals of modern upgrades to oil tanker technology. Some further explanation may be needed regarding the importance of maneuverability, response time, and double hull technology

2:17 https://youtu.be/yJ5gLTLW568
The reason oil and water doesn't mix I Explained in a minute

- discuss oil and water chemical composition, water as a polar molecule, oil as hydrophobic, and relative density

1:02 https://youtu.be/TKLKQNqDllU
When will we stop using oil?

- Good curriculum conclusion video. Some points meander

5:10 https://youtu.be/Fjbx5Xq_ULc
Video Title & Brief Description Time URL
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: In the Wake of Disaster | New York Times

- Brief news report with an excellent overview

12:09 https://youtu.be/VaRdUHrUnBs
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill | NBC News

- Briefer news report than above with good overview

3:12 https://youtu.be/A7hfQ8mTVrU
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

- From History Channel. Very long and thorough documentary with lots of old footage

57:53 https://youtu.be/WD4XxqfxX0U
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

- From History Channel. Shorter documentary than above

38:59 https://youtu.be/dtF-4JvSh8o
Exxon Valdez: Alaska’s Environmental Armageddon

- Current perspective from 2021, but mostly dialogue, could have more visuals, and is interrupted by sponsorship advertisement

21:25 https://youtu.be/nyWcuba4eZs
Looking for Killer Whales 26 Years After the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Part (Part 1) 4:32 https://youtu.be/luwUJna1CZ8
Killer Wales: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Nearly Decimated This Pod (Part 2) | National Geographic 5:12 https://youtu.be/j57LApIuu4w
There’s Still Oil on the Beach 26 Years After the Exxon Valdez Spill (Part 3) | National Geographic 7:01 https://youtu.be/NLdH33JmscM
The United States of Oil Spills (25 year anniversary of Exxon Valdez) 2:40 https://youtu.be/YMOGsDu3vqU
"Youth Speak: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Stories"

- from Gulf Watch Alaska Youth Film Outreach, a professional & student production

9:14 https://vimeo.com/133696379
Video & photo repository from Gulf Watch Alaska --- https://gulfwatchalaska.org/resources/educational-resources/


Connections Summary

The curricular connections that I made between Geology and my Education background were quite broadly explored through this wiki of "High School Learning Resources on Marine Oil". Rather than deeply analyzing and extracting curricular connections between peer reviewed sources in a scholarly way, most of my efforts went into synthesizing developmentally appropriate and accessible resources for a variety of learners. A dichotomy between scholarly and accessible resources challenged my understanding of how best to cite my sources. Thankfully, a wiki seemed to offer the greatest flexibility in making these curricular connections.

Two questions that highlight my thinking throughout the development of this wiki are:

  1. How might the APA citation format deter from the flow of learning presented on this wiki?
  2. How can I use the wiki citation tools to create a stand alone teaching and learning resource for both teachers and students?

Despite some necessary compromises, I hope I was able to thoroughly present and synthesize content in an interesting and meaningful way.

One of the highlights for me in creating this wiki was to learn how to present information in an online public environment. I look forward to pass this skill on to my own students so that they can also become producers of wikis rather than just consumers. As a Technology Education teacher who would eventually like to teach Earth Sciences, I appreciated finding three environmental engineering labs to work with students on. Already I have some ideas about how to integrate these engineering labs alongside my Technology 9 curriculum that focuses on designing and building sustainable energy solutions.

Overall, the experience of creating this wiki was worthwhile. I hope that I have created a resource that others will find useful in their own teaching and learning.

References

Earth from space, hurricane.jpg
This Earth Science resource was created by Course:EOSC311.
  1. History.com Editors (March 23, 2021). "Exxon Valdez Oil Spill". Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  2. Kerr, Andy (January 19, 2018). "US Pacific Northwest Offshore Oil and Gas: A Waste of Time, Ocean and Coast". Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  3. "Will Trudeau government action on tanker ban re-open painful wound?". Resource Works. June 22, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  4. Profita, Cassandra (Jan. 4, 2018). "Offshore Oil, Gas Drilling Is Coming To The Pacific Northwest Under Trump Proposal". OPB.org. Retrieved June 14, 2021. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. Profita, C. & Schick, T. (2018, January 2018). Q&A: What are the chances of offshore oil and gas drilling in the Northwest? OPB.org. Retrieved June 14, 2021, from https://www.opb.org/news/article/qa-what-are-the-chances-of-offshore-oil-and-gas-drilling-in-the-northwest/
  6. Woodward, Aylin (Mar 26, 2019). "12 of the most devastating man-made ocean disasters in history, from Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon". Retrieved June 14, 2021.