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Materials and Methods for Classical Chinese Studies
ASIA 501
Instructor: Leo K. Shin
Office: Buchanan Tower 1223
Office Hours: Wed/Th 1400-1500
Class Schedule: Mon 1500
Classroom: Asian Library 616
Important Course Pages
Lecture Notes
Course Discussion


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Weekly Topics

Week 2: Research Guides

  • Classical Historiography for Chinese History. By Benjamin A. Elman. Updated periodically. Extensive lists of research tools and links to printed and electronic resources for classical Chinese studies. (submitted by Leo K. Shin)
  • By Ulrich Theobald, University of Tübingen. Updated frequently. An online encyclopedia for classical Chinese studies. Eclectic but much useful information. (submitted by Leo K. Shin)
  • A companion to modern Chinese literature. 2016. Ed. Zhang, Yingjin. Publisher: John Wiley & Sons. Full text available on line through UBC Library. Discussion of modern Chinese literature organized by topics ranging from genre difference to thematic issues; offers a paranoiac view; rich references available based on which topic the reader is interested in; sources up to date; with a handy glossary at the end of the book (submitted by WM).
  • “Research Guide to Chinese Comparative Literature Studies.” A four-page long research guide offered by the University of Iowa Libraries, available at Places Chinese literature in an even broader context for those who want to study it from a comparatist’s perspective; lists information from a variety of sources, including monographs and journals; although not entirely focused on modern period, still contains a large amount of material related to modern literature (submitted by WM).

  • MCLC RESOURCE CENTER for Modern Chinese Literature and Culture, The Ohio State University.

Available at Visual layout indicating various sections of Chinse studies. The “literature” section is divided into subcategories based on time periods from premodern to post-1989. The modern era is meticulously divided into several subcategories. In addition to the size of references sources recommended, there is a box called “translation,” where one can easily find out information about existing English translation about a particular work (submitted by WM).

  • Chinese Religious Culture: A Research Guide. 2013. Maintained by Barend ter Haar, University of Oxford. Provides books, articles, and dictionaries on Chinese religious culture, especially on Buddhism and Daoism. Also has collections on popular religions and some common aspects of religions. (submitted by Alice)
  • East Asian Buddhist Studies: A Reference Guide. 2010. Revised and expanded by William Bodiford. UCLA. Covers collections of Buddhist scriptures in various canons and Buddhist dictionaries in English and Asian languages. Its list of Non-Buddhist Asian-Language Dictionaries and Encyclopedias mainly focuses on Chinese and Japanese. (submitted by Alice)
  • Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy. 2003. Ed. Antonio S. Cua. Routledge: New York & London. An encyclopedia on Chinese philosophy and principal figures from the classical period to the late twentieth century, mainly focus on Confucianism. A short list of bibliography is provided after the explanation of each term. B126 .E496 2003 (submitted by Alice)

[1] Scripta Sinica database 漢籍全文資料庫計畫. It contains documents essential to research in traditional Sinology: almost all the important Chinese classics, especially those related to Chinese history. Until present, it is still the largest Chinese full text database to encompass a wide variety of historical material of this scale. (submitted by Victoria Ma)

Airusheng愛如生(Erudition; Airusheng shuzihua jishu yanjiu zhongxin愛如生數字化技術研究中心): Shuzi shucheng數字書城. [2] it contains 14 large databases, including over 70,000 types of dynastic classics/histories, 30,000 pieces of Dunhuang Han documents, 1 million Ming-Qing documents, and 3000 more types of early modern and modern journals/newspapers. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)

[3]唐五代人物傳記與社會網絡資料庫 (1.0版) <tbdb010.mdb> (Prosopographic and Social Network Database of the Tang and Five Dynasties, version 1.0). Includes data on over 32,000 individuals culled from biographies, genealogical tables, and over 3,000 excavated tomb epitaphs.(Submitted by Victoria Ma)

  • Modern Chinese Literature Research Portal. It’s a project created by the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 2008. The purpose of the database is to combine research index and sources on one website. It accesses to many primary resources in Hong Kong. The database also sorts out detailed and clear index of manuscripts, dairy, book editions, book series, translations and research materials regarding each writer. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • Encyclopedia of Chinese Film. 1998. By Yingjin Zhang, Zhiwei Xiao. London; New York: Routledge. A comprehensive introduction of Chinese film with six historical essays on “Chinese cinema”, “Hong Kong cinema”, “Taiwan cinema”, “Transnational cinema” (subtitled “mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan”), “Chinese film in the West”, and “Foreign films in China.” Not only introduce the films, but also terminologies such as “social realism.” PN1993.5.C4 Z53 1998 (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • 1500 modern Chinese novels & plays. 1948. By Schyns, Jos., Yen-sheng Chao, and Heuen-lin Su. 1500 Modern Chinese Novels & Plays. Peiping: Catholic University Press. An introduction to 1500 modern Chinese novels and plays, as well as writers by missionaries in Peiping after the World War II. It provides short introductions to a wide range of literary works from the Christian perspective. It’s still useful in terms of the volume and the works they choose. PL2357 .S3 (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

Week 3: Language

  • 《古汉语时间范畴词典》 Guhanyu Shijian Fanchou Cidian/Glossary of Terms Related to Time in Premodern Chinese (title translation by WM). 2005. By Wang, Haifen 王海棻. Hefei: Anhui Education Publishing House. Full text available on line through UBC Library. A comprehensive collection of time related words and expressions; references heavily focused on literature and philosophy; shows cross references from a number of other dictionaries. The introduction part古汉语时间范畴综说 offers a synoptic analysis of temporal concepts in the Chinese language (submitted by WM).
  • 《汉英成语词典》 Dictionary of Chinese Idioms. 2006. By Shi, Zhengxin 施正信 et al. Beijing: China Translation & Publishing Corporation. Useful tool for translation of literary and critical texts from Chinese when the original language is a bit artsy; shows related results from a number of other sources, including 《汉英大词典》. Some of the translation desires polishing, but it provides a good starting point: one can build on what is there already. Full text available on line through UBC Library (submitted by WM).
  • Dictionaries for the Study of Buddhist and East Asian Language and Thought. By Charles Muller, University of Tokyo. Updated frequently. Website leads to three resources, including the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (DDB), CJKV-English Dictionary (漢日韓越-英辞典), and more resources for study of East Asian language and thought. Search in simplified and traditional Chinese characters can result in different collections of terms and meanings. Has cross reference between DDB and CJKV-E. Link to E-text resources, such as Chinese Text Project and SAT Taisho Database. Log in with the user ID of guest with no password. Limited times of access in 24 hrs for no contribution user. (submitted by Alice)
  • Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary. 1904. By K, Eitel, Ernest John, 1838-1908,Takakuwa. Sanshusha: Tokyo. An old dictionary but useful tool for searching English meanings of Buddhist terms in Sanskrit or Chinese characters. Index includes other Asian languages, such as Japanese, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Pali. Full text online through UBC Library. (submitted by Alice)
  • A student's dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese. 2015. By Paul W. Kroll. Leiden ; Boston : Brill. Focusing on Chinese characters in historical, literary, and religious texts from approximately the Warring State period to Tang dynasty. Arranged alphabetically by Pinyin with Middle Chinese pronunciation. Useful for English-speaking users. PL1455 .K76 2015 (submitted by Alice)
  • Lin Yutang Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage. 1972. It contains over 110,000 words and phrases.Though it has a book version, the romanization of Chinese and collation are based on Lin’s own invention. The online website is easier to use. The website is established in 1999 by the Chinese University of Hong Kong. (submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • Reference work section of CNKI through UBC Library. The reference work section of CNKI provides 8436 dictionaries, encyclopedias, manuals and so forth. They are basically contemporary publications in China. The qualities of these works are not guaranteed, but it’s an alternative resource for research. P.S. Our library hasn’t bought Hanyu Dacidian Section. (submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

Tang-Wudai yuyan cidian唐五代語言詞典(Dictionary of the Tang and Five Dynasties Language). Jiang Lansing江蓝生 and Cao Guangshun曹广顺, eds. It is intended primarily for those interested in the development of the language between the seventh and tenth centuries and for readers of popular literature of the period. (submitted by Victoria Ma)

Ciyuan辞源(Sources of words), Shangwu, 1915. The first modern encyclopedic prose dictionary, covering the Chinese language up to 1840. There are 12,980 head characters under which are defined 84,134 words. It is useful tool for reading Classical Chinese and studying the cultural sphere of Chinese history. (submitted by Victoria Ma)

Week 4: People

  • Biographical Works on 張岱 Zhang Dai/Chang T’ai (submitted by WM)

- Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (清代名人傳略) . Ed. Arthur Hummel. Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, 1943. Summarizes the main points of Zhang Dai’s life and literary/historical production. Provides good ground to start more in-depth research.

- 《张岱评传》,胡益民,南京:南京大学出版社,2002。 A monograph on Zhang Dai’s life and critique on his literary and historical works. Focuses more on literature. In the appendix there is a simplified annual record (简谱) of Zhang from year 1 (1597) to year 84 (1680).

- Return to Dragon Mountain: Memories of a Late Ming Man. By Jonathan D. Spence. London: Quercus, 2008. Major English language study on Zhang Dai. Emphasizes more on Zhang Dai’s accomplishment as a historian than other works on Zhang Dai. Devoted discussion on how history (Ming—Qing transition) shaped Zhang Dai’s sense of history reflected in writing.

唐五代人物传记资料综合索引(Comprehensive Biographical Index for Tang and Wudai People). Fu Xuanconbg傅璇琮, Zhang Chenshi張忱石, and Xu Yimin許逸民, eds. Zhonghua, 1982. Annotated index(by far the most comprehensive) to biographical data in 83 primary sources on some 30,000 figures of the Tang dynasty and Wudai period. Primary sources include: the official historical records covering this period, and tables of Tang and Wudai official holder, lists of exam graduates, all authors in Quan Tangwen全唐文 and Quan Tangshi 全唐詩, all major Tang and Song collections of biographies of Tang and Wudai personalities, Song and Yuan gazetteers, collections of biographies of calligraphers and painters, and biographies of Buddhist and Daoist monks. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)

唐五代五十二种笔记小说人名索引(Name-index to 52 Tang and Wudai fictional biji). Fang Jiliu方积六 and Wu Dongxiu吴冬秀, comps. Zhonghua, 1992. Contains about 17,500 entries on about 15,000 people. only works by Tang authors in the three general anthologies that are indexed are included(Taiping guangji太平廣記, Shuolei說類, and Shuofu說郛).(Submitted by Victoria Ma)

唐代墓誌匯編(Tomb Epitaphs of the Tang Dynasty) and 唐代墓誌匯編續集(Continuation to Tomb Epitaphs of the Tang Dynasty). Zhou Shaoliang周紹良. Tomb Inscriptions of the Tang Dynasty includes Tang tomb epitaphs and inscriptions of individuals 3607方, organized chronologically. It also includes the locations of those epitaphs. The continuation to this work supplements the original one with new excavated tomb epitaphs after 1984. They are both very important archaeological source for the Tang dynasty.(Submitted by Victoria Ma)

唐五代文作者索引(Index to writers of the Tang and Five Dynasties). Chen Shangjun陈尚君. The most comprehensive author index for the Tang and Five Dynasties to date. Includes the Quan tang wen and its many supplements plus tomb-tablet inscriptions. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)

  • Buddhist Studies Person Authority Databases. (人名規範資料庫) Part of the Buddhist Studies Authority Database Project of the Dharma Drum buddhist College. Provides some information for individuals including the name, time period, contribution, and personal network which links to other historical figures. Reference is given for the birthdate and deathdate. Covers Buddhist related figures from the early time to the republican period. Support both simplified and traditional Chinese characters. Updated frequently. (Submitted by Alice)
  • 宋元明清漢傳佛教人物資料庫. Maintained by 中華佛學研究所. Part of the Buddhist Studies Authority Database Project while focusing on Buddhist figures from the Song dynasty to Qing dynasty. Also covers a few figures from the late Tang period. It contains more less famous figures from the later imperial China comparing to the 人名規範資料庫. (Submitted by Alice)
  • Gaoseng zhuan heji 高僧傳合集 (Combined Collection of Eminent Monks). 1995. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe. A collection of the major biographies of eminent monks through Chinese history, including the Biographies of Eminent Monks (梁 慧皎), Continuous Biographies of Eminent Monks (唐 道宣), Song Biographies of Eminent Monks (宋 贊寧), Ming Biographies of Eminent Monks (明 如惺), and New Continuous Biographies of Eminent Monks (民國 喻謙). These biographies are the main primary sources for Buddhist Studies database. (Submitted by Alice)
  • 清代碑傳文通檢(Qing Dynasty Epigraphic and Biographic Sources). 2003. Beijing: Beijing tushuguan chubanshe. Provides alternate names, birth years (missing in my test case subject), and biographical sources for Qing Dynasty figures. Probably less useful than CBDB. (Sub. LCC)
  • 清史列傳 (Qing Dynastic History: Biographies). 1928. Shanghai: Zhonghua shuju qinban. Reprint of the official biographies from the Qing Shi. Contents seem to be republished in CBDB through the 漢籍電子文獻資料庫. (Sub. LCC)
  • 中国近現代人物名號大辭典. 1993. By Yutang Chen 陳玉堂. Hangzhou: Zhejiang guji chubanshe. The reference work includes 10112 people between 1840 to 1949. The dictionary provides a short biography of each figure. The biographies are quite thorough, including alternative names, nicknames, pen names and so forth. It has a sequel. DS755.3 .C436 1993 (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • 近三百年人物年譜知見錄. 1983. By Xinxia Lai 来新夏. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe. An Introduction to chronological biographies of people living or born in Qing dynasty. Short introductions, information of editions and library sources are attached to each item. ZDS754.19 .L344 1983 (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • Who's who in China 中國名人錄. 1920-1950 (?). By Hoh, Chieh-hsiang. Shanghai : The China weekly review. 6 vols. Containing the pictures and biographies of concurrent China's best known political, financial, business and professional leaders. DS734 .W5 1920a DS734 .W5 1931 (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

Week 5: Time, Place, and Institutions


  • A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. 2008. Charles O. Hucker. (Beijing: Beijing Daxue Chubanshe). Good dictionary for determining an accepted translation of a title and its organizational position in the government for most dynastic periods. Organized by Wade-Giles term, but does not easily allow one to find the full title if the in-text reference is only to the second character (ex. “巡撫“ 的 撫). Useful in interpreting the career records in the CBDB. (Sub. LCC)
  • 歷代職官表(Tables of official posts from the earliest to the nineteenth century). 黃本驥(juren舉人). comp., with introduction and glossary by Qu Tuiyuan瞿蛻園(1892-1973). 2 vols. Shanghai: Zhonghua, 1965; Shanghai guji, 1980. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 中国历代官制大词典(Dictionary of Chinese official titles in different periods), 吕宗力 chief ed. 1994. Beijing: online at Apabi tools. It has 21,655 entries from all periods up to 1911(not only on titles but also on items of dress, seals, documents, and so on). It has something missing in A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China - tables of the ranking of official posts in each period: 历代职官品位表, 871-915. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 中国历代职官别名大词典(Dictionary of alternative official titles), 龚延明, ed. 2006. The essential guide to alternative titles from the pre-Qin to the end of the Qing, contains alternative titles for 9,400 official ones. Under each main entry the evolution of the title is shown, in some cases in great detail(Submitted by Victoria Ma).


  • 海國聞見錄 (A records of things seen and heard in the maritime countries). 1962 [1843]. By Chen Lunjiong 陳倫炯. (Taibei: Zhengzhong Shuju) pp. 679-697 in 舟車所至 Series, 13. Contains text descriptions of places in the Nanyang and in the west based on the voyages of Chen Lunjiong's father, as well as a world map with 18th century place names and locations, mostly for the Nanyang and the West. Useful for establishing correspondences between 18th century names and modern locations. (Sub. LCC)
  • 《歲時廣記》,陳元靚撰,台北:藝文印書館,1970

A comprehensive collection explaining time markers of annual seasons (submitted by WM).

  • 《中國古今地名大辭典》,臧勵龢,台北:臺灣商務印書館,1982

Tracks changes of place names with references from both historical and literary sources (submitted by WM).

  • Buddhist Studies Place Authority Databases. (地名規範檢索) Part of the Buddhist Studies Authority Database Project of the Dharma Drum Buddhist College. Collection of historical places is beyond Buddhist site, but further notes and references only cover Buddhist texts. (Submitted by Alice)
  • 《中国历史地图集》(Historical Atlas of China). 1987. By Tan Qixiang 譚其驤. Beijing: Sinomaps Press. Eight volumes of historical maps cover from the Xia, Shang dynasties to Qing dynasty. (Submitted by Alice)
  • 中國佛教寺廟志數位典藏. Digital Archive of Chinese Buddhist Temple Gazetteers. By Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, and the Dharma Drum Institute of Liberal Arts. Total 237 gazetteers have been digitized, and most of them have full-text and image archives. (Submitted by Alice)
  • 《中国古代地图集》(A Collection of ancient Chinese maps)曹婉如 et al., eds. 1990-97: This work of scholarship assembles over 650 reproductions of ancient Chinese maps, both in color and in black and white. There are notes in both Chinese and English on each map, as well as long papers on various aspects of cartography. Vol.1, 战国至元代(Warring States to Yuan), 1990; vol 2, 明代(Ming), 1995; vol 3, 清代(Qing), 1997. All published by Wenwu. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 中国历史地名大词典(Dictionary of Chinese historical toponyms). 2 vols. 史为乐, chief ed. 2005. Shehui kexue. This is a dictionary of Chinese historical place names that is more than an abbreviation of the already available information in the treatises on administrative geography in the standard histories and comprehensive gazetteers of the empire. The over 70,000 entries provide careful notes on historical place names from ancient times to 1949. Special attention is paid to the origins of place names, including those that were transcribed from the toponyms of the indigenous inhabitants: careful attention is given the border areas as to the central provinces. The results of recent toponymic and archaeological research have been incorporated. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 中國歷史文化地圖系統(Chinese civilization in time and space). Academia Sinica. A database of various kinds of animated information on the historical geography of China in part based on the 中國歷史地圖集. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 中国地名演变手册 by 张志强 and 中国古今地名对照表(Table comparing ancient and modern place-names), 薛国屏 comp. Shanghai cash, 2010. A practical way of quickly looking up how the names of modern places have changed throughout the course of history. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • Virtual Shanghai Project. Directed by Christian Henriot. Virtual Shanghai started as a project focused on Shanghai historical photographs and visual materials from the mid-nineteenth century to nowadays. There are four sections: map collection, image & media, texts & data, and reference. It contains the index, and offers documents and research papers. It is constantly updated. This site is part of the Virtual Cities Project: Beijing, Hankou, Saigon, Shanghai, Suzhou and Tianjin (See the bottom of the website). (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • Chinamap. This is a part of China Historical GIS. It can overlap online maps of nowadays with historical maps. A lot of interesting geographical and social data. You can also make your own map. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)


  • 兩千年中西曆轉換. By Academia Sinica. Last updated in 2015. A quick and handy online Gregorian-Lunar calendar converter. Starts from the Common Era. For more detailed chronology, check《中國歷史紀年表》by 万国鼎, 1987, 北京中華書局. (Submitted by Alice)
  • 中华历史纪念总表(Comprehensive chronological tables of Chinese history), 于宝林, 2010. It contains year by year tables of reigns of not only all of the Chinese dynasties but also of other kingdoms, khanates, states, regimes, and rebel dynasties of all kinds in and around China from the Xia dynasty to 1949. Also, it has detailed genealogies of all the dynasties of China and ruling houses of its neighbors with copious explanatory notes. Moreover, it contains chronological tables of China and its immediate neighbors(plus main events). It also includes a chronological table showing major events in China and in Europe and America(emphasis on science and culture). Lastly, it has a very detailed indexes. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 新编中国三千年历日检索表(New search tables for the Chinese calendar over 3,000 years), 徐锡祺 ed, 1992. The distinct characteristic of this table is that its appendixes give detailed and useful supplementary information often lacking from earlier calendrical concordances, such as table of different names used for the month; festivals in the Buddhist, Daoist, Muslim, and Christian calendars; minor festivals in Chinese calendar etc. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)

Week 6: Thanksgiving

No Class.

Week 7: Locating Sources I

  • Chinese Etymology

On line:

Free online reference on Chinese etymology. Single character search. Supports simplified character search as well as traditional character search. Explanation of the character includes its meaning based on 說文解字, English translation, an analysis of the structure of the character, and its varied forms in 六書通, 金文編 and 甲骨文. Far from an exhausting collection but covers the most commonly used characters (6,552 as of Apr., 2014). The creator of the website, Richard Sears, is a physics teacher. Not a Chinese study scholar in the traditional sense, but his work remains one of a kind, and has been recommended by scholars such as Elman. A good tool for teaching (submitted by WM).

  • 金石大字典 by 汪仁壽. 天津:天津古籍书店,1982.

Available at UBC (rare books): PL2244 .W356 1982 There is also a 1926 version (published by 上海求古齋) available at Asian Library: PL1171 .W34 1926 The most comp dictionary in the field so far (2,614 characters, not including their varied forms. Including varied forms of the same character, then over 100,000 ) . Uses the more recent楷書 form for index, more user friendly than the traditional 篆书 index. Two major references are 說文解字 and 康熙字典. Faithful copy of the original carved characters (submitted by WM).

Reprints of texts containing transcriptions and commentaries on epigraphic sources. Arranged by province, but there are also dictionaries, China-wide works, and essays relating to epigraphy as a cultural practice.

  • Index of 石刻史料新編 As a supplement to WM’s post.This link has an index of total 4 series 100 volumes. The latest series was published in 2006. (submitted by Alice)
  • 唐代墓誌銘彙編附考(Collections of the Tang Dynasty Tomb Epitaphs, Plus Archaeological Reports), by 毛漢光Mao Hanguang. This 18 volumes collection of tomb epitaphs was published in Taiwan, by 中央研究院歷史語言研究所(Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica). It is very useful because it contains indexes at the end of the each volume categorized by individual names and locations the tomb epitaph were excavated. Also, it not only contains the content of the epitaphs, but also includes photos of the actual epitaph as well as archaeological reports along with it. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 唐代墓志匯編(Collections of the Tang Tomb Epitaphs), chief ed. 周紹良Zhou Shaoliang.(Shanghai guji, 1992). It contains over 3,500 tomb epitaphs from the Tang dynasty, organized chronologically, and punctuated. However, it does not contain indexes at all, so it is a little bit difficult for readers to search by individual names. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 唐代墓誌彙編續集(Continue to the Collections of the Tang Tomb Epitaphs), chief ed. 周紹良Zhou Shaoliang. (Shanghai guji, 2001). Since the Collections of the Tang Tomb Epitaphs was published pretty early, so this continues the work of collecting tomb epitaphs afterwards. After 1984, there are many new archaeological works and many new tomb epitaphs were excavated. So this includes over 1000 new epitaphs. Moreover, this continued version is also more user-friendly: it is not only organized chronologically, but contains indexes by individual names. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 金石萃編. Wang Chan (清 王昶) A collection of bronze and stone inscription from Qin to Song, Liao, and Jin dynasties. Digital version is available online at CTEXT (keyword searching available) and Internet Archive. (submitted by Alice)
  • Buddhist Rubbing 佛教石刻造像拓本. By Academia Sinica. A collection of Buddhist rubbing mainly from China since 5 CE to Republic era. Some collections are from Japan and other countries. Various searching options, including title, date, and original location. (submitted by Alice)
  • International Dunhuang Project 國際敦煌項目. By the British Library. Collections from libraries and institutes in various countries, including Britain, China, Japan, and France. Includes manuscripts, paintings, textiles and artefacts from Dunhuang archaeological sites. Can search with title, language, keyword, or pressmark. (submitted by Alice)
  • Ancient Chinese Sources in Digital Library of Peking University (祕籍琳琅——北京大學數字圖書館古文獻資源庫). This database includes rare books, other ancient Chinese books, rubbings of bronze inscriptions and stone inscriptions, ancient Chinese maps, and ancient Chinese contracts, etc., which are preserved in Peking University Library. More and more materials are being digitalized and put online. You can use the default username and password ("guest" and "guest") which are shown on the webpage to log in. The "guest" users can only view the catalogue information and the thumbnails of some objects in the collection. (Information from Elman Ch.9) (submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • Chinese Writing 文字學概要. By Qiu Xigui 裘锡圭, trans. Gilbert Louis Mattos and Jerry Norman. A study of Chinese characters. Useful for linguistic studies and understanding the development of Chinese characters. PL1281 .C5813 2000 (submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

Week 8: Locating Sources II

  • Texts:


Versions for comparison:

  • 西湖夢尋五卷 Xi Hu meng xun: wu juan. by Zhang, Dai (張岱). Si ku quan shu cun mu cong shu. Shi bu, 1997, Di 1 ban. 四庫存目叢書史部第0237冊. 濟南: 齊魯書社, 1997. Available at Asian Library: AC149 .S725 1997 ser. 2 v. 237, ASIAN LIBRARY
  • 西湖夢尋五卷, (清)張岱撰。續修四庫全書第0729冊。上海: 上海古籍出版社, [1995]-2002. Available at Asian Library: AC149 .S732 1995 ser.2 v.729, Asian Library stacks. Quality print. Has a catalogue, easier to look for a particular essay, but incomplete: the last few essays (starting from 施公廟 are missing.)
  • 西湖夢尋 Xihu meng xun. by Zhang, Dai (張岱) . 武林掌故叢編 第六集. [杭州]: 丁氏嘉惠堂, 光緖9[1883]. Wulin zhang gu cong bian. Di 6 ji, 1883. Available at Barber: DS796.H25 W88 S.6 V. 2. RARE BOOKS & SPECIAL COLLECTIONS Puban. Digitized version available at Ctex: Ctex base version explanation:

  • 西湖夢尋. By Zhang, Dai. Full text available online through Internet Archive. Scanned version (V1-3): Base version unclear.
  • Xi Hu Meng Xun. By Zhang, Dai. Full PDF version available on line through Project Gutenberg : Base version unclear. (submitted by WM)

  • 中國叢書綜錄(Union catalogue of Chinese collectanea), 上海圖書館, ed. 3 vols. Shanghai guji, 1959-62. Vol.1 lists congshu by title. The titles of individual works contained in each congshu are shown(with index of congshu titles). Vol.2 is an itemized index(子目). It shows the titles of the 38,891 individual works contained in them. Vol. 3 contains a four-corner title index and author index to vol.2(also contains pinyin and stroke-count index). Available at UBC library: Rare book and special collection.(Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 中國叢書廣錄(Enlarged catalogue of Chinese congshu). 陽海清, chief ed, 2 vols. Hubei renmin, 1999. Complements the zonglu by cataloging and annotating 3,279 congshu not included in the Zonglu. Available at UBC library: Rare book and special collection. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • 中國叢書綜錄續編(Continuation of the Zhongguo congshu zonglu), 施廷鏞(1893-1983), ed. Beijing tushuguan, 2003. Supplements both the Zonglu and the Guanglu by listing works not found in either(mainly in Taiwan and Japan). Available at UBC library: Rare book and special collection. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • A comparison of 《廣弘明集》 (唐) 道宣 (Expanded Collection of the Propagation and Clarification [of Buddhism]. According to 《中國叢書綜錄》Vol.2 P1191, 廣弘明集三十卷 is collected in 四庫全書·子部釋家類 and 四部叢刊·子部,廣弘明集四十卷 is collected in 四部備要·子部釋道家. (Submitted by Alice)
   * 《廣弘明集》. 景印文淵閣四庫全書·子部十三·釋家類 第1048冊. Total in 28 volumes. With pronunciation and meaning at the beginning of the first volume. Available at CTEXT.  
   * 《廣弘明集》. 文津閣四庫全書 Wen jin ge si ku quan shu. (子部·釋家類) 第349冊. 商務印書館影印. 北京:商務印書館, 2005. Total in 30 volumes. Available at Asian Library AC149.S75 W464 2005 v.349. 
   * 《廣弘明集》.《四部叢刊初編》第477-488冊. 景上海涵芬樓藏明刊本. Total 30 volumes. Pronunciation and meaning at the end of each volume. Available at CTEXT. 
   * 《廣弘明集》三十卷. (清) 永瑢.《欽定四库全书总目提要》卷一百四十五 子部五十五·. A brief bibliography of Dao Xuan and this book.  Picture version or text version available at CTEXT.   
  • 四庫系列叢書總合索引. By Fudan University. Search by book name or author. Gives a list of different versions and sources of one particular text in the Si Shu collections. (Submitted by Alice)
  • 全國漢籍データベース - 四庫提要 “全國漢籍データベース” is a database of the Chinese classical texts in the public libraries and university libraries in Japan. Running by Kyoto University. (Submitted by Alice)
  • Wanyou wenku 萬有文庫 (Universal or Complete library series). Wang Yunwu 王雲五 chief ed. Shangwu, 2 collections, 1935-37. Taiwan republished the collections in the 1960s. Includes more than 1,000 titles. They do not merely collect Chinese classics, but also translated books. (Information from Wilkinson, 964) (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

Week 9: E-Texts

  • Text: 西遊補 A Supplement to the Journey to the West (late Ming – early Qing)

By 董說 Dǒng Yuè

-Harvard Library: Three online texts: 西遊補 16回。北京愛如生數字化技術研究中心, 2009 (中國基本古籍庫); 西遊補。广东人民出版社, 1981。

-Ctext: 《西游記補》 Ctext covers a number of texts for classics (and non classics), sometimes accompanied with a clarification of the version, but not always. In this case, for example, it says the version they use is “a representative version of the work” without specific information. The title of this text is different from most versions, and Ctext provides no explanation. Also, the search engine does not show all results related to the keyword. My general impression is that Ctext is more reliable when it comes to canonized works.

-Supplementary sources: GoogleBooks: 维基文庫 The above two provide no edition information. GoogleBooks performs better when it shows not only the text itself but also its cover/title/copyright/catalogue pages with page numbers. In this case, GoogleBooks has none. But it can be helpful when it does. Wiki source provides many e-texts but does not typically include edition information (submitted by WM).

  • 寒泉古典文獻全文檢索資料庫 Hanquan classical literature full-text searching database. Built by Prof. Chen Yufu from National Taiwan Normal University. The original database was built under the National Palace Museum website. Collection includes 資治通鑑、先秦諸子、宋元學案、明儒學案、朱子語類、全唐詩、紅樓夢、太平廣記, and 二十五史. (Submitted by Alice)
  • 漢籍リポジトリ Kanseki Repository. Collections of premodern Chinese texts. The content in the Repository is categorized in the four divisions of 經 史 子 集, plus the 道 and 佛. The collectanea contains 四部叢刊 Sibu congkan and 四庫全書 Siku quanshu. The Daoist material is mainly compiled from the 正統道藏 Zhengtong daozang and 道藏輯要 Daozang jiyao. The Buddhist texts are mainly collected from the 中華電子佛典協會 CBETA. Every edition can be presented in transcription form and facsimile form. Updated frequently. (Submitted by Alice)
  • The SAT Daizokyo Text Database By University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology. Full text of 85 volumes of Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo 大正新脩大藏經. The catalog is placed in a tree-outline structure. Each text can be read in transcription form and facsimile form. Full-text search is available.(Submitted by Alice)
  • Hathi trust. HathiTrust is a partnership of major research institutions and libraries working to ensure that the cultural record is preserved and accessible long into the future. More than 14 million volumes have been digitized on the website. Library Access (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • Duxiu 讀秀. A Chinese research database made by Super Star 超星. It has a wide range of contemporary books, as well as some books from Republican era. Users can only access to part of the contents. Library Access. There is another similar book database [[汇雅书世界]], by Super Star. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • Sokodo Bunko Full Image Database 雙紅堂文庫. By Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia, The University of Tokyo. Kikuya Nagasawa’s 長澤規矩也 Ming and Qing drama and novel collection. There are 380 dramas and 172 novels (approximately 3,000 volumes). Library Access. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • [4] Scripta Sinica漢籍全文資料庫. Full text searchable. The Scripta Sinica database contains almost all of the important Chinese classics, especially those related to Chinese history, including: 二十五史, 十三經, 諸子, 通典, 朱子語類, 四書章句, 元刊雜劇三十種, 文獻通考, and 清代經世文編. Also, it contains many "novels" like 太平廣記 and 朝野僉載 etc. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • [5] Guoxue baodian國學寶典. Searchable Chinese texts, including classics, works of history, geography, and medicine, collected writings, novels, poetry, and drama. Categorized into classics 經, history 史, philosophy 子, belle-lettres 集, and special topics 專題. Not accessible through UBC(Victoria Ma).
  • [6]Archive. The Internet Archive and Open Library offers over 10,000,000 fully accessible books and texts. There is also a collection of 300,000 modern eBooks that may be borrowed or downloaded. When searching the e-text I am looking for, it shows edition from the Siku quanshu, and also one from Project Gutenberg (Victoria Ma).

Week 10: Digital Humanities

  • TimelineJS

Accessible online tool to create timelines for story telling, visualizing chronology/biography: Needs a Google Drive account. Work on a Google Spreadsheet using the template; input dates, text and relevant links into the spreadsheet; publish to web and then generate the timeline. The user can create an unlimited number of slides. The reader clicks on the title of the slide and the narrative will appear. Allows the user to insert pictures, audios, videos and maps. Chinese language setting available (submitted by WM).

  • MARKUS It is an online tool to analysis text. By uploading the text(or copying), users can do various things with it. First of all, users can run automated text analysis where the tool will automatically mark personal name, alternate name, official title, reign period, etc. on the text that user uploaded. Users can also do manual marking(with or without the auto making process). Moreover, the text can by analyzed by keywords entered by the users. Each entires(personal names, official titles, locations etc.) analyzed by the automated process is linked to the CBDB database and the Harvard Historical GIS system. Therefore, it enables users to look up context while analyzing their texts. All the datas analyzed by the tool can be exported in excel form; and those exported data can be further used in other softwares to generate graphs, social networks, maps, charts etc. (Submitted by Victoria Ma)

  • MARKUS Example File

From 萬曆野獲編!AgbNQTUJ56bAijr1jnMXGVeINMJl

  • Sieve or at CTEXT: An online tool that allows researchers to assess audience perception of classical or vernacular texts. The system has eight preset texts: Hundred Surnames, Three Character Classic, Thousand Character Classic, Elementary Learning, Classic of Filial Piety, Daxue, Heart Sutra, and Guanyin Sutra. Users can use one of the system texts or upload their own text as a reference point, and upload a second text to compare the amount and frequency of any word that appear in the first text. The tool gives a rough idea of what a primer-literate reader would have read in the text. (Submitted by Alice)

Sample texts from 續高僧傳 and 萬曆野獲編

Week 11: Digital Humanities

A douban article listing dozens of online resources. (submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

-Luther Cenci- Research Guide Working Draft

Gift of a calendar to Javanese prince

Week 12: Libraries, etc.

  • Havard Library: The Harvard-Yenching Library is the largest university library for East Asian research in the Western world. Highlights of the library's collections include several hundred rare Japanese Buddhist scrolls; a group of Dongba (Naxi) manuscripts in pictographic script; an extensive collection of Chinese rubbings; a large set of Korean genealogies and collected writings; significant holdings of early Vietnamese newspapers; the archives of the Lingnan University Trustees (a missionary university in Canton originally known as the Canton Christian College) from 1884 to 1952; missionary works in Chinese, including translations of the Bible in different dialects; Manchu works of historical and literary interest; printings of 18th century Tibetan and Mongolian Buddhist texts; and collections of personal papers, including those of Tsiang Ting-fu and Hu Han-min, an early Kuomintang elder statesman; George A. Fitch, who was for many years associated with the YMCA and other missionary activities in China; and Joseph Buttinger, author and Vietnam specialist.A Tiananmen Archive was established in the fall of 1989 that includes handbills, petitions, and pamphlets distributed by the demonstrators and the government, eyewitness reports, photographs, and videotapes. The library also holds the Hedda Morrison Photographs of China and the Rev. Claude L. Pickens, Jr. Collection on Muslims in China, as well as other sets of photographs from early 20th century Korea and China(Submitted by Victoria Ma).
  • National Central Library in Taiwan: NCL's Special Collection consists mainly of rare books from the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties and other thread-bound books. Most of the Song and Yuan volumes are extremely rare editions, while anthologies are richly represented among the Ming titles. There are 12,921 titles of rare Chinese books (which by current definition are those books printed in China before 1795)in its collection, representing 135,477 individual volumes. Other thread-bound books (published between 1796–1911) total 9,726 titles, or 113,773 volumes. The collection also contains a considerable number of bronze and stone rubbings from earlier times and some Dunhuang scrolls (Submitted by Victoria Ma).
  • The Chinese University of Hong Kong Library: Special Collections are an integral part of the Library’s collection, providing original and unique resources focused primarily on Chinese and Hong Kong studies. They range from Shang dynasty oracle bones, Chinese rare and semi-rare books, to modern literary archives and manuscripts. Rare book collection consists of Chinese rare books published from the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) to the end of Qianlong reign period (1795) of the Qing dynasty, and Western rare books published before 1900. A collection of oracle bones is the largest of its kind in Hong Kong(Submitted by Victoria Ma).
  • Toyo Bunko: The Oriental Library: there are 635 inscribed Chinese tortoise shell fragments, 3,000 gazetteers of China, 860 Chinese genealogies, 13,000 Tibetan and Mongolian sutras and a late fourteenth century copy of the Quran. Mention should also be given to the microfilm collection of documents related to Dunhuang and Turfan copied from all archives throughout the world(submitted by Victoria Ma).
  • National Library of Korea: Rare Book Collection is extremely Korean centered comparing to all other libraries. It contains various sources dated as early as 14th century -- but all the sources, regardless of their contents(some are Chinese histrories) -- are closely connected to various Korean regimes (Submitted by Victoria Ma).
  • University of Cambridge Library: Cambridge University Library's Special Collections include the oldest and most valuable materials in the Library, in manuscript, printed and artefact form, as well as modern maps, music and material in the Asian & Near and Middle Eastern collections. The oldest items in the collection are Chinese oracle bones dating from 1400 to 1200 BC. Besides, they also have collections relating to the cultures and languages of the countries of the Middle East(also Inner Asia). (Submitted by Victoria Ma)
  • The following entries are submitted by WM

- Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library University of Toronto Built on a collection of rare materials (known as the Mu Collection) acquired from China in 1930s. Rich in Ming (230 copies) and Qing (400 copies) collection. Some rare books are available in Song or Yuan edition, covering literature (Liu Zongyuan), history (Warring States) and ancient augury. Strong in dynastic records of Chinese history, but also has an extensive contemporary collection of cultural and literary studies. Quick to introduce new and/or trendy, popular literature in addition to canonized literature (meanwhile, selective), such as the works of Mu Xin.

- Menzies Library Australian National University The most comprehensive collection in Asian scholarship in Australia. About 250,000 volumes in Chinese language or in other languages on Chinese language and literature. Compared with UBC and U of T, the Chinese collection at Menzies does not boast a renowned rare book collection, but it is very strong in 20th century newspapers and periodicals, and on sociopolitical studies. The Cultural Revolution, for example, is one subject Menzies is good at. Its recent collations focus more on cultural studies (such as gender and urban development) than art and literature. Also, this library situates Asia in the Asia Pacific. That is helpful for researchers who want to study China’s interactions with foreign cultures in a larger context.

- East Asian Libraries, The Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies, College de France Not open to general public. 300,000 holdings in Chinese collection. Regarded by many as the best Chinese collection in Europe. Rare book section is strong in local gazetteers, congshu and classics. One of the most remarkable holding is a collection of civil examination papers in the Qing dynasty. A catalog was published in 2002 to list the pre-late Qing holdings: An annotated bibliography of the Chinese rare books held by the The Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies, College de France. Also strong in premodern art collection.

  • Stanford East Asia Library. Stanford’s primary Asian studies collection, holds over 680,000 volumes in the social sciences and humanities for all historical periods in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages. With access to more than 800,000 volumes of online books and journals, EAL collections also consist of special collections, government documents, media, and periodicals. An unusually comprehensive set of some 13,000 serials (of which over 1,300 are currently received) includes many pre-1949 government documents, statistical reports on commerce, and other periodicals. The collection's rich resources on the history of the Chinese Communist Party are represented in two bibliographies by Xue Jundu: The Chinese Communist Movement, 1921-1937 (1960) and The Chinese Communist Movement, 1937-1949 (1962). Others are cataloged in Hoover Institution Microfilms (1965) and its Asian Supplement (1977), which lists 128 microfilm reels describing communist base areas during the Chinese civil war. (via Stanford East Asia Library webpage)

There are four notable collections listed on webpage: Huang-Bernhardt Collection of Chinese Legal Documents, Anderson Photograph Collection of YWCA in China, 1920s-1940s, Tao Pai-chuan 陶百川 Papers, and Chinese Comic Books. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

  • The Hoover Institution Library & Archive. Founded by Herbert Hoover in 1919, the Hoover Institution Library & Archives are dedicated to documenting war, revolution, and peace in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. With nearly one million volumes and more than six thousand archival collections from 171 countries, Hoover supports a vibrant community of scholars and a broad public interested in the meaning and role of history. (via the Hoover Institution webpage)

The Chinese collection includes many manuscripts, documents and papers. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

  • CUHK Digital Access Online. CUHK University Library uses digital technology to collect, preserve, and provide access to information, to support the research, teaching in the University and to fill information gaps not provided by other service providers. It contains projects such as Archive of Chu Bamboo Manuscripts of Guodian, Chinese Women and Hong Kong Christianity: An Oral History Archive, and Modern Chinese Drama Database. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)
  • University of Washington East Asia Library. The library has over 683,000 volumes of publications on East Asia in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Tibetan, Manchurian, Mongolian, and other languages. Over 308,000 volumes are in Chinese. the collection also includes graphical, audiovisual, and electronic resources such as online databases. They have a stronger microfilm collection than our school library. Their special collections include Mu yu shu 木魚書, Wu Xianzi 武憲子 papers, Joseph Rock Collection, etc. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

The Chinese Rare Books at Yale database brings together information about Chinese rare books and manuscripts held in the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library. There are 439 works represented in the database and each record contains extensive bibliographic data and notes, an image of the first page of the text, and a link to the catalog record in Orbis, Yale’s online catalog. The database is intended to provide enhanced access to Yale’s holdings of Chinese books published prior to the end of the reign of the Qianlong Emperor in 1796. Two rare editions from the Republican period are also included. The records can be accessed by dynasty for a chronological overview. (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao)

  • Tokyo University Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia Library 東京大学東洋文化研究所図書室. The Institute's library specializes in Asian studies and contains over 600,000 books and 5,600 periodicals. Its collection of Chinese books, which is internationally well known among Sinologists, is one of the three best collections in Japan and includes numerous rare and valuable books.

Main collections:

Below posted by Luther Cenci

UC Berkeley C.V. Starr East Asian Library- Print Catalog of Rare Book Collections

  • The “series Wenshi ziliao 文史資料, over 11,000 volumes of first-person accounts of political movements, military actions, and economic conditions that China witnessed between the last years of the Qing dynasty and the early decades of the People’s Republic”
  • ”Chinese rare book collection: It contains over 800 titles in over 11,000 volumes dated before 1795, including 43 titles printed during the Song (960-1279) and Yuan (1271-1368) Dynasties, and manuscripts that were hand copied by well-known scholars.“
  • “The Stone and Bronze Rubbings: The collection includes more than 2,000 items of fine model copybooks of Chinese calligraphy and stone rubbings.”

Oxford University China Centre Library and Weston Library

  • 90 works collected in the 17th century, some very rare (Selden Map, Laud Rutter)
  • Very little collected in the 18th century
  • Missionary collections, including tracts and purchased books
  • Backhouse collection: assembled by English Aristocrat between 1913 and 1922

Beijing Daxue Tushuguan

  • More than 10,000 print works from the Ming Dynasty
  • More than 5000 difang zhi

Week 13: Translations

  • Wen Xuan文選, or Selections of Refined Literature, translated by David R. Knechtges. published by Princeton University Press, Volume I to III. The Wen xuan, compiled by Xiao Tong (501-531), is the oldest and one of the most important surviving anthology of Chinese poetry and literature. It is a selection of what were judged to be the best poetic and prose pieces from the late Warring States period (c. 300 BC) to the early Liang dynasty (c. AD 500), excluding the Chinese Classics and philosophical texts. The Wen xuan preserves most of the greatest fu賦 rhapsody and shi詩 poetry pieces from the Qin and Han dynasties, and for much of pre-modern history was one of the primary sources of literary knowledge for educated Chinese. Study of the Wen xuan enjoyed immense popularity during the Tang dynasty, and its study rivalled that of the Five Classics during that period (Submitted by Victoria Ma).
  • The Destruction of the Medieval Chinese Aristocracy, by Nicolas Tackett, published by Harvard University Press, 2014. Even though this is a monograph on the Tang dynasty aristocracy, Tackett mainly utilizes tomb epitaphs and inscriptions as his sources. It contains a lot of lengthy translations of Tang tomb epitaphs, providing a very good model for translating such sources (Submitted by Victoria Ma).
  • The poetry of Du Fu, translated and edited by Stephen Owen, published by Boston : De Gruyter, [2016]. Six volumes of translation of the complete work of Du Fu, one of the most famous Chinese Tang poet throughout all historical period. It offers examples to translate Chinese allusions and poetic language that might appear in epitaphs (Submitted by Victoria Ma).
  • Lun Xun: Selected Works, Vol. III, translated by Xianyi Yang & Gladys Yang. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2003. The Yang couple has translated many Lun Xun's essays. In the third volume, they collected pieced from San xian ji 三閒集 (Three Leisures), Er xin ji 二心集 (Two Hearts), Nan qiang bei diao ji 南腔北調集 (Mixed Dialects), Wei ziyou shu 偽自由書 (False Liberty) and Zhun fengyue tan 準風月談 (Semi-Frivolous Talk) (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao).
  • Literary Societies of Republican China, ed. Kirk A. Denton & Michel Hockx. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008. The book is a study of modern Chinese literary societies before 1949. One chapter discusses Yusi society and the disputes around pivot members, Sun Fuyuan, Lu Xun and Zhou Zuoren. It provides some translations for names and a historical background to understanding Lu Xun's essay (Submitted by Jiaqi Yao).

The following entries are submitted by WM

- On premodern literary texts and critique:

1. Remembrances: The Experience of Past in Classical Chinese Literature by Stephen Owen. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986. Extensive quotes and study on premodern Chinese literature in a style similar to “in search of lost time.” Quotes a huge number of lines and passages from the original texts; provides quality translation; focuses on a particular subject: reminiscent writing, in the meantime, covers a wide range of literary genres, including poetry, essays, historiography and fiction.

2. Time, Temporality, and Imperial Transition: East Asia from Ming to Qing. Edited by Lynn A. Struve. Honolulu: Association for Asian Studies and University of Hawai'i Press, 2005. A collection of articles exploring the temporal effects of Ming-Qing transition upon historians and individuals. Provides English translation for a wide range of historical sources on this topic, originally in Manchu, Korean in addition to Chinese. Also a great reference for English language discussion on time and temporality in the Chinese context, as the book contains chapters devoted to specific study of how the time concepts change in a culturally and policitically conflicting space.

- On modern literature and critique Illuminations from the Past: Trauma, Memory, and History in Modern China by Ban Wang. Reads Modern Chinese literature as a history of experiencing and writing trauma. Provides translation for a large volume of modern texts, from Lu Xun to Wang Anyi and Zhu Tianwen, from fiction to prose and film.

- On contemporary cultural/social/political issues The China Story Year Book Published by the Australian Centre on China in the World from 2012 to 2016. Old content are available online: They select a keyword for each year and comment on China’s social, economic status through a particular lens (for example, the keyword for the 2015 yearbook is pollution). Also, the “Thinking China” page provides discussion on a selected number of key intellectuals and key articles. The “Reading into the Past” page provides discussion on scholars and thought from the 19th century or 20th century relevant to a very contemporary issue. This is a good source to check for English language translation for some of the most up to date material related to China.