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Materials and Methods for Classical Chinese Studies
ASIA 501
Instructor: Leo K. Shin
Office: Buchanan Tower 1223
Office Hours: Tu/Th 1400-1500
Class Schedule: Mon 1500
Classroom: Asian Library 616
Important Course Pages
Lecture Notes
Course Discussion


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Weekly Topics

Week 1: Research Guides

  • Classical Historiography for Chinese History. By Benjamin A. Elman. Updated periodically. Extensive lists of research tools and links to printed and electronic resources for classical Chinese studies. (submitted by Leo K. Shin)
  • By Ulrich Theobald, University of Tübingen. Updated frequently. An online encyclopedia for classical Chinese studies. Eclectic but much useful information. (submitted by Leo K. Shin)
  • Add your entries here...

Week 2: Language

  • Hanyu da cidian (漢語大詞典). 1994. Head character entries and classical citations in Traditional, definitions in Simplified. It covers the entire period ranging from the time of the Confucian Classics up to the twentieth century. One drawback is the lack of indication as to whether expressions were common or rare. It has over 23,000 head character entries and 370,000 compounds, arranged under a special system of 200 radicals. (submitted by Sean Bussell)
  • Zhongwen da cidian (中文大辭典). 1968. Traditional. Apparently based on the first edition of the Morohashi, this was the most comprehensive Chinese dictionary until the Hanyu da cidian was published. It contains almost 50,000 characters and 390,000 compounds, arranged under the traditional 214 Kangxi radicals. (submitted by Sean Bussell)
  • Han-Han taesajŏn (한한대사전; 漢韓大辭典). 2008. Head character entries and citations in Traditional, definitions in Korean. It contains a ridiculous 53,667 characters and 420,269 compounds, arranged under the traditional 214 Kangxi radicals. One almost wonders whether these quantities were reached intentionally to outdo existing works from other countries. (submitted by Sean Bussell)
  • Xinhua Zidian or "New Chinese Dictionary". 2004. Beijing : Shang wu yin shu guan. A very popular, concise character dictionary. Significantly smaller and more portable than the Hanyu Da Zidian, it is a best-seller among Chinese students in secondary school. Thus, it may also be useful for non-native students at any level studying China. PL1420 .H795 1989 (submitted by Robin Curtis)

Cihai 辭海, Compact Edition of the 1979 edition, Shanghai: Cishu Chubanshe 上海辭書出版社。

   Chinese – Chinese. Simplified Chinese characters
   It is the biggest dictionary to look up for Chinese phrases. We can get the general meaning of almost all the common phrases (about 120 000 entries). We can also use it as an encyclopedia. 
   The short coming is that the meaning and the quotations of some entries are a little meager.

Ciyuan 辭源, Shanghai: The Commercial Press 上海商務印書館, 1998.

   Chinese – Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters
   It is a very important tool for people who are reading classical and literary Chinese. It contains a lot of quotations coming from ancient Chinese books, especially Chinese Classics.

Handian 漢典,

   Chinese – Chinese. Simplified Chinese characters
   Handian is a very useful website to look up for Chinese phrases. We can find phrases that do not exist in Ciyuan and Cihai. The quotations are richer and it is more convenient for us to use. 
   The short coming is there may be more errors than Cihai and Ciyuan.

(Stetller Wei)

  • Naver dictionaries Dictionaries of Korean language to foreign languages and classical Chinese. It may contain many mistakes, but it is a convenient tool for general search. (submitted by Xiaoyi)
  • Korean romanization dictionary an easy to search the romanization of several languages (only tried it for Korean language) (submitted by Xiaoyi)
  • Glossary of Korean Studies available for some classical Chinese characters. for example, if you type "孔子“ it will show its Korean romanization and English translation. However, limited classical Chinese are available on this website; it is better to use Hangul. (submitted by Xiaoyi)

(From Steven Yeung, #1-3 are Chinese to Chinese and are available at UBC Asian Library. Apart from Han Dian that Stetller Wei mentioned, #4, 5 and 6 are useful online resources, although not complete, for trying your luck in finding English equivalences of Chinese phrases or compounds. #7 is good for Chinese characters. Overall, I find Han Dian very comprehensive as a starting point (I use it very often). Its explanations for set phrases or compounds are identical to #3. #8 is a Taiwan link I came across which provides a few hundreds pages of links to useful sites. Not all links work but it's still a treasure to me.)

  1. 中文大辭典(臺北中國文化研究所1962)Zhongwen dacidian (The encyclopedic dictionary of the Chinese language)(Zhongguo wenhua yanjiusuo)(Wilkinson 6.4.2 p.91)
  2. 漢語大字典(第二版九卷本)( 四川出版集團等2010)Hanyu dazidian (Dictionary of Chinese characters)(2nd edition 9 vols. version)(Sichuan chuban jituan et al.)(Wilkinson p. 82)
  3. 漢語大詞典(海外版)(香港三聯書店1992)Hanyu dacidian (Dictionary of the Chinese Language)(Overseas version)(Sanlian: Shenghuo.Dushu.Xinzhi Sanlian shudian: Hong KOng)(Wilkinson 6.4.1 p.88)
  4. 林語堂當代漢英詞典(香港中文大學) Lin Yutang “Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Use (Hong Kong Chinese University)
  5. iCIBA詞典
  6. MDBG English to Chinese-English Dictionary (i.e. CEDICT mentioned in Elman)
  7. 在线新华字典 Zaixian xinhua zidian (Online Dictionary of New China)
  8. 各種中文資源網站鏈接 Various Chinese Resources Web sites Links

1. Dai Kan-Wa jiten 大漢和辞典 (Chinese-Japanese dictionary). ed. Morohashi Tetsuji 諸橋轍次 (1883-1982). 13 vols. Taishūkan shoten, 1955-60. Refer to Wilkinson P. 91.

The large size dictionally which influenced a lot of other dictionaries of Chinese characters as a model which provides both citations and definitions. Before Dai Kan-Wa jiten, Kangxi zidian 康熙字典 were used to find definitions of characters, while Peiwen yunfu 佩文韻府 was used to find compounds and phrases.

2. "Jitsū 字通 (Comprehensive character dictionary). ed. Shirakawa Shizuka 白川静 (1910-2006). Heibonsha, 1996. Refer to Wilkinson P. 83. Cf. also his Jito 字統 1984 and Jikun 字訓 1987. Those three dictionaries are called Jisho sanbu saku 字書三部作 of Shirakawa.

Shirakawa claimed that the origin of Chinese characters derived from political rituals against the view to locate the originality on populace life. For example, he thought kou 口 derived from a special cup used in religious rituals, while Xu Shen 許慎 analyzed it meant mouth. Shirakawa's view were not completely following the etymological suggestions Shuowen jiezi 說文解字 described, which was innovative method at the time. However, sometimes there can be found non demonstrative examples in his works. Some criticize him for being somewhat arbitrary.

3. Kanji gogen jiten 漢字語源辞典 (Etymology dictionary of Chinese characters). ed. Tōdō Akiyasu 藤堂明保 (1915-85). Gakutōsha, 1965. 56th print 2004. Refer to Wilkinson P. 41.

There is a fundamental difference between Shirakawa and Todo in their views about the origin of Chinese characters (both were interested in etymology of Chinese characters). While Shirawaka thinks there existed shapes before sounds in Chinese characters (more emphasis on pictography), Todo thought vice versa (more on phonology). There was a harsh controversy between two around 1970s. (M.T.)

Following entries are submitted by Zoudan Ma:

Shiba, Yoshinobu 斯波義信. Chūgoku shakai keizaishi yōgo kai 中国社会経済史用語解. Tōkyō: Tōyō Bunko, 2012. Entries are arranged thematiacally with index in the back. The scope of collection is quite comprehensive as many rare terms have been recorded. Contents of each entry vary in terms of explanation, examples, extended meanings, and related glossaries. Better be used as a general introduction to traditional Chinese socio-economic term rather a detailed reference.

Zhao, Dexin 趙德馨. Zhongguo jing ji shi ci dian 中國經濟史辭典. Wuhan Shi: Hubei ci shu chu ban she, 1990. A comprehensive tool book for Chinese economic history of the 20th century (basically mainland). Not only includes terminology of traditional China from pre-history era to modern times, but collects the major academic issues of Chinese economic history, categorized as “general category” (zonglei), which reflects a typical Marxist view based on mainland China. Entries are arranged firstly chronically and then thematically.

Chen, Gaochun 陳高春. Zhongguo gu dai jun shi wen hua da ci dian 中國古代軍事文化大辭典. Beijing: Chang zheng chu ban she, 1992. It is quite odd the dictionary is composed for the officials of PLA. Entries are arranged thematically and with index of stroke count system. Apart from collections of institutional terms, a great portion of the collections regard thoughts, scholarships, and culture of traditional Chinese military. Many explanations of entries have references to transmitted texts, which is helpful for further study and empathetical understanding.

Week 2: Assignment

(courtesy of Cohen 2000: 121–22)

Identify 3 particularly useful dictionaries (Chinese–Chinese, Chinese–English, etc.) and look up the following compounds:

  • 證聖
  • 琴堂
  • 慶賞

(instead of these three, you may choose three compounds from your own readings)

Compare and contrast the information found in the various dictionaries. Bring your results to class.

Week 3: People

1. Mingdai Zhuanji Congkan 明代傳記叢刊(Biographical Collections of the Ming dynasty), ed. 周駿富, Taipei: Mingwen 台北明文書局, 1991. (Index Attached) Qingdai Zhuanji Congkan 清代傳記叢刊(Biographical Collections of the Qing dynasty), ed. 周駿富, Taipei: Mingwen 台北明文書局, 1985.(Index Attached)

2. Sishiqizhong Songdai Zhuanji, Liao Jin Yuan Zhuanji Sanshizhong, Bashijiuzhong Mingdai Zhuanji, Sanshisanzhong Qingdai Zhuanji Zonghe Yinde 四十七種宋代傳記、遼金元傳記三十種、八十九種明代傳記、三十三種清代傳記綜合引得(Combined index to 47 Song dynasty, 33 Liao Jin Yuan, 89 Ming dynasty, 33 Qing dynasty Biological Collections), Shanghai: Guji 上海古籍, 1986.

3. Mingru Xue’an 明儒學案(Intellectual Biographies of Ming Confucius (Confucians?)), Huang Zongxi 黃宗羲, ed. Shen Zhiying 沈芝盈, Beijing: Zhonghua 中華書局, 2008. Song Yuan Xue’an 宋元學案(Intellectual Biographies of Song and Yuan Scholars (Confucians?), Huang Zongxi, Quan Zuwang全祖望, ed. Chen Jinsheng陳金生, Liang Yunhua梁運華, Beijing: Zhonghua, 1986. Qingru Xue’an 清儒學案(Intellectual Biographies of Qing Scholars (Confucians?)), Xu Shichang徐世昌, ed. Shen Zhiying, Liang Yunhua, Beijing: Zhonghua, 2008.

4. Pijiaoben 批校本, Wei Li 韋力. Zhongguo Banben Wenhua Congshu中國版本文化叢書 (A Collection of Books of Chinese Print Cultural), Nanjing: Jiangsu Guji 江蘇古籍出版社,2002.

❉ I plan to try to translate and annotate Duan Yucai’s “Yu Zhutongzhi Shu Lun Jiaoshu Zhi Nan” 段玉裁:《與諸同志書論校書之難》 (Stetller. Wei)

1. DMB. Dictionary of Ming Biography 1368-1644. L. Carrington Goodrich and Chaoying Fan, ed.. 2 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976. Refer to Wilkinson, p. 793. 659 biographies in the Ming dynasty, 4,500 Ming figures and 3,400 Ming book titles are mentioned. The best start point to look up Ming figures. In Wade-Giles.

2. ECCP. Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing period (1644-1912). Arthur W. Hummel ed.. 2 vols. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1943-44. Refer to Wilkinson, p. 838. Around 3,700 Qing figures. In Wade-Giles. Even though ECCP was written before the Second World War, it is still a good start point look for people in the Qing dynasty in English, like DMB. There is an online version of ECCP Reader, Dartmouth College. A tricky point is the time between DMB and ECCP: so called Ming-Qing transition. For example, I looked up Jin Renrui/Shengtan 金 人瑞/聖嘆 (In Wade-Giles, Chin Jên-jui 金人瑞 or Chin Shêng-t’an 金聖嘆 ) 萬曆三十八-順治十八 (1610-1661). He was not in DMB but in ECCP. So, it would be better to both of them when we search people in Ming-Qing transition.

3. CBDB. China Biographical Database 中國歷代人物傳記資料庫. Refer to Wilkinson, p. 156. 9.7.2. A bilingual Chinese-English database of officials from the 7th through 19th. 238,000 individuals of October, 2013. We can search people by many options such as time, office, place and so on.

I would try to translate 金聖嘆,第五才子書施耐菴水滸傳卷之一,聖歎外書,序一。


The following is from Steven Yeung The historical figure I'm researching on is Zhu Zhiyu朱之瑜[aka.Zhu Shunshui朱舜水, 1600-1682]. I will translate 答源光國問先世緣由履歷[In response to Gen〈i.e. Tokugawa〉Mitsukuni's inquiry about 〈my〉 ancestors and curriculum vitae][1426charactors]["The Collected works of Zhu Shunshui" p. 350-353]. The following sources have been used to understand his life so far. A1-5 are general sources. The first four are available at the Chronological biographies, accounts of conducts, eulogies, etc. Asian Library. A.Biographical dictionaries/encyclopedias

  1. 方賓觀等編《中國人名大辭典》1921初版上海商務印書館 1933國難後第一版 [Fang, Binguan et al. ed. "Zhongguo ren ming da ci dian" {Dictionary of Chinese Names}Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1933]
  2. 臧励和等编《中国人名大辞典》上海书店, 上海。1980 [Zang Lihe et al. ed. "Zhongguo ren ming da ci dian" {Dictionary of Chinese Names}Shanghai:Shanghai Shudian,1980]
  3. 张撝之、沈起炜,刘德重编《中国历代人名大辞典》上海,上海古籍,1999 [Zhang, Huizhi, Shen qiwei and Liu Dezhong ed."Zhongguo li dai ren ming da ci dian" {Dictionary of Names throughout Chinese History}. Shanghai: Shanghai gu ji,]999]
  4. 難波常雄、早川純三郎、铃木行三編《中国人名辞書》第二整版. 東京,東出版,1996 [Namba Tsuneo, Hayakawa Junzaburō,Suzuki Kōzō ed. "Chyugoku jimmei jisho" {Dictionary of Chinese Names}. Tokyo: Tou, 1996][this is a reprint of the 1929 edition]
  5. Shunzou Sakamaki, Chu Chih-yu in A. Hummel, ed., “Eminent Chinese of The Ch’ing Period, Vol.1 p.179-80, Library of Congress, Washington D.C. 1943. Last access Sep 21, 2014

B. Official histories

  1. 趙爾巽等 Zhao Erxun et al.“朱之瑜”(Zhu Zhiyu) 清史稿Qing shi gao (Draft History of Qing) 列傳 Liezhuan (Biographies) 286卷Juan (scroll) 505遺逸Yiyi (Remnants)一yi (one)。北京中華書局Beijing: Zhonghua shuju 1988.

C.Local gazetteers

  1. 光绪二十五修餘姚縣志卷二十三朱之嶼[瑜] ["Zhu Shiyu" in Yu yao xian zhi {Annals of Yuyao County} Juan {scroll} 23, Yuyao:County Government,1899]

D.Chronological biographies, accounts of conducts, eulogies, etc.

  1. 翁洲老民海東逸史四明叢書約園刋本北京大學圖書館 [Wengzhou lao min. "Hai dong yi shi" {Unofficial History of the Eastern Coast}, photo copy of woodblock printing, 1884.]
  2. 邵廷采思復堂文集南京圖書馆藏清康熙刻本卷三明遺民所知傳十七集251-401四庫全書存目叢書集部二五一401頁上濟南齊魯書社1997 [Shao, Tingcai. "Sifu tang wen ji" {The Collected Works of Sifu Hall} in photocopy of woodblock printing, Siku quan shu quen mu cong shu ji bu 251 pp.401a. Jinan: Qi lu shu she, 1997]
  3. 朱衍緒《明遺民族祖楚嶼先生家傳》不分卷清同治十一年(1872) 稿本(未見) 據錢明《胜国宾师–朱舜水传》頁348杭州浙江人民出版社2008 [Zhu, Yanxu. "Ming yi min zu zu chu yu xian sheng jia zhuan" manuscript not seen, quoted from Qian ming "Sheng guo bin shi - Zhu Shun Shui zhuang" Hangzhou: Zhejiang ren min chu ban she, 2008].
  4. 梁啟超《朱舜水先生年譜》臺灣中華書局單行本1936年初版1957年臺灣再版。又朱謙之《朱舜水集》下附錄一644頁北京中華書局1981/2008 [Liang, Qichao. "Zhu Shunshui xian sheng nen pu" {The Chronicles of Zhu Shunshui} in Zhu Qianzhi ed. The Collected Works of Zhu Shunshui, pp.644, Beijing: Zhonghua shu ju, 1981.
  5. 今井弘濟, 安積覺《朱舜水先生行實》見朱謙之《朱舜水集》下附錄一612 頁北京中華書局1981/2008 Imai, Kousai,Asaka Satoru. "Shu Shun Sui Sensei Gyo Jitsu" {The Life of Master Zhu Shunshui}in Zhu Qianzhi ed. The Collected Works of Zhu Shunshui, pp.612, Beijing: Zhonghua shu ju, 1981.]
  6. Ching, Julia. "Chu Shun-Shui 1600-82. A Chinese Scholar in Tokugawa Japan." Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Summer 1975), pp. 177-191.

Steven Yeung's input ends.)

Following entries are edited by Zoudan Ma:

Guo, Youling, Shu Xu, and Zhiqing Zhang. Beijing tu shu guan cang jia pu cong kan北京圖書館藏家譜叢刊. 民族卷. Beijing: Beijing tu shu guan chu ban she, 2003. A 100-volume series of genealogies based on the collections from National Library (Guotu). A large portion of them are genealogies of imperial Manchu kinsmen of the Qing dynasty and noble Mongol clans. Also other “minority” clans mostly located in northern China have been collected. For my personal interest, the Liaodong clans, almost all of them are migrants in the Qing. For catalogue, click.

Liaoning Sheng tu shu guan. Dongbei fang zhi ren wu zhuan ji zi liao suo yin 東北方誌人物傳記資料索引. 遼寧卷. Sheyang Shi: Liaoning ren min chu ban she, 1991. The index arranged by name and appellation provides some basic information for individuals including name, age, ethnicity, time period, reference. Oddly name index is only arranged according to the four corner method (sijiao haoma). For preface and convention, click.

Hua dong shi fan da xue. Tian yi ge cang Ming dai fang zhi xuan kan ren wu zi liao ren ming suo yin 天一閣藏明代方志選刋人物資料人名索引. Shanghai: Shanghai shu dian chu ban she, 1997. Tianyige Gazetteers are obviously of utter importance for the Ming studies, and most of all every major university has a set of copies and it is open-shelved. But weird is UBC doesn't have this index.

Beijing tu shu guan. Di fang zhi ren wu zhuan ji zi liao cong kan 地方志人物傳記資料叢刊. 東北卷. Beijing Shi: Beijing tu shu guan chu ban she, 2001. The most comprehensive collection of individual biographies from gazetteers today. For brief introduction, click.

Shanghai Library Genealogy Database 上海圖書館家譜數據庫. Input should be simplified Chinese. Electronic full text can only be viewed by using Shanghai Library internet or i-Shanghai. No VPN provided, might can be hacked into. Shanghai Library might be one of the most user-friendly libraries in mainland China, while the copy lady should be more careful with the rare books.

  • A biographical dictionary of the Qin, former Han and Xin periods, 221 BC - AD 24. Loewe, Michael. 2000. Boston : Brill. Wilkinson describes this useful biography in section 59.5.2. It contains detailed, English accounts of major figures in the Qin and Han dynasties, and thus is very useful for me in tracing the development of Confucian ideals as expressed by different historical figures. It is available in the non-circulating reference section of Koerner Library. DS747.38 .L63 2000 (submitted by Robin Curtis)
  • New World Encyclopedia. While it should be complemented by more formal sources, the New World Encyclopedia (NWE) can offer some great, detailed, biographical information about Chinese figures. Allegedly, its wiki-based content is "rewritten and supervised by a team of editors with academic and literary qualifications." That statement is too vague to mean much, but the actual articles do contain far more citations and academically useful information than their equivalents on either Wikipedia or Britannica. In my own research on Han Yu, the information on NWE was corroborated by Harvard's CBDB. (submitted by Robin Curtis)
  • Zhongguo she hui ke xue yuan, Jin dai shi yan jiu suo 近代史所藏清代名人稿本抄本. Zhengzhou shi, Da xiang chu ban she. 2011. Collection of important figures' personal writing, such as diaries and letters in the Qing dynasty. (submitted by Xiaoyi Ze)
  • Zhu Pengshou ed. 清代人物大事紀年. Beijing tushuguan, 2005. It is an easy tool to look for the major players in significant events. (submitted by Xiaoyi Ze)

Following references are submitted by Jiseo Kim:

  • 杜連喆, 房兆楹編:《三十三種清代傳記綜合引得》,北京:中華書局,1987. [Du Lianzhe, Fang Zhaoying,"San shi san zhong Qing dai zhuan ji zong he yin de",Beijing:Zhonghua shuju, 1987]
  • 朱保炯, 谢沛霖:《明清進士題名碑錄索引》,上海:上海古籍出版社,1980. [Zhu Baojiong, XiePeilin, "MingQing jinshi timingbeilu suoyin", Shanghai:Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1980]
  • 王鍾翰點校:《清史列傳》,北京:中華書局,1987. [Wang Zhonghan, "Qing shi lie zhuan", Beijing:Zhonghua shuju, 1987]
  • 李桓:《國朝耆獻類徵初編》,臺北:明文書局, 1985. [Li Huan, "Guochao qixianleizheng chubian",Taibei:Mingwen shuju,1985]
  • 錢儀吉撰錄;繆荃孫纂錄:《碑傳集》,江蘇書局, 清光緒.[Qian Yiji; Miao Quansun, "Bei zhuanji",Jiangsu shuju, Qing Guangxu]
  • 方树梅纂輯;李春龍,劉景毛,江燕點校:《滇南碑傳集》,昆明:雲南民族出版社, 2003.[Fang Shumei; Li Chunlong, Liu Jingmao, Jangyan, "Diannan beizhuanji", Kunming: Yunnan minzuchubanshe, 2003]

Week 3: Assignment

Identify a historical figure you would like to do research on. Then locate information about him or her in the following sources:

  • biographical dictionaries/encyclopedias
  • official histories
  • local gazetteers
  • chronological biographies, accounts of conducts, eulogies, etc.

Try to identify the dates, alternative names, official posts the person might have held, as well as other major accomplishments.

Week 4: Places

  • 1. The Monograph on Geography of the 24 Official Dynastic Histories 正史地理志, in The Edited 24 official Dynastic Histories of Zhonghua Press 中华书局点校本二十四史. There are 14 Official Histories having geography record, they are: Hanshu Dilizhi 汉书•地理志(Treatise on Geography of History of the Former Han), Houhanshu Junguozhi后汉书•郡国志(Commanderies and States of History of the Later Han), Jinshu Dilizhi晋书•地理志(Geography of the Book of Jin), Songshu Zhoujunzhi宋书•州郡志, Nanqishu Zhoujunzhi南齐书•州郡志, Weishu Dixingzhi魏书•地形志, Suishu Dilizhi隋书•地理志, Jiutangshu Dilizhi旧唐书•地理志, Xintangshu Dilizhi新唐书•地理志, Jiuwudaishi Junxianzhi旧五代史•郡县志, Xinwudaishi Zhifangkao新五代史•职方考(Treatise on Administrative Geography of New History of the Five Dynasties), Songshi Dilizhi宋史•地理志, Liaoshi Dilizhi辽史•地理志, Jinshi Dilizhi金史•地理志, Yuanshi Dilizhi元史•地理志, and Mingshi Dilizhi明史•地理志.——These are the basic materials of Zhongguo Lishi Dituji 中国历史地图集, of course, the most reliable geographic records to study the evolution of Chinese historical place.——They are not very easy to use, especially when you want to compare the records of one place in different books.
  • Lidai Dilizhi Huibian历代地理志汇编 (Collections of the Monographs on Geography of the Official Histories), ed. Luo Runan 罗汝楠of Qing dynasty, Beijing: National Library Press 国家图书馆出版社,2011.——This book include the 14 geographies, as well as Bu Sanguo Jiangyuzhi补三国疆域志(by Hong Liangji 洪亮吉) , Bu Liang Jiangyuzhi 补梁疆域志(by Bi Yuan 毕沅) and some important studies of Qing scholars.
  • 2. Hejiao Shuijingzhu合校水经注(Collections of Text Criticism on Shuijingzhu), ed. Wang Xianqian 王先谦, Chengdu: Bashushushe成都:巴蜀書社, 1985. (Beijing: Zhonghua, 2009.)——This book, well edited and including studies of Dai Zhen 戴震, Zhu Mou朱谋, Zhaoyiqing赵一清, Dong Youcheng董祐诚, Sun Xingyan孙星衍, as well as other Qing scholars, may be the most easy using book on Shuijingzhu. There is another version of Shuijingzhu called Shuijingzhu Shu水经注疏(Annotations on Shuijingzhu),edited by Yangshoujing杨守敬 and Xionghuizhen 熊会贞, perhaps more famous, but, in my view, unreliable and bad using.——It has no index and not easy using. But there are various index of Shuijingzhu itself, which we can use to read this book.
  • Shuijingzhu Tu 水经注图(Atlases of Shuijingzhu), Yang Shoujing 杨守敬, etc., Qing Guangxu Yisi (1905) woodblock edition preserved in Waseda University Library 早稻田大學圖書館. (Beijing: Zhonghua, 2009.)——Not very accurate.
  • 3. Lidai Yudi Tu 历代舆地图 (Atlases of ancient China), Yang Shoujing 杨守敬, preserved in Chinese National Library。——This is a Qing version Zhongguo Lishi Dituji. Based on Da Qing Yitong Zhi 大清一统志, the maps in this atlases are not accurate, but we can see how the people of Qing dynasty viewed and represent the world.
  • 4. Xi’an Historical Geographic Infprmation System 西安历史地理信息系统(测试版): ——Have 10 historical layers from Formal Han to Qing, based on the contemporary map of Xi’an. The information is very meager, but one day, we hope, the situation will change.

(Stetller Wei)

Following entires are edited by Zoudan Ma:

Li, Yongxian. Zhongguo li shi di li wen xian ji kan 中國歷史地理文獻輯刊. Shanghai Shi: Shanghai jiao tong ta xue chu ban she, 2009.

Tan, qixiang, and Xitong Zhang. "Zhongguo li shi di tu ji" shi wen hui bian 「中国歴史地图集」释文汇编. 东北卷. Beijing: Zhong yang min zu xue yuan chu ban she, 1988.

Gu, Zuyu, Cijun He, Hejin Shi, and Zuyu Gu. Du shi fang yu ji yao 讀史方輿紀要. Beijing Shi: Zhonghua shu ju, 2005. Aoyama, Sadao, and Zuyu Gu. Du shi fang yu ji yao suo yin: Zhongguo li dai di ming yao lan 讀史方輿紀要索引 : 中國歷代地名要覧 /. Taibei Shi: Hong shi chu ban she, 1975.

Hsieh, Chaio-min, and Jean Kan Hsieh. China, a Provincial Atlas. New York: Macmillan Pub. USA, 1995.

   for translation material click, click

1. Wei Songshan 魏嵩山 ed.. Zhongguo gudian shici diming cidian 中国古典诗词地名词典. Jiangxi jiaoyu chubanshe, 1989. Refer to Wilkinson, p. 404. An excellent dictionary to find out places found in poetry. UBC Asian Library DS705 .C5315 1989

2. Gaimu shō jōhō bu 外務省情報部 ed.. Chūgoku chimei jiten: eichū nicchū taishō. 中国地名辞典 : 英中・日中対称原書房、Hara shoten, 1985. A good way to find out places in Chinese, English and Japanese.

3. Hoshi Ayao 星斌夫. Chūgoku chimei jiten 中国地名辞典. Kokusho kankō kai, 1979. Much description on historical account of place names. I.K. Barber ASRA storage. DS705 .H685 1979


Steven Yeung’s

  1. For Li Daoyuan’s (酈道元) “Commentary on the Water Classic” (水經注shuijing zhu), apart from Wang and Yang’s mentioned by Stetler above, there are also Wang Guowei (王國維 )’s Jiao (校proofread and corrected) version and Chen Qiaoyi’s (陳橋驛) “ShuiJing Zhu Jiaozhen” (水經注校証) (I haven’t seen this one yet but it is said this one is the best available);
  2. Li jifu (李吉甫)’s “ Yuanhe Junxian Tuzhi” written in Yuanhe Era (806-820) in Tang Dynasty. It is, a comprehensive national geographic data base expanding from monographs in official histories, and, though damaged, the earliest such work available.
  3. Ma Qixiang's "The Collection of Chinese Historical Maps" (中國歷史地圖集 Zhongguo Lishi Ditu Ji) has a sister book "The Complete Explanatory Notes on The Collection of Chinese Historical Maps" 中國歷史地圖集釋文匯編 Zhongguo Lishi Ditu Ji Shiwen Hui Bian) explaining the historical changes on place names mentioned in the Map Collection. However it seems only the part on North-eastern region is printed.
  4. Although CHGIS doesn't reach further than 17th century, I find it convenient and handy for Ming and after. It's sister Japanese History GIS is not very useful, yet, may be they are still compiling data, it links to quite a few sources.
  5. UBC also has a Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era (1603-1868)
  • The History of Cartography, Vol. 2, Book 2, Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies. 1994. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. This is a massive, 970-page compendium of cartographic information, focusing on China, Korea, Japan, and India. It is currently only available for viewing in the Rare Books and Special Collections in the basement of the I.K. Barber building. The book contains scanned copies of many major ancient maps, including both received versions and archaeological discoveries. In addition, in contains a wealth of useful information on how geographic information was collected in ancient times, ancient cartography, land registry systems, etc. The book's layout follows themes rather than locations or time periods, but the index is perfectly adequate for zeroing in on one's desired information. GA201 .H53 1987 (submitted by Robin Curtis)
  • An Historical Atlas of China. Herrmann, Albert. 1996. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co. This is an atlas of ancient Chinese maps, and it is available in the Asian Library. The maps are first presented in large, high-definition scans. Afterwards, the author describes the general source and content of each map. The presentation is clear and aesthetic, though I would have preferred a few more details on the historical significance of each map. G2306.S1 H42 1966 (submitted by Robin Curtis)

  • The Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies [1] appears to be THE resource for historical maps of Korea. However, it requires a special viewer, and the link to download this viewer seems to be broken, leaving you with just a tantalizing thumbnail of each map.
  • I've had some luck with the Korean History Integrated System [2], but many of its best results redirect you to the above Kyujanggak Institute site.
  • The Chosun Culture Electronic Atlas [3] looks promising, but its map viewer also won't load.
  • The US Library of Congress [4] has a digitized collection with Korean maps going back to the 18th century.
  • Chosŏn ch'ogi Chiriji yŏn'gu: "Tongguk yŏji sŭngnam" ŭl chungsim ŭro [5] --This is a study on the Tongguk yŏji sŭngnam, a late-fifteenth-century atlas compiled by the order of Sŏngjong, ninth king of Chosŏn. That work is also available in the library.
  • Atlas of Korean History [6]--This is a good English-language atlas giving an overview of the full course of Korean geographic history. Being an overview, it covers each period in only so much detail.

(Sean Bussell)

Week 4: Assignment

Identify a historical place you would like to do research on. Then locate relevant information in the following types of sources:

  • Online tools: CHGIS/Google Earth/Map, etc.
  • present-day printed geographical dictionaries/atlases
  • official records, local gazetteers, etc.
  • unofficial writings

Could you identify any historical maps for your place?

Week 5: Time, Measure, and Institutions

Following entries are submitted by Zoudan Ma:

Yongrong. Li dai zhi guan biao 歷代職官表. Shanghai: Zhonghua shu ju, 1927; and the simplified version: Huang, Benji. Li Dai Zhi Guan Biao 歷代職官表. Tai bei: Da fang, 1975. The preface by Qu Duizhi 瞿兌之, concisely outlining the chronology and development of traditional Chinese political institutions, is really worth reading.

Hucker, Charles O. A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1985.

Sun, Xingyan, and Tianyou Zhou. Han guan liu zhong 漢官六種. Beijing: Zhonghua shu ju, 1990.

Tang Xuanzong, and Linfu Li. Tang liu dian 唐六典. Beijing: Zhonghua shu ju ying yin, 1983.

Xie, Shenfu. Qingyuan tiao fa shi lei 慶元條法事類. Shanghai: Shanghai gu ji chu ban she, 2002.

Chen, Yuan. Shen ke Yuan dian zhang jiao bu: [zha ji 6 juan, jue wen 3 juan, biao ge 1 juan] 沈刻元典章校補 : [札記6卷, 闕文3卷, 表格1卷]. Taibei: Wen hai chu ban she, 1967. Also see the newly published punctuated version: Chen, Gaohua, Fan Zhang, Xiao Liu, and Baohai Dang. Yuan dian zhang: da Yuan sheng zheng guo chao dian zhang 元典章: 大元聖政國朝典章. Tianjin Shi: Zhonghua shu ju, Tianjin gu ji chu ban she, 2011.

Li, Dongyang, and Yukio Yamane. Seitoku Daimin kaiten 正德大明會典. Tōkyō: Kyūko Shoin, 1989. A Siku version is also available. Shen, Shixing. Ming hui dian: Wanli chao chong xiu ben 明會典 : 萬曆朝重修本. Beijing: Zhonghua shu ju, 1989.

Du, You. Tong dian 通典. Beijing: Zhong hua shu ju, 1988. Qianlong. Xu tong dian 續通典. Shanghai: Shang wu yin shu guan, 1935.

Huang, Liuhong, and Shizan Obata. Fukkei zensho: [32-kan] 福惠全書 : [32卷] : 附索引 : tsuketari sakuin. Tōkyō: Kyūko Shoin, 1973.

Yan, Buke. Zhongguo gu dai guan jie zhi du yin lun 中國古代官階制度引論. Beijing Shi: Beijing da xue chu ban she, 2010.

Miyazaki, Ichisada. Kyūhin kanjinhō no kenkyū: kakyo zenshi 九品官人法の硏究 : 科擧前史. Kyōto: Tōyōshi Kenkyūkai, 1956. Yan, Buke. Cha ju zhi du bian qian shi gao 察举制度变迁史稿. Shenyang: Liaoning da xue chu ban she, 1991.

Deng, Xiaonan. Song dai wen guan xuan ren zhi du zhu ceng mian 宋代文官選制度任諸層面. Shijiazhuang Shi: Hebei jiao yu chu ban she, 1993.

Wang, Tianyou. Ming dai guo jia ji gou yan jiu 明代國家機構研究. [Peking]: Beijing da xue chu ban she, 1992.

Chen, Yuan. Shi hui ju li 史諱舉例. Beijing: Zhonghua shu ju, 1962.

Xu, Guangqi, and Nai Pan. Chongzhen li shu: fu xi yang xin fa li shu zeng kan shi zhong 崇禎曆書 : 附西洋新法曆書增刊十種. Shanghai: Shanghai gu ji chu ban she, 2009.

1. Charles Hucker. A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford University Press, 1985. Abbreviated as DOTIC in Wilkinson. Must. Refer to Wilkinson, p. 266. DOTIC works not only as a dictionary but as a book too, especially pages explaining each dynasties' structures of official systems, which can be found only in the hardcover (not in the PDF file next). PDF file can be found here:

2. Wan Guoding 萬國鼎 ed. Zhongguo lishi jinian biao 中國歷史紀年表. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1978. A handy book for checking the sexagenary cycle (cf. Wilkinson, p. 496) as well as imperial almanacs (cf. Wilkinson, p. 502). A chronological table of both Chinese and Japanese eras is also attached. I found this book in Beijing this summer and think it is really useful, but am not sure whether it is authentic or not.


A catalogue of official titles throughout Korean history, from the Academy of Korean Studies' 한국역대인물종합정보시스템 (Integrated Information System of Korean Historical Figures). (Sean)

  • A Concise History of Chinese Economic Thought. Hu, Jichuang. 1988. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. This is a very useful, brief guide to Chinese economic policy and philosophy, from the Zhou dynasty to the Qing. Special attention is given to periods of great change, such as the Warring States. HB126.C4 H83. (submitted by Robin Curtis)
  • The T'ang Code. Johnson, Wallace. 1979. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. The bulk of this piece consists of a full translation of the T'ang legal code, including its articles, commentaries, and sub-commentaries. It also contains a solid introduction and explanation of how T'ang law functioned. While most of the translation is quite dry, it did occasionally relate directly to my interests. For example, under T'ang law, unrighteousness 不義 is one of the ten abominations 十惡. KNN30.A4 E54. (submitted by Robin Curtis)

Jiuzhou Fenye Yutu Gujin Renwu Shiji 九州分野輿圖古今人物事跡 (Universal Map of the Ming Empire)

Ji Mingtai 季名臺 Ming Empire / Nanjing 1 map: woodcut, 131×117㎝

This map, as a world map based on traditional Chinese cosmology, depicts the administrative division and geographical feature of China and shows other countries surrounding the Ming Empire as a nucleus. The text on the bottom of the map provides a host of statistical information on administrative areas ( the two capitals and the 13 provinces) such as the numbers of families and total population, and the rice, wheat, raw silk, processed silk, cotton, linen, horse fodder and salt contributed as taxes. Brief notes regarding changes in historical geography of every regions are put into the blank spaces on the map. Obviously the map is not drawn on a grid scale, so rivers and coastline look sketchy and inaccurate.

The map is a Ming dynasty woodcut edition because: (1) In the lower left corner, it writes: “癸未仲秋日南京季名臺選錄梓行”( Selected and edited by Ji Mingtai of Nanjing in the autumn of Guiwei Year.). (2)The institutions listed in the preface and the map can conform to that of the Ming dynasty. (3) So far, there is no sign demonstrating that this map is a re-cut edition. ——Deep study is still needed to confirm the accurate time of cutting and printing this map. The editor of this map, Ji Mingtai, is not well known at all, and any information about him has not been found. Moreover, any record about this map, from Ming-Qing bibliographies to the catalogues of contemporary libraries, has not been found, ether. We can just find a similar map called Kunyu Wanguo Quan Tu Gujin Renwu Shiji 坤輿萬國全圖古今人物事蹟 (Universal Map of the Ming Empire), the whereabouts of which is unknown since​1991.(A Descriptive Catalogue of pre-1900 Chinese Maps Seen in Europe歐洲收藏部份中文古地圖敘錄, Li Xiaocong 李孝聰, Beijing: Guoji Wenhua Chuban Gongsi 北京國際文化出版公司, 1996.8, pp.146-148, Fig.15.) The relationship of these two maps deserves further study. (Stetller Wei)

Week 6: Thanksgiving

Week 7: Locating Sources

  • Add your entries here...

(Stetller Wei)

・Zenkoku kanseki database 全国漢籍データーベース: A useful website to search kanseki (漢籍) preserved in Japan. The link below shows the progress for each institution, university, library and so on as for April, 2014. (M.T.)

Following entries are submitted by Zoudan Ma:

Huang, Shang. Lai yan xie shu ba 来燕榭书跋. Shanghai: Shanghai gu ji chu ban she, 1999. Lai yan xie du shu ji 來燕榭讀書記. Shenyang Shi: Liaoning jiao yu chu ban she, 2001. Two collections of book notes by Huang Shang黃裳, journalist, writer, and bibliophile. Those two books involve various anecdotes and knowledge of book history and sources.

Sun, Dianqi. Fan shu ou ji xu bian 販書偶記續編. Shanghai: Shanghai gu ji chu ban she, 1980. A catalogue of Qing and early Republic scholarships of culture studies by Sun Dainqi 孫殿起, book dealer and philologist. Books listed in the catalogues are basically excluded from Siku, and categorized according to Four Branches method.

  • Chinese Ancient Texts (CHANT) Database -- Maintained by the Chinese University of Hong Kong, this database includes photographs and transcriptions of many old texts, including those written on oracle bones and bamboo strips. Quite unfortunately, you have to pay for an account in order to access it, and I don't think UBC has one. However, browsing through the demo page for the bamboo section [here:] will give you an idea of the use and format. (Submitted by Robin Curtis)

Week 8: Si ku

The following from Steven Yeung:

A word of caution: There are occasion misprints of Chinese characters in Wilkinson. For example from previous readings, many御yu (imperial) in the early chapters are misprinted as 禦yu (to defend) (e.g.p.80,twice on p.81), 岳飛yuefei as 嶽飛yuefei (although the former is the older form of the latter and they both mean mountain peaks and are interchangeable in certain circumstances, they are not when it comes to proper nouns,p.152), 雕diao ( to cut or engrave) as 調diao (to investigate, p.913), and in this week’s reading Zhouyi Zheng Kangcheng zhu周易鄭康成注as Zhouyi Cheng Kangcheng zhu周易程康成注 (p.946). Caution is required when quoting.

On Siku: Apart from what is mentioned in Wilksinson about theSiku, which is already very comprehensive, I’d to add three more:

  1. 《四庫全書纂修考》Siku quanshu zuanxiu kao(The study of the compilation of the ‘Complete library of the four branches’) written by 郭伯恭 Guo Bogong, Beijing: Guoli beiping yanjiusuo shixue yanjuhui, 1937. I know there is a recent reprint in the Mainland, but I don’t have a copy and I can’t remember when and by which company it was reprinted. The book has a preface by顧頡剛Gu Jiegang. In twelve chapters, it traces the call for Siku, how books were collected and the political reasons behind, Siku guan’s organization, Siku’s editing, volume, storage, collation and correction, additions and alterations, the history of the seven ge where an exemplar was stored, then ends with three chapters each dedicated to discussing the 四庫全書薈要Siku quanshu huiyao (Essentials of the Complete library of the four branches), 四庫全書總目提要Siku quanshu zongmu tiyao (Catalogue 9with critical abstracts) of the Complete library of the four branches), and comments and discussions on Siku overall respectively. The annexed tables are of statistical importance. It shows the total numbers of books collected by each area, each official and individual, and how many of these were accepted and how many have just the titles preserved. These figures complement to the various tables throughout the book and will give a complete picture expressed in numbers of the Siku.
  2. 胡玉縉《四庫全書總目提要補正》Siku quanshu zongmu tiyao buzheng (Supplements and corrections for the ‘catalogue (with critical abstracts) of the Complete library of the four branches) written by胡玉縉Hu Yujin, Reprint. Taibei: Muduo(木鐸), 1981. Hu provides supplemental information, comments as well as corrections for Tiyao. He also adds more entries to it, the Tiyao and the Cunmu at the end of the book.
  3. 《四庫提要辯證》Siku tiyao bianzhen(The dialectical study of the ‘catalogue (with critical abstracts) of the complete library of the four breanches’) written by 余嘉錫 Yu Jiaxi. I could not locate this book from my collections, but from what I remember, this is one of the important critics on Siku.
  4. 四庫全書纂修考 followed up the development of Siku like collection. The most current one is the compilation of儒藏ru zang (The Treasures of Confucian) which is a mirror (mimic?) of the 大藏經dazangjing (the Chinese Buddhist Canons, also called simply 藏經zangjing , now changes to 佛藏fozang) and 道藏dao zang (the Daoist Canons). For a brief overview, please check baidu and (both are in Chinese, sorry) The Ruzang collects all the important works on Confucianism in Asia, apart from China, from Korea, Japan, Vietnam etc. There is a 100 volumes essential version which will be available for sale in 2015.
  5. Anyone who is interested to own a set of Siku can consider buying the CD-Rom version (the internet version is for multiple users and is more expensive) from迪志文化出版有限公司Digital Heritage Publishing Limited tel (852) 2302 3011 email I think the price they once quoted was under USD1,500, if I remember it right.

On a separate topic regarding versions of texts, hereunder are in chronological order the various editions of collection works written by the subject of my research朱之瑜Zhu Zhiyu (aka朱舜水Zhu Shunshui) Those that I hold a copy are prefixed with “○H”:

  1. 《心喪集語》 (Collection of words during the mourning period [of my master]) . 安東守約 Andō Morinari, comp. , 3 satsu (册ce)《安东省庵集影印编Ⅱ》(Reprint of the Collection of Andō Morinari, Second ed.) 1682.
  2. 《明朱徵君集》 (Collection of Zhu, the recruit of the Ming), 五十川剛伯Isogawa kakukō, comp. , 10巻 ken (卷 juan) 1684, not published , abbreviated as加贺本 (Kaga version).
  3. 《朱氏舜水談綺》 (Belle talks from Shunsui of the Shu’s). 3巻 ken (juan). This is a combination of the individual note recording the answers Zhu Shunshui gave to人見野傳Hitomi Yaden(?) and 今井弘濟Imai kōsaiaon respectively. There is a preface by安積覺Asaka Kaku, cut and printed by書林茨城多左衛門,woodblocks held by 神京書鋪柳枝茨城方道藏版, 1708. Reprint, Shanghai: Huadong Shifan Daxue, 1988.
  4. 《朱舜水先生文集》(Collection of Mister Shu Shunsui) . 徳川光圀Tokugawa Mitsukuni, comp.  徳川綱條Tokugawa Tsunaeda collated and printed, 28巻 ken (juan) 1715. A copy with [one of Zhu’s main students] 安積覺Asaka Kaku collation manuscripts is held by Waseda University abbreviated as水户本 (Mito version).
  5. 《朱舜水先生文集》(The Collection of Master Shunsui). Tokugawa Mitsukuni, comp. Tokugawa Tsunaeda, collated. 28巻ken (juan)彰考館Shōkōkan.正德shōtoku乙未孟春(April of 1715) woodblock printed version held by Kanagawa University Library, abbreviated as 享保本(Kyōbō version) . The copy I hold is a digital version
  6. 《朱舜水全集》(Complete collection of Shu Shunsui),稲葉君山Inaba Kunzan comp. 28巻ken (juan),with 3 ken (卷 juan)附録furoku(appendix),Letterpress version. 東京神田文會堂tokyō kanda bunedō, 1912. This is a combination of the Kaga and Mito versions. Abbreviated as the 稲葉本(Inaba version).
  7. 《舜水遺書》(Pusthumous work of Shunshui). 馬浮Ma Fu, ed., Shanghai: Shijie shuju, 1913 . Ma trimmed the Inaba version to this. Abbreviated as馬浮本 (Ma Fu version) (In 1936, Shanghai Shijie Shuju reprinted the book; in 1962 Taibei Shijie Shuju reprinted as 《朱舜水全集》Complete collection of Zhu Shunshui; in1969, Taiwan gutig shuwu reprinted again, this time in the name of 《舜水遺書》; in 1991 中国书店 Zhongguo Shudian reprinted as《朱舜水全集》Complete collection of Zhu Shunshui).
  8. 《朱舜水集》(Collection of Zhu Shunshui). 許嘯天Xu Xiaotien . 5 juans. Shanghai: Xuequn Shushe, 1926. A limited selection version from Ma Fu version (#7 above) and with a lot of misprints according to the editors of Zhonghua Shuju in Zhu version (#10 below)
  9. 《朱舜水集》 (Collection of Zhu Shunshui). 安積覺Asaka Kaku. Annexed in 《安積澹泊集》(Collection of Asaka Tanbaku),高須芳次郎Takasu Yoshijirō ed. 《水户学大系》Mitogaku Taikei, Vol 6, 1940.
  10. 《朱舜水集》(Collection of Zhu Shunshui). 朱之瑜 Zhu Zhiyu, 朱謙之 Zhu Qianzhi ed., 22 juans with 5 juans of annexes. Beijing: Zhonghua, 1981 (reprinted twice in 1996 and 2008) This version includes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 above. Abbreviated as 朱本 (Zhu version). Xu version (#8) is purposely left out as it was considered not of much value for reference.
  11. 《朱舜水集》(Collection of Zhu Shunshui) . 朱之瑜 Zhu Zhiyu, 王進祥 Wang Jinxiang ed.,《四部刊要》(Essentials of the four branches). Taibei: Hanjing wenhua, 1984. This is actually a reprint of Zhu version.
  12. 《朱舜水文选》(Selection of the works of Zhu Shunshui). Taiwan Yinhang Yanjiushi. Select. 1 ce , selected from Ma Fu version. 《台湾文献丛刊》Taiwan wenxian congkan, 182 th kind, 1963.
  13. 《清人文集•别录朱之瑜》(Qingren wenji, bielu, Zhu Zhiyu). 張舜徽Zhang Xunhui. Ed. Zhonghua Shuju, 1983.
  14. 《朱舜水文选》(Selection of essays by Zhu Shunshui). 《張蒼水詩文集》(Collection of poems and proses by Zhang Cangshui), 《台湾文献史料丛刊》Taiwan wenxian shiliao congkan, vol. 8. Taibei: Taiwan datong shuju, 1987.
  15. 《朱舜水集补遗》(Supplements to the Collection of Zhu Shunshui). Xu Xingqing 徐興慶 comp. Taibei: Xuesheng shuju, 1992.
  16. 《朱舜水文选》(Selection of the works of Zhu Shunshui). Taiwansheng wenxian weiyuanhui. 崇相集Chongxiangji. Select, 1994.
  17. 《新訂朱舜水集補遺》(the New Edition of the Supplements to The Collection of Zhu Shunshui). Xu Xingqing 徐興慶 comp. Taibei: Taiwan Daxue, 2004. A newer and collated version of his older version (#15 above). Abbreviated as徐本(Xu version)

Since #8 and #12 are from Ma Fu version (#7), #11 is a reprint of #10, and #15 can be replaced by #17, the total number of versions available so far is 13.

Steven Yeung's entries end.

There are some books in Siku written by non-Chinese people. For example, Yamanoi Konron 山井崑崙 (a.k.a. Yamanoi Tei 山井鼎). Shichikei Moushi kōbun 七經孟子考文 199 quan. Published in Kyōhō 享保 16 (1731). A book which revised 易經,書經,詩經,春秋左氏傳,禮記,論語,孝經,孟子 by referring to old editions and manuscripts 古抄本, and books published in the Song dynasty 宋刊本 reserved in Ashikaga bunko 足利文庫, which is located now in Ashikaga city 足利市 in Tochigi prefecture 栃木県. Cf. 《四庫全書總目》卷33 經部五經總義類 《七經孟子考文補遺》提要 (M.T.)

  • Yu Jiaxi余嘉錫. Siku tiyao bianzheng四库提要辨证 (Analyses and corrections on Siku Tiyao ). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 2008. (Kunming: Yunnan Renmin Chubanshe昆明:雲南人民出版社, 2005)——This book has already become a necessary work for scholars to read Siku ti yao. It is organized by the original order of Siku tiyao, listing the text of Siku tiyao first, and then making corrections and additions for it. Most of Yu Jiaxi’s conclusion is, as considered by scholars, reliable.
  • Zhang Shunhui張舜徽. Siku tiyao xu jiang shu四庫提要序講疏 (Explanation and annotion on the Xu of Siku tiyao). Kunming: Yunnan Renmin Chubanshe昆明:雲南人民出版社, 2005.—— There are 4 branches and 44 categories (lei類) in Siku tiyao, each of which has a short Xu序 ([or敘], preface) introducing the purpose, the principle of including books, etc, of this category. Aimed to explain the Xu of Siku tiyao, Zhang’s work is filled with academic materials, which, obviously, is very helpful to scholars who want to make it clear the structure of Siku, the principles of book classification and even the evaluation of Chinese bibliography.
  • Yoa Jinyuan姚覲元 and Sun Dianqi孫殿起, ed. Qingdai jinhui shumu, Qingdai jinshu zhijianlu清代禁毁书目,清代禁书知见录 (Catalogue of banned and destroyed books by Qing government, Records of Qing banned books that are seen or known [by the author]). Shanghai: The Commercial Press, 1957.——Most of the binned and destroyed books are Ming scholars’ works, so from this catalogue, brief information of some important Ming books can be gotten.

(Yinzong Wei)

Ying yin Chi zao tang si ku quan shu hui yao景印摛藻堂四庫全書薈要. Taibei Shi : Shi jie shu ju. 1985. Before the editing of Siku quanshu, the Qianlong Emperor required a selected collection for his personal reference stored in his cabinet Chizaotang摛藻堂, which becomes Siku huiyao that is publicly accessible today. Siku huiyao has several advantages over Siku quanshu in terms of collation, master copy, and integrity of the original narrative. (Zoudan Ma)

The 19 sources below are submitted by Robin, and constitute a list of all places in the Siku Quanshu online in which the full text of 韓愈's 原道 appears. With the exception of the first seven sources, all sources are found in the 集部, section 總集類. Additionally, the first few lines of first lines of 原道 also show up quoted in 14 other sources, not included here. It is likely that other portions of the essay are also repeated in many parts of the Siku, given 韓愈's general celebration throughout the collection.

  • 1. 《西山讀書記》 卷三十六
    (imbedded in text)
    Located in: 史部/史評類

  • 2. 《歷代名賢確論》 卷二十八
    (imbedded in text)
    Located in: 子部/儒家類

  • 3. 《辨惑編》 卷四
    (imbedded in text)
    Located in: 子部/儒家類

  • 4. 《經濟類編》 卷九十五
    Located in: 子部/類書類

  • 5. 《別本韓文考異》 卷十一
    (isolated, with some commentary)
    Located in: 集部/別集類/漢至五代

  • 6. 《五百家注昌黎文集》 卷十一
    (isolated, with lots of commentary)
    Located in: 集部/別集類/漢至五代

  • 7. 《東雅堂昌黎集註》 卷十一
    (isolated, lots of commentary)
    Located in: 集部/別集類/漢至五代

  • 8. 《文苑英華》 卷三百六十三
    (isolated, included with other essays)

  • 9. 《唐文粹》 卷四十三
    (isolated, included with other essays)

  • 10. 《古文關鍵》 卷上
    (isolated, included with other essays)

  • 11. 《崇古文訣》 卷八
    (isolated, included with other essays)

  • 12. 《文章正宗》 卷十二
    (isolated, with some commentary, included with other essays)

  • 13. 《古文集成》 卷六十八
    (isolated, with some commentary, included with other essays)

  • 14. 《文章軌範》 卷四
    (isolated, with some commentary, included with other essays)

  • 15. 《文編》 卷三十八
    (isolated, included with other essays)

  • 16. 《唐宋八大家文鈔》 卷九
    (isolated, included with other essays)

  • 17. 《文章辨體彙選》 卷四百三十一
    (isolated, included with other essays)

  • 18. 《御選古文淵鑒》 卷三十五
    (isolated, with a long introduction)

  • 19. 《古文雅正》 卷八
    (isolated, included with other essays)

Week 9: Collectanea and Encyclopedias

  • 1. Zhongguo congshu zong lu中國叢書綜錄 (Comprehensive Descriptive Catalogue of Book Collections). Shanghai tushuguan上海圖書館, ed. 3 vols. Shanghai: Shanghai guji, 1959.
  • 2. Wang Yunwu王雲五. Congshu ji cheng chu bian mulu叢書集成初編目錄 (Catalog of Congshu ji cheng). Shanghai: Zhonghua Shuju, 1935.
  • 3. Airusheng Furum, Guji congshu愛如生論壇•古籍叢書. There are around 300 kinds of collections, all of which can be downloaded:

(Yinzong Wei)

藝文類聚索引(私家版)by a notable Japanese scholar, Saitō Mareshi 齋藤希史. (M.T.)

Yang, Shoujing, and Zhiding Li. Zeng ding cong shu ju yao增訂叢書舉要. Beijing: Guo jia tu shu guan chu ban she, 2009. The collection incorporates 1,605 texts, which are arranged as 經、史、子、集、前代叢書、自著叢書、近代叢書、郡邑叢書、彙刊書目、釋家、道家. It provides an example for editing congshu in the Republic time.

Tōyōgaku Bunken Sentā Renraku Kyōgikai. Kanseki sōsho shozai mokuroku 漢籍叢書所在目錄. Tōkyō: Tōyō Bunko, 1966. The collection incorporates 1,966 texts stored in Tōyō Bunko東洋文庫. The Congshu is arranged according to Zhongguo congshu zonglu中國叢書綜錄 as 彙編: 雜纂類、輯佚類、郡邑類、氏族類、獨撰類;類編: 經類、史類、子類、集類.

(Zoudan Ma)

  • Gujin Tushu Jicheng or "Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times". 1934. Shanghai : Zhonghua shu ju. This encyclopedia was originally published in 1725, and includes over 6,000 sections. It is useful in its breadth and illustrations, and Elman's historiography research guide praises it for its strong use of primary sources. However, while it does include an index, composed by Herbert Giles in 1911, the index is difficult to use for those not trained in the Four Corners system. Thus, it can be tough to find the content you're looking for among the 82 volumes. A 1934 edition is housed in the UBC rare books collection, and a 1985 edition is housed in the Asian Library. AE4 .K8 1934 (submitted by Robin Curtis)

From Steven Yeung

For study of the Yongle Dadian, apart from what have been mentioned by Wilkinson, we can also consult Guo Bogong’s (郭伯恭) “The study of Yongle Dadian” (永樂大典考yongle dadian kao), 2nd Edition. Taibei: Taiwan Shangwu, 1972. In ten chapters, Guo respectively introduces the Dadian generally then studies its compilation, compilers, structure, copies, misfortune, situation during Qianlong period right before Siku started, preservation of lost books and their retrievals, disperse and loss and closes the book with a miscellaneous chapter. The annex tables (for 55 pages) of a total of 572 lost books retrieved from Dadian arranged in the tradition four branches way is very useful and interesting.

With regard to the Congshu, even today there are still efforts of various kind, for example:

  1. “The Collection of Philosophic Writings” (諸子集成zhuzi jicheng). Zhonghua 1978 includes in 8 vols. all twenty six schools of philosophic writings up to the Six Dynasties. The jicheng was based on the one printed by Shijie shuju in the Sino-Japanese war period, with collation and correction in the new reprints.
  2. “A Hundred Philosophic Writings” (百子全書baizi quanshu). Zhejiang renmin, 1984. This photocopy reprint of Saoye Shanfang 1919 lithographic edition (掃葉山房石印本 Saoye shanfang shiyinben) includes philosophic works up to Ming dynasty.
  3. “The Collection of Song Dynasty Sichuan Woodblock Edition of Tang Collections” (宋蜀刻本唐人集叢刊song shukeben tangrenji congkan) by Shanghai guji 1994 photocopies the beautiful shukeben in original size.

I am interested in the genre of Riyong Leishu. I don’t know about the other parts in China, but in Hongkong, they still have a Tongsheng (通勝, equivalent to 黄曆huangli, originally called Tongshu通書 but since 書sounds the same as 輸and people dislike losing all [通], the title was changed to the opposite – winning [勝sheng]) publish each year, providing other than calendar of that year, astronomy, seasonal ordinances, letter writing, primary readings, fate calculation, and other basic knowledge including even Englsih. I will bring a copy to class for those interested to have a look. (SY)

Week 10: Libraries

  • Add your entries here...
  • 1. National Library of China, National Digital Library of China中國國家圖書館•中國國家數字圖書館:
  •  Zhao Wanli 趙萬里. Beiping tushuguan shanben shumu 北平圖書館善本書目. 1933.
  •  Zhao Wanli and Ji Shuying冀淑英. Beijng Tushuguan shanben shumu 北京圖書館善本書目. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1956.
  •  Ji Shuying. Zizhuangyan kan shanben shumu 自莊嚴堪善本書目. Tianjing: Tianjin guji, 1985.
  • 3. Shanghai Library bibliographic database of Chinese ancient texts 上海圖書館古籍書目數據庫:
  • 2. Chinese University library resources on Chinese Ancient texts高校古文獻資源庫:

(Yinzong Wei)

北京大學數字圖書館古文獻資源庫Peking University Chinese Ancient Texts Collections

[[ Hollis]]Hollis Classic

[[傅斯年圖書館 Fu Sinian Library]]

(Zoudan Ma)

・Zenkoku kanseki database 全国漢籍データーベース: A useful website to search kanseki (漢籍) preserved in Japan. The link below shows the progress for each institution, university, library and so on as for April, 2014.

・Waseda Kotenseki Sōgō Database 早稲田古典籍総合データーベース

・Sonkeikaku bunko 尊経閣文庫 in Tokyo. Strong in Ming. (Prof. Rusk told me) Printed catalog:

・Gest Collection, Princeton University. Strong in Ming.

・UBC Puban 蒲坂 Collection!!


  • Harvard Digital Resources for Chinese Studies. A list of great electronic resources, ranging across topic and time period. While many of these resources require subscriptions, the list clearly denotes which do and which do not. Moreover, the list includes the option to expand a "Full View" for each item, which reveals a useful annotation about the item's content and usefulness. Overall, this is a great tool for getting to know what is out there. (Submitted by Robin Curtis)
  • National Bibliographic Information Network. 全國圖書書目資訊網. Wilkinson describes this as "the mega e-catalogue for Taiwan libraries and others." A search for titles on Han Yu 韓愈 yielded 618 works, many of which would be potentially useful to my studies. (Submitted by Robin Curtis)

Week 11 E-Texts

(Yinzong Wei)

From Steven Yeung

I am a "new learner" in using e-source (still am!!!) and have no contribution in this section (and the previous one). Hereunder was my brief experience in using all the suggested resources (the comments are probably due to my limited knowledge of using them though): Elman

  1. Zhongguo wangluo ziyuan中国研究网络資源 (Online resources for Chinese Studies) .
  2. FOREASt, The Internet East Asian Library

Both websites provide links to other useful online sources, but not all work. Wilkinson

  1. 1. Academia Sinica中研院 Hanji dianzi wenxian ziliaoku 漢籍電子文獻資料庫 (Scripta Sinica database) (Can’t browse their catalogue, and don’t know how to find Song huiyao宋會要 and the veritable records of the Ming and the Qing明、清實錄)but if one knows exactly what one is looking for, then it's very useful.
  2. 2. Airusheng愛如生 (Erudition; Airusheng shuzihua jishu yanjiu zhongxin愛如生數字化技術研究中心) Too many restrictions.(Have to be at UBC, one user at a time etc. plus the data base is not complete yet.)
  3. 3. Apabi: Beijing Fangzheng (Apabi) shuzi tushuguan北京方正(阿帕比)数字图书馆(Beijing founder Apabi digital library)方正apabi数字图书馆 or I can’t open this link (said to be the latest after 2012) on computer. The platform seems to be for mobile devices.
  4. 4. Chinamaxx digital library. It’s for members only and there is no way I can register to be a member.
  5. 5. 國學 Guoxue Membership required. It is easy to use. Able to browse their index. “Tools” section interesting: when entering a year, e.g. 1600, people born, live and died in that year will appear. However, I couldn’t find my subject of research there, which means its data base is not big, at least not as big as CBDB.
  6. 6. Wanfang Data万方数据知识服务平台 Easy to use. I like the journal part (Chinese and overseas) and dissertations.
  7. 7. Zhongguo zhiwang中国知网(CNKI) Very useful. I’ve tried guji古籍. When I typed in a name, books with the subject mentioned are listed and the relative link allowed me to read in more details. The “Journals” section is not that friendly. It requires membership (which is easy to register for) and payment for each. Seems no exception even when I was transferred from UBC.

I wanted to elaborate a bit on the Chinese Text Project, already listed above by Yinzong. (Robin Curtis)

  • The Chinese Text Project, also referred to as "ctext," is best used for easily locating and understanding works from the Pre-Qin and Han period. In my own use, I have found its greatest strengths to be its accompanying translations in English (example), its integrated dictionary function (example), its fully searchable format (example), and its citations of authoritative academic sources for all material. It also includes traditional/simplified character toggling, and scanned source texts for much of the earlier material (example). While it includes material from after the Qin dynasty, much of it has not been transcribed, and can thus only be found by searching for the title and consulting the scanned version. Also, the option to easily copy or download entire works at a time is somewhat limited. Incredibly, the whole site was created and is maintained by one person, Donald Sturgeon, a postdoc at the City University of Hong Kong.

Apparently my cohort have listed most of the e-text tools, I however want to share an online integrated inversely list:

Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (IGCS)

It's an integrated list of Chinese e-text based on Institute of Chinese Studies, Heidelberg University. Not all the entries all publicly accessible, but we know how it is. Little have we talked about European Sinology, so I think it would be helpful to make some supplementary. Plus, the list incorporates some descriptions of every entry.

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses - Full Text

(Zoudan Ma)

  • A couple of the resources from the link posted by Dan above are lists of Chinese and English theses from Hong Kong universities. This reminded me, we also have the same function here at UBC! This definitely applies to almost everyone in our class, because, one day, your own thesis or dissertation will be publicly available for viewing right here on Circle. (Submitted by Robin Curtis)

Week 12 Translations

You can sometimes find a text translated from classical Chinese into modern Japanese, which has not yet been translated into English or other European languages. The way Japanese scholars translate texts in classical Chinese usually comes with the following order: original passage, kundoku-bun 訓読文 (the Japanese rendering of classical Chinese), goshaku/gochu 語釈/語注 (explanations of difficult words and annotations in general) and gendai goyaku 現代語訳 (translation into modern Japanese). I show below the most authentic series of translations of classical Chinese texts with annotations. One point we should notice is the way and tendency they select texts: they choose texts which were well read in pre-modern Japan and influenced the formation of classical Japanese texts.

Uchida Sennosuke 内田泉之助, Yoshida Kenkō 吉田賢抗, Hayashi Shūichi 林秀一, Uno Seiichi 宇野精一, Mekada Makoto 目加田誠 eds. Shinshaku kanbun taikei 新釈漢文大系. Tokyo: Meiji shoin, 120 vols., 1960-. The most authentic series of classical Chinese texts in Japan. The content can be found here:

Takeda Noboru 竹田晃, Kuroda Mamiko 黒田真美子 eds. Shinpen kanbun sen 新編漢文選. Tokyo: Meiji shoin, 10 vols., 1997-2001. Translations of 呂氏春秋, 列女伝, 五行大義 and 晏子春秋 from the same publisher above, Meiji shoin.

Takeda Noboru 竹田晃, Kuroda Mamiko 黒田真美子 eds. Chūgoku koten shōsetsu sen 中国古典小説選. Tokyo: Meiji shoin, 12 vols., 2005-2009. Also from Meiji shoin.

Iriya Yoshitaka 入矢義高 ed. Chūgoku koten bungaku taikei 中国古典文学大系. Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1967-1975. This series only has modern Japanese translation, so without original texts. The explanation for each text was written by an expert in the field and quite informative. The main focus of the collection is focused on vernacular novels. UBC has the collection (PL779.C1 C46) The content can be found here:

And I have a question about the authority of 《大中华文库》(汉英对照). How's the reputation in China and in the world?[from]=&price[to]=

(M. T.)

From Steven Yeung

How about a poem?

聲聲幔 Shengsheng Man 李清照(易安) (1084-1155) by Li Qingzhao(Yian) 英译:林语堂 (1895-1976) Translated by: Lin Yutang

尋尋覓覓, 冷冷清清,淒淒慘慘戚戚,

So dim, so dark,

  So dense, so dull,
      So damp, so dank,
          So dead!


The weather, now warm, now cold,

  Makes it harder
     Then ever to forget!


How can a few cups of thin wine

 Bring warmth against
     The chilly winds of sunset?


I recognize the geese flying overhead:

  My old friends,
        Bring not the old memories back!


Let fallen flowers lie where they fall.

 To what purpose and for whom should I decorate?


By the window shut,

  Guarding it alone,
        To see the sky has turned to black!


And the drizzle on the kola nut

    Keeps on droning:
          Pit-a-pat, pit-a-pat!


Is this the kind of mood and moment

  To be expressed
      By one word "sad?"
  • Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar. 1995. By Edwin Pulleyblank. Vancouver: UBC Press. This book is a standard tool in graduate level Classical Chinese translation courses. It analyzes and explains the many ins and outs of grammar in Classical Chinese, and is clearly divided into sections based on parts of speech. It is useful not just for understanding how words are functioning in Classical Chinese sentences, but also in deciding how best to render them in English translation. Available online through UBC library. (submitted by Robin Curtis)

Contrasting translations in the Analects (Robin Curtis)

Original -- 子曰:「苟志於仁矣,無惡也。」

Legge -- The Master said, 'If the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice of wickedness.'

Lau -- The Master said, 'If a man sets his heart on benevolence, he will be free from evil.'

Ames & Rosemont -- The Master said, “If indeed one's purposes are set on authoritative conduct (ren 仁), one could do not wrong.”

Brooks & Brooks -- The Master said, If once he sets his mind on rv́n, he will have no hatred.

Slingerland -- The Master said, “Merely set your heart sincerely upon Goodness and you will be free of bad intentions.”

Week 13