Sandbox:OER Lit Review

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Towards a literature review on pedagogic frameworks to support OER

Academic sources

Atkins, D., Brown, J., & Hammond, A. (2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities. Retrieved from

A general overview of issues pertinent to OER, based mostly on US examples (MIT, Rice University Connexions project etc.). In terms of pedagogical frameworks discussed, there is a focus on “experiential learning”, “situated learning” and “learning-to-be” (rather “than learning about”).

Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (2007). Open Educational Resources: Giving Knowledge for Free. OECD, Paris.

The report discusses pedagogic issues primarily in the context of barriers to engagement. While it relies on the concept of “pedagogical innovation”, there is little in-depth analysis of what that concept entails.

Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2008). Ubiquitous learning, ubiquitous computing, and lived experience. Paper presented at the Networked Learning conference, Haldiki, Greece, 5-6 May 2008.

The paper explores the notion of “ubiquitous learning” (with an emphasis on “pervasive” pedagogies/ issues of agency) in the context of Web 2.0/ open educational resources.

Conole, G. (July 2008) "New Schemas for Mapping Pedagogies and Technologies." Ariadne 56. Retrieved from

The researcher reflects on the implications of Web 2.0 tools (including OERs) in teaching and learning. She introduces a matrix of pedagogic principles of e-learning on the basis of cases study of OpenLEarn.

Conole, G., Laat, M. d., Dillon, T., & Darby, J. (2008). 'Disruptive technologies', 'pedagogical innovation': What's new? Findings from an in-depth study of students' use and perception of technology. Computers and Education, 50(2), pp. 511–524.

The article explores students’ use of Web 2.0 technologies and social networking tools to support their learning, could be a relevant basis for a reflection on students’ use of OERs.

Conole, G., & Weller, M. (2008). Using learning design as a framework for supporting the design and reuse of OER. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2008(5), 1-12. Retrieved from

Authors explore issues connected with “learning design methodology” (in the context of OpenLearn initiative), potentially useful for discussing issues around curriculum design and OER, as well as issues around re-using and re-purposing OER.

D'Antoni, S. (2009). "Open Educational Resources: reviewing initiatives and issues." Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning 24(1): 3-10.

The paper explores issues around sharing open content from an international perspective, the issue of pedagogic frameworks is only implicit.

Gourley, B., & Lane, A. (2009). Re-invigorating openness at The Open University: the role of Open Educational Resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 24(1), 57-65.

The article discusses the impact of launching an OER initiative on the current business model of OU and its implications for the lifelong learning agenda. It provides an overview of OpenLEarn learner-centred pedagogic framework with an emphasis on self-study, with learning embedded in the social context (this approach is contrasted with pedagogic frameworks underlying MIT project and other open courseware initiatives).

Keats, D. (2009). The road to Free and Open Educational Resources at the University of the Western Cape: a personal and institutional journey. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 24(1), 47-55.

The author discusses the grounding of OERs within the institutional culture of UWC as well as issues of long-term sustainability (could be relevant in the context of HEA project Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)).

Lane, A. (2006). From Pillar to Post: exploring the issues involved in re-purposing distance learning materials for use as Open Educational Resources. Retrieved from

The paper discusses the challenges of dis-aggregating material available in OERs and re-mixing/re-purposing these for further use. This discussion is relevant to one of the aims of CSAP OER project, that is, moving from tacit and embedded assumptions within the learning material (including implicit pedagogic assumptions) towards a more explicit acknowledgement of the learning design.

McAndrew, P., Santos, A. I. d., Lane, A., Godwin, S., Okada, A., Wilson, T., et al. (2009). OpenLearn Research Report 2006-2008. Milton Keynes: The Open University. Retrieved from

The report discusses the achievements of the OpenLearn project in the first two years, as well as mechanisms aimed at ensuring sustainability. Pedagogic frameworks are discussed mostly in the context of user experience as learners.

McNaught, C. (2003). Identifying the complexity of factors in the sharing and reuse of resources. In A. Littlejohn (Ed.), Reusing Online Resources: A Sustainable Approach to E-Learning (pp. 199-212). London: Kogan Page.

The article discusses the challenges facing re-usability of educational resources within an institutional context as well as the connection between pedagogic preferences of tutors and the uptake of OERs. Both the article and the book in general touch upon issues relevant to ESD.

Peddibhotla, N., & Subramani, M. (2007). Contributing to Public Document Repositories: A Critical Mass Theory Perspective. Organization Studies, 28(3), 327-346.

The authors discuss the motifs of voluntary contributors to public document repositories such as wikipedia and While pedagogic issues are not explicitly discussed, the article could be a useful opening into a discussion into mechanisms connected with sharing OERs and especially the ways in which JORUM is currently (not) used.

Presentations (accessible also from CSAPOER account)

Conole, G. Blue skies thinking for design and OER. Invited keynote at the University of Limerick, 11 May 2009.

The presenter discusses issues around re-use of OERs and taking full advantage of the potential of new technologies. Later on, she focuses on learning design in the context of OpenLearn initiative.

Conole, G. Connectivism: A theory for today’s learning?. Paper presented at the Seminar on ‘Knowing knowledge’, The Open University, Milton Keynes, 9 July 2008.

A presentation on connectivism as a useful pedagogic framework for Web 2.o based teaching/learning.

Conole, G. New pedagogical models in a web 2.0 world. Paper presented at the Course to discourse conference, The Open University, Milton Keynes, 15 May 2009.

Presentation explores the concept of “learning design methodology” and the concept of “pedagogy 2.0”.

Millán, B. J., & Millán, R. O. Pedagogy 2.0 – a missing or broken link? Paper presented at the Innovations in Online Learning conference, South Texas College, 20-22 May 2009.

Presenters discuss constructivism as a potential base for “pedagogy 2.0” and pedagogical innovation related to Web 2.0 technologies.