Help:Footnotes and References
This page explains how to create numbered footnotes and references on the UBC Wiki using
Inserting references or footnotes
|Example of Wiki Code Used for Footnotes and References||How Footnotes and References are Displayed|
|The UBC Library has over 5.9 million volumes<ref>UBC Library Facts & Figures, 2009 http://www.library.ubc.ca/pubs/factfig.html</ref> and 833,000 maps.<ref>About the Library, 2009 http://www.library.ubc.ca/home/about.html</ref>
|The UBC Library has over 5.9 million volumes and 833,000 maps.
Inserting a Citation or Footnote into the Text
To create an in-text footnote or citation, enter the full reference at the point you want the citation to appear in the text. Surround the full reference with the tags <ref> and </ref> like this:
<ref>Excel For Dummies, First Edition, Hungry Minds, Inc., 1980.</ref>
This code will generate a superscript footnote number at the end of the marked citation. The full reference will not be displayed until you use the reference tag, <references/>. You can include formatting and links in the footnote or reference in the usual way.
Creating the list of References or Footnotes
At the point where you want the text of the footnotes or references to appear (usually at the end of the article in a Notes or References section), insert the tag:
Multiple citations of the same reference or footnote
To cite the same reference or footnote several times, identify it using the
name parameter of the
At one of the citation points (it makes sense to choose the first), enter the reference like this:
<ref name="Perry">Perry's Handbook, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Co., 1984.</ref>
Then at all the other citation points, just enter:
You are free to pick any footnote name, subject to a few rules. The footnote name is internal and will not be displayed anywhere when the page is viewed. Footnote names are case sensitive and may not be a numeric integer. The quotes are optional unless the name or group includes a space, punctuation or other mark. Names and groups should be kept simple and restricted to the standard English alphabet and numerals.
What it looks like
The following is an example of how you would write a paragraph that includes multiple citations/footnotes:
The only reference to Excel For Dummies.<ref>Excel For Dummies, First Edition, Hungry Minds, Inc., 1980.</ref> The first reference to Perry's Handbook.<ref name="Perry">Perry's Handbook, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Co., 1984.</ref> The second reference to Perry's Handbook and to another, related book.<ref name="Perry"/><ref>Nuclear Chemical Engineering (2nd Edition), McGraw-Hill Co., 1981.</ref> The only reference to Linux in a Nutshell.<ref>Linux in a Nutshell, O'Reily Co., 2003.</ref> And third reference to Perry's Handbook.<ref name="Perry"/>
<ref> tags in the main text are automatically converted to auto-numbered superscripts like this:
The only reference to Excel For Dummies. The first reference to Perry's Handbook. The second reference to Perry's Handbook and to another, related book. The only reference to Linux in a Nutshell. And third reference to Perry's Handbook.
Clicking on a numbered superscript takes you straight to the text of the corresponding footnote or reference.
<references/> tag is expanded to show the text of the footnotes or references against their corresponding numbers, like this:
For single citations, clicking on the arrow takes you to the point of citation in the main text. For multiple citations, the links back to the main text are distinguished by numbered superscripts. Clicking on a number superscript takes you to the corresponding citation in the main text.