Genetics

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Contents

Genome

Understand the central dogma and desribe the steps of information flow

Understand the differences in chromosome, gene expression and arrangements between euharyotic and prokaryotic chromosomes

Describe the general features of gene organization on eukaryotic and prokaryotic chromosomes

Describe the role of RNA molecules as a link between genes and proteins

Identify the 5’to 3’ polarity of DNA and RNA polymers and explain why such polarity is important

Distinguish between the structures of the monomers in DNA and RNA

Relate DNA stability (denaturation and renaturation) to base-stacking and hydrogen bonding between bases

Describe the relationship between DNA structure and the Watson-Crick base pair rules (Chargaff’s rules)

Describe how single-stranded nucleic acids can fold, what structures they can make, and possible consequences of these structures

Rationalize why polypeptides and RNA molecules can act as enzymes, but DNA cannot

Contrast the different types of RNA molecules: rRNA, tRNA, mRNA

Identify the regions of DNA that can be used by proteins to recognize specific DNA sequences

Prokayriotic Transcription

Describe the steps of information flow in transcription and translation

Describe what is meant by a “consensus sequence” and be able to determine a consensus sequence from a simple data set

Describe the role of RNA polymerase and promoters in transcription

Define what is meant by promoter, how if functions and how it is recognized by cellular enzymes

Describe the process of transcription of a gene and an operon

Indicate the critical points where the flow is controlled and kept specific

Describe the structure of the RNA polymerase including the “sigma factor”

Translation

Describe why the genetic code is termed “redundant” and “non-overlapping”

Describe the roles of the initiation codon, termination codons and the ribosome binding sites on a Bacterial mRNA

Explain what is meant by “wobble” in tRNA binding

Describe the cycle of binding of the ribosomes and tRNA in protein synthesis

Explain the function of amino acyl tRNA synthetase enzymes and why they are described as “the translators” of the genetic information

Describe in general terms the structure of a ribosome, including the RNA and protein components

Eukaryotic Transcription and Translation

Describe the roles of the three RNA polymerases in Eukaryotes

Contrast the steps of transcription and translation in eukaryotes to the parallel step in prokaryotes

Describe the role of condensation of the histones in gene expression

Describe the role of the important DNA sequences (TATA box, promoter proximal elements in regulation of eukaryotic transcription and how that compares to prokaryotes

Understand the process of capping, splicing and poly-adenylation of eukaryotic mRNAs and mRNA stability

Describe the relationship between introns and the coding region for a typical eukaryotic gene and how it relates to protein differences in different cells

Indicate the critical points where the information flow is controlled and kept specific in eukaryotes

Describe the factors that change gene expression in eukaryotes as compared to prokaryotes