Basic Chemistry Concepts

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Here are some basic chemistry concepts.

Extensive Properties[edit | edit source]

properties of matter that depend on the quantity of the matter observed (volume, mass, heat).

Intensive Properties[edit | edit source]

properties of matter that are independent of the amount of matter observed (density, temperature).

Homogeneous mixtures:[edit | edit source]

uniform throughout and include such things as solutions

Hetrogeneous mixtures:[edit | edit source]

not uniform; components of the mixture vary in concentration throughout the mixture.

Qualitative Properties[edit | edit source]

subjective properties (colour, Odour, etc.)

Quantitative Properties:[edit | edit source]

Objective and empirical properties (weight, volume, etc.)

Precision[edit | edit source]

the degree of reproducibility of a measured quantity.

Accuracy[edit | edit source]

how close a measured value is to the actual value.

Isotopes[edit | edit source]

elements with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons and a different atomic mass.

Atomic number[edit | edit source]

or (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Atomic number is not the number of electrons in an atom, however, in an electronically neutral atom the number of electrons and protons happens to be the same.

Atomic mass[edit | edit source]

(fractional abundance of isotope 1)(mass of isotope 1)+ (fractional abundance of isotope 2)(mass of isotope 2) + . . . + (fractional abundance of isotope n)(mass of isotope n)

Avogadro Constant[edit | edit source]

number of elementary entities in a mole, 6.02x10^23 mol^-1

Theoretical Yield[edit | edit source]

the calculated quantity of product that one expects from given quantities of reactants.

Strong Acid[edit | edit source]

molecular compounds that are almost completely ionized in water.

Strong Base[edit | edit source]

one that is completely ionized in an aqueous solution.

Weak Acid:[edit | edit source]

one that is incompletely ionized in aqueous solution.

Oxidation[edit | edit source]

loss of electrons by a chemical spieces [Oil--> Oxidation is Losing]

Reduction[edit | edit source]

gain of electrons by a chemical spieces [Rig--> Reduction is gaining]

Oxidizing Agent[edit | edit source]

causes a chemical species to lose electrons and get oxidized in the process.

Reducing Agent[edit | edit source]

causes a chemical species to gain electrons and get reduced in the process.