Course:FRST270/Wiki Projects/Waswanipi Cree- The Fight for Broadback Valley Forest Protection

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Waswanipi Cree- The Fight for Broadback Valley Forest Protection

The Waswanipi Cree is one of nine Cree communities located in the Iiyiyuuschii territory of northern Quebec (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.). With a current population of 1,500 individuals this southernmost Cree has been working for over 10 years to protect their way of life including the ancestral trap lines, birch trees, and endangered woodland caribou that conflict with present-day industrial logging interest (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.). Acting upon this pressure, the Waswanipi, in partnership with local hunters, logging companies, universities, and push from the Canadian federal government's Model Forest Network, enacted the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest. This is the first Aboriginal model forest and one of only eleven Canadian model forests (Cheveau, Imbeau, Drapeau, & Belanger, 2008). While falling short of their original goal in 2015, the Cree managed to protect over 2.3 million acres of traditional territory and continue to advocate for protection from increased logging and road construction pressure (Axelrod, 2017). Although the Aboriginal model forest proved successful in helping the Waswanipi Cree to secure land rights, uncertainty remains as to whether the model will suffice in protecting the traditional livelihoods of the Cree for posterity.

Waswanipi Cree
Second subheader
Broadback map
Location of the Broadback Valley in Quebec, Canada
Cree population - 1,500
Community Forest Type - Aboriginal Model Forest
Area of Protected Land - 2.3 million acres
Below text

Acknowledgement

First and foremost, I would like to acknowledge that I am not a member of the Cree First Nations nor am I First Nations, therefore my words come from an outsider perspective. This paper is a compilation of Waswanipi Cree resources as well as research papers and aims to inform about Waswanipi Cree's Model Forest including their goals in protecting the Broadback Forest. You can contact the Cree directly at info@waswanipi.com.

Overview

Quebec, Canada

Geography

The Waswanipi Cree reside in the Broadback Valley (Perreaux, 2017) one of the last intact, virgin stands of Boreal forest in Quebec. 730 km north of Montreal, the land occupies an area roughly 35,000 km2 (Roberts, Gautum, & Pelletier, 2008). Within this area roughly the same size of Switzerland, 13,000 km2 of forest is protected by the government of Canada (37% of area) and many regard the remote location as the "gateway to northern Quebec" (Bernstein, 2006).

Nine Cree's

In Northern Canada alone, over 600 indigenous communities can be found today (Axelrod, 2017). Among these are the Iiyiyuu and Iinuu (Cree for "people") residing in over nine different Cree's on Iiyiyuuschii, (Cree for "traditional territory") (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.). Within these nine are four "inland cree's" or nuuchimiich, of which the Waswanipi Cree are a member (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.).

Culture

The Waswanipi Cree speak Cree, English, and French and believe that the fundamentals to a good life are "patience, caring, and self reliance" (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.). The Cree, as of recently, have become very interested in conservation management and sustainability of their existing resources; Chief Marcel Happyjack believes [of the Cree] "“we our committed to sustainable management of our resources” (Happyjack, 2016, par. 2). Self-reliance is demonstrated through existence of local businesses who provide meals, supplies, local groceries, and equipment as well as jobs and a source of income (Happyjack, 2016, par. 2). The Cree also promote recreation activities on their land including kayaking, hiking, canoeing, camping, and cross country skiing (Happyjack, 2016, par. 2). They celebrate a few festivities, the main one being "Waswanipi Day" where the community celebrates the establishment of the new Cree home location (Happyjack, 2016, par. 3). In the summertime, "chiiwetau" takes place where the Cree go to their original home" at the old-site trading post on Waswanipi Lake (Happyjack, 2016, par. 5). In Winter, the community organizes snowshoe journeys and canoe tours to maintain the knowledge of travel techniques and local routes (Happyjack, 2016, par. 6).

Traplines

The trap lines managed by the Waswanipi Cree are over 33,000 km long yet over 90% of these have been the subject of clear-cutting (Mulvihill, Preuss, 2017). The hunting grounds where the 52 trap lines are located (Roberts, Gautum, & Pelletier, 2008, pg. 213-214) are a further 300 km northwest of the valley (Perreaux, 2017). These traplines are a crucial aspect of Cree life and each trapline pertains to a certain family, passed down through generations (Perreaux, 2017).

History

Wood Use

Birch bark

Wood products are a valuable resource for the Waswanipi community seen in the meaning of the Cree's name itself; "Waswanipi" translates to "light on the water" referring to how ancestors used birch bark torches at night while fishing for sturgeon (Happyjack, 2016, par. 2). Birch bark is used in every aspect of life including preservation of food, creating storage containers, and as a building material. In the winter, the bark was valuable for keeping warm as it was rolled in bear grease and used as fuel, used to clean and dry meat, and used to build a canoe which upon finish, was accompanied with a community meal in celebration (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d. par. 2). The birch bark was essential in the success of the Hudson's Bay Company because it was a preferred material for covering buildings and used as transportation throughout the area in the form of canoes (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d., par. 12). From 1835 onward, demand for the birch wood increased in the Waswanipi region until the stands were over harvested and resources were depleted (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d., par. 13). As a treat for the Springtime, the sap of the birch was collected in birch baskets and enjoyed by all (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d., par 2). Parents told the children that it was sweeter if boiled into a syrup, but it never lasted long enough to get to that process (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d., par. 11). Collection of wood was straight-forward, no time was wasted in selection of trees as a strong knowledge base existed from observation (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d., par. 4). Larger wood products were used for snowshoe frames, beaver lodge poles, snow scoops, and plates and bowls (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d., par. 5). Willows were used to stain the inside of pots and some ancestors recall being told to "raise bark" for the Hudson's Bay postmasters; everyone knew there was a limit to how long supply would last and the willow tree became over harvested as well (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d., par. 7). Today, the Waswanipi "still have a lot of respect for the trees" and continue to make medicine to help with diabetes from both birch sap and bark (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d., par. 3).

Seasonality

Every season for the Waswanipi was important and crucial for year-round success (Happyjack, 2016). Beginning in early springtime (referred to as "siikun", meaning ‘break-up’ in Cree), moose hunting and migration to spring camps to prep for spring goose hunting began (Happyjack, 2016). Around spring-thaw "Miyuskamin", a break from school for the children occurs during goose break and the community prepares for winter fowl hunting with a progressive migration from one camp to the next (Happyjack, 2016). The summer "nippin", consists of blueberry collecting and fishing. Moose, bear, and small game hunting occurs in early fall "waastepikun" and families move to their respective traplines (Happyjack, 2016). Finally, in the late fall and early winter "freezeup" referred to as "tikwaatin", the community undergoes a period of limited preparation activity including collecting firewood, building winter camps, and making traditional tools (Happyjack, 2016).

Movement

Relocation is a major event for the Waswanipi Cree and demonstrates the impact that the Hudson's Bay Company had on the Boreal forest region of northern-Quebec (Happyjack, 2016). The original Waswanipi village was founded as a trading post by the company but more recently in 1965, the Waswanipi post closed leading to the resettlement and dispersion of the Cree 45 km upstream (Happyjack, 2016, par.1). Site preparation for the new community began in 1976 and houses were occupied by 1977 (Happyjack, 2016, par. 4). The final (current) Waswanipi destination reflects where "ancestors met historically" (Cree Cultural Instititue, n.d., par. 1). While the Cree isn't as isolated as before with location along a major highway, the Cree cost of living is much lower for the Waswanipi than other Cree communities (Happyjack, 2016).

Depletion of Resources

A community whose livelihoods are tied so closely to their natural resources is familiar with the threat of resource depletion. Back when the Hudson's Bay Company was moving around Eastern Canada, workers from the company settled to mines and sawmills on Waswanipi land making the Cree feel as if they were visitors to their home (Happyjack, 2016). Before the settlement of the incoming workers in the form of trading posts, the Cree had no formal year-round settlement (Happyjack, 2016). The Northwest Company was the first to open a trading post on Waswanipi land; they were interested in Beaver, Marten, and Lynx furs, which the area was known for (Happyjack, 2016). Up until the early 20th century, the trading post only occupied a few families at a time due to low stock in fur trade because of the transportation costs associated with the business location (Happyjack, 2016). It wasn't until the 1950's that Waswanipi land caught the interest of outside development, thus exploited due to the copper boom, opening of a railroad, and development of a highway around the Waswanipi Lake (Happyjack, 2016). The long-term effect of exploitation can be seen thorough what the Cree refer to as "dead zones", characterized as areas that are absent of wildlife and natural vegetation, can often be clear cut, and struggles with vegetative regeneration (Mulvihill and Preuss, 2017). These dead zones are the sites of many of the Cree's trap-lines which have felt the effects of intensive logging. The practice of clear cutting in southern regions of the Boreal forest forced the Waswanipi to shift trap-lines northward, currently awaiting promise of protection (Mulvihill and Preuss, 2017). According to Amy Moas in an interview to Waswanipi Cree individuals "Don Saganash’s father hunted and practiced his traditional way of life here and Don hopes to pass this trap-line to his son. Now he’s not sure that he’ll be able to" (Moas, n.d., par. 9). Pressure of maintaining trap line culture has been felt recently, one elder remembers he was offered money and gifts in exchange for land but it is evident the Cree are not going down without a fight as he says "my land is not for sale" (Moas, n.d., par. 9). The Cree see this pressure and need for forest protection as "potential for economic development" (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.). Therefore, they established a logging company, the Waswanipi Mishtuk Company Inc. whose use of checkerboard logging practices is first of its kind in the area (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.). Further, by partnering with Domtar and Nabakatuk Forest Products Inc., the Cree established a community sawmill (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.).

Tenure arrangements

The Cree has customary rights to their land. These customary rights are generally respected but under threat of impeding forest industries’ interest. The Cree are currently asking for no more forestry activities in the Broadback Forest without the consent of the Waswanipi Cree (Council of Cree First Nation of Waswanipi, 2016, pg. 9). Customary rights are backed by Article 26 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (Council of the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi, 2016, pg. 14):

  1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired.
  2. Indigenous peoples have the right to own, use, develop and control the lands, territories and resources they possess by reason of traditional ownership or other traditional occupation or use, as well as those they have otherwise acquired.
  3. States shall give legal recognition and protection to these lands, territories and resources. Such recognition shall be conducted with due respect to the customs, traditions and land tenure systems of the Indigenous peoples concerned.”

Canada's First Aboriginal Model Forest

Waswanipi Cree is unique in that it is the first Aboriginal Model Forest in Canada (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.), part of Canada’s Model Forest Program (Emmett, 2016, pg.3), implemented under the Green Plan Commitment Initiative of 1992 (Emmett, 2016, pg. i), with the goal of integrated traditional ecological knowledge with land management planning and enactment. A “model forest” aims to establish, develop, and share sustainable modes of forest management while giving equal weight to all stakeholders in multi-use management planning (Emmett, 2016, pg. i). At the heart of each model is a group of partners with differing perspectives who aim to develop a model without sacrificing an interest for another (Emmett, 2016). The Cree Model Forest is one of 11 (Cree Cultural Institute, n.d.) implemented under the plan and focuses on establishing equality between forestry companies and community representatives at a small-scale level. Many stakeholders play a role in the implementation of the Aboriginal Model Forest [see interested stakeholders section]; in total, there are over 20 individuals on the working committee representing 13 organizations (Roberts, Gautum, & Pelletier, 2008). The committee participates at all levels of planning including the drafting of laws and regulations, creation of land management plans, and land monitoring (Roberts, Gautum, & Pelletier, 2008). The “development team” works to implement and fund tasks and includes the Government of Quebec, logging companies, and local community members (Roberts, Gautum, & Pelletier, 2008). The Model works to incorporate Cree value in every project, and the Cree have a name for this: “Ndoho Istchee” (Emmett, 2016, pg. 14). Projects the Model Forest program accomplishes include (Emmett, 2016, pg. i):

  • Generating community development impact models
  • Creating eco-tourism opportunities
  • Improving relationships with the forestry industry
  • Preserving and regenerating valuable wood product
  • Establishing the model

Each forest model is a non-for profit excluding the small administrative staff who bring financial support as well as donation of time and knowledge (Emmett, 2016, pg. i). In establishing the model, the first step was to document traditional land use and territorial occupation of the Cree through development of maps with seasonal management objectives and zoning maps factoring in conservation strategies (Cheveau, Imbeau, Drapeau, & Belanger, 2008). In parallel, the state of the forest was diagnosed with help from forester perspective alongside community perspective (Cheveau, Imbeau, Drapeau, & Belanger, 2008). The plans were negotiated until a consensus was reached and each zone has management strategies that were developed to guide forest companies in future use (Cheveau, Imbeau, Drapeau, & Belanger, 2008). While the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest is regarded as a great system for involving aboriginal voice in practice in governmental publications, some issues were seen in the model including unequal power between industry and community, schedule delays, communication problems, and issues with the management of special cases (Cheveau, Imbeau, Drapeau, & Belanger, 2008).

Administrative arrangements

The Quebec government has a complex history of acknowledgment of Cree rights; prior to 1975, the Quebec government did not recognize aboriginal title and was very slow in transferring their provincial land to federal control (Happyjack, 2016). The matter was settled in 1975 after Hydro Quebec lost the James Bay court case agreement and the Northern Quebec Agreement was negotiated (Happyjack, 2016). This was key for the Cree because it guaranteed them the rights to hunt, fish, trap, and harvest within traditional territory boundary. Today, the Cree do not have statutory rights to ownership of their land even though the Quebec government recently secured the protection of nearby land in the Boreal forest (Moas, n.d.). While the forest sector is currently taking initiative to ensure Aboriginal interest is represented in areas under tenure, this hasn’t always been the case. Forests that are managed by the provincial Crown on lands within Aboriginal traditional territory have equated in moral and legal clashes since the provincial government viewed unauthorized activity on crown land as trespassing (Parsons & Prest, 2004). This has resulted in mandatory consultation on Aboriginal land yet non-compulsory granting of land tenure (Parsons & Prest, 2004).

Affected Stakeholders

An affected stakeholder can be defined as “any person, group of persons or entity that is or is likely to be subject to the effects of activities in a locally important or customarily-claimed forest area” (Bulkan, 2017, pg. 4). Within the Waswanipi Cree, there are four affected groups to consider as shown in the table below. They are defined by their role and the level of power each has. The Cree council, specifically provides a mission statement for why preservation of their cultural values matters (Happyjack, 2016):

"We are a self-governing people. Our identity is reflected in a distinct system of Government, laws, philosophy, language, culture, heritage and customs. We are a proud Nation with strong values, traditions and beliefs. We are the caretakers and the guardians of Waswanipi Cree Lands. We work together to provide a prosperous future for generations to come. We respectfully pass on our knowledge and expertise. We are good citizens. We support and respect each other. We protect and promote our culture through the wisdom and teaching of our Elders. We provide an economical, beneficial, and sustainable environment and society. We work as a team to build a friendly, beautiful and safe community." - Cree Council Mission Statement

Affected group Role Power
Waswanipi Misthuk Company Loggers Conservation focused, aboriginally established, logging company Medium
Nabakatuk Forest Products Inc. Employees Aboriginally run sawmill Medium
Cree Council Members Local governance system, caretakers of Waswanipi land High
Families with trap-lines Trap-lines backbone of Waswanipi culture Low

Interested Stakeholders

An interested stakeholder can be defined as “any person, group of persons, or entity that has shown an interest, or is known to have an interest, in the activities in a forest area” (Bulkan, 2017, pg. 5). There are quite a few interested stakeholders (i.e. groups) in the case study of the Waswanipi Cree which are shown in the table below. One of the most powerful interested stakeholder is the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers who believe in sustainable forest management which to them, "follows ecologically sound practices that maintain the forest ecosystem’s integrity, productivity, resilience and biodiversity” (Parsons & Prest, 2004, pg. 780). Another interested stakeholder group are the 100 student delegates who were hosted by the Cree in 2004 during the duration of the 32nd International Forestry Student's Symposium whose goal was to teach students and receive feedback from an outsider's perspective (Emmett, 2006). Further, Greenpeace, an independent global campaigning organization is an interested non-governmental organization providing support and publicity for the Waswanipi Cree. They sent employee Amy Moas over 3000 miles to interview the Cree. Amy says “I made this journey alongside the Cree because even its incredible remoteness has not protected this forest from exploitation” (Moas, n.d., par. 3). The NGO stands in support of protection of the Broadback forest and is an example of an outsider group providing support. As of 2016, the Environmental and Social Impact Review Committee (COMEX) is a crucial stakeholder due to the power it has in making recommendations to the Quebec government; the committee is directly responsible for conducting environmental impact reports and creation of planning documents (Council of the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi, 2016). Ultimately, it is up to the Canadian Minister of Sustainable Development to decide land use rights for the Cree, specifically if Mériaux Blanchet Inc. will be allowed to build roads through the land (Bernstein, 2016).


Interested Group Role Power
Natural Resource Canada Implements Canadian Model Forest High
Canadian Forest Service Overlooks Natural Resource Canada's implementation of Canadian Model Forest High
University Students Attended symposium to learn, support, and provide feedback on Cree model Low
Greenpeace Non-governmental organization who raises awareness and support for protection Low
Canadian Model Forest Network Government of BC's program to provides direct support and funding for creation and management of Aboriginal Model Forest High
Industrial Logging Companies Interested in Waswanipi land and continued development using clear-cutting practices Medium
Hunters Local hunters hunt moose and rabbit on Waswanipi land Low
Canadian Council of Forest Ministries Subset of government in charge of implementing change for Waswanipi Cree at the highest level HIgh
Researchers on Moose Habitat Researchers called upon by Waswanipi Cree to analyze accuracy of traditional ecological knowledge and propose strategies for moose habitat management to increase biodiversity Low
Administrative staff Provide time and energy to run non-profit aboriginal forest Medium
Matériaux Blanchet Inc. Firm desiring construction of roads on Cree land Medium
Environmental and Social Impact Review committee (COMEX) Independent Government Agency consulting planning documents and environmental impact studies High
Canadian Minister for Sustainable Development Reviewer of COMEX consultations and ultimate decider Very High

Achievements

Success: Cree Concern for Land Use

One of the Waswanipi Cree’s major achievements is their concern for use of land and their fight’s success in reaching those goals. According to Waswanipi Cree Chief Mandy Gull, “What we're ultimately trying to achieve is a large intact old growth forest that's protected, that has limited access, that is not impacted by forestry or logging practices” (Mulvihill & Preuss, 2017). For over 30 years, the Cree have shown concern for the large-scale impact of clearcutting on their land, especially damaging to moose habitat (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008). They have never been in support for clear cutting of these winter habitats and to find a suitable winter habitat within the black spruce forests is rare, only 7% of forested land is suitable (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008). The Cree has also expressed concern about feeding areas and calving sites for woodland caribou, a threatened species in the Boreal forest (Perreaux, 2017). The Cree has requested special protection measures for their land, but the request has been denied because moose were not perceived by non-indigenous forest managers as having a large impact on forest harvesting (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008). The Aboriginal Forest Model has enabled the Cree to seek out assistance from COMEX to reach a consensus with logging companies and to best help the species that live on their land (Council of the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi, 2016).

Success: Waswanipi Approach to Moose Habitat Protection

Male Moose

A great success for the Waswanipi has been the three-year project, started in 2003 and assisted by incoming researchers, to better understand the habitat needs of moose in relation to their forest lands (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008). The Cree was concerned about the declines in moose populations in Eenou Istchee territory and had a vision for moose habitat management: better protection of the mature mixed woods and Balsam fir stands. Unfortunately, forest managers believed clear cutting was a beneficial practice for moose, so the project aimed to develop a “socioecological adapted management standard” through a combination of local Cree knowledge with scientific viewpoints, yielding a shared vision (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008, pg. 3121). Initially, the first phase was to document the knowledge of Waswanipi Cree hunters on moose habitat. The researchers did this by assessing the degree to which Cree knowledge matched observational results by placing GPS telemetry collars on moose in Cree hunting grounds (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008, pg. 3121). During this phase, they also evaluated annual and seasonal moose habitat selection, assessed the importance of riparian habitats, analyzed the impact of forest management on moose, and evaluated interannual fidelity of moose to specific sites (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008, pg. 3132). By taking a holistic approach, discrepancies between Cree knowledge and scientific knowledge were analyzed, resulting in a best practice for moose-forest management, benefiting other wildlife in turn (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008, pg. 3130). This project resulted in fair distribution of family hunting grounds in the new management plans (Jacqumain, Dussault, Courtois, & Bélanger, 2008, pg. 3130).

Challenges

While the Cree was able to set aside and protect over 2/3rds of the Broadback forest, their concern for total land right security has had shown affect with the Quebec government; they sent the Cree a letter inviting leaders to address the expectations over their remaining slice of land in the Broadback forest, home to mature trees and the endangered woodland caribou (Perreaux, 2017, par. 2). While the Cree was quick to send correspondence of expectations (Perreaux, 2017, par. 2), the government fell dormant in response for over two years. According to Chief Mandy Gull, "I feel Premier [Philippe] Couillard is trying to open a dialogue. They are saying within the next 18 months there will be additional protection measures in place, and we want to hold them accountable for that” (Perreaux, 2017, par. 3). It is believed that final action from the government resulted because of a letter-writing campaign where community members and people from around the world send letters to the Quebec government stating concern (Perreaux, 2017, par. 4). By far the best example of the pressure for protection and ecological management can be seen with the remaining 3 out of original 63 traplines left (Perreaux, 2017, par. 6). According to Mandy Gull when revisiting her families’ traplines, "the difference in density, vegetation and wildlife just completely blew my mind," she said (Perreaux, 2017, par. 8). "I had never seen the forest in its true state, what it's supposed to look like. At that moment, I mourned everything my family had lost" (Perreaux, 2017, par. 8). Now, the forestry companies are abiding by the rules on a voluntary basis for logging (Perreaux, 2017, par. 9). But the protected area as it stands currently is not fulfilling its intended purpose without the other 1/3 forest protected and the middle part is constantly under development (Perreaux, 2017, par. 11). Current threats include pressure to build a new road, increase in logging pressure due to expanding demand for rayon and viscose fibers used in fabric manufacturing, and the possibility of a paper mill in the area re-opening on demand (Perreaux, 2017, par. 12). Together, these threats demand security from the Quebec government who have failed to grant the Cree the remaining 1/3 land as of time of writing.

Recommendations

Recommendations for Provincial Government

The Government of Quebec once helped to enact the Model Forest for Waswanipi Cree yet is failing to recognize ultimate statutory rights of the Cree. I recommend that the government suspends taking a distant approach and views the proposal for land security with an open mindset while providing an answer. By drawing out the case, morale for the Cree community could dissipate and potential insecurity could result in the constructing of these roads and other environmentally harmful developments that could forever impact the Broadback forest. The government needs to make up its mind on whether they will secure the cases answer or revisit it at a later notice instead of taking a year-long step back.

Recommendations for Waswanipi Cree

In my opinion, I believe the Waswanipi Cree Aboriginal Model Forest shows the successes of what a multi-stakeholder council can do but fails to show long term success in actual practice. While many plans, proposals, and recommendations were conducted and published, it has been many years now since an update on the status of the outcome of these plans and so far, the government aided Model plan started over 15 years ago has fallen short of providing support for the protection and land security of the decreasing old growth forests in the Broadback region. I recommend that the Waswanipi reach out to a multitude of NGO’s for support to gain rights to land protection; by building a network of support around the country and possibly globe, the Cree may find themselves using the spotlight to their advantage, potentially pushing the Quebec government in their favor. Continuing to implement more research projects, potentially on the endangered Woodland caribou may further raise awareness and help to draw animal activists in to the process. Further expanding the Model Forest Council to support a variety of networks will facilitate connections that will hopefully take the pressure of logging companies favoring more power over the Cree. And to prepare for the worst-case scenario, the Cree should develop backup plans through the focusing of other intentions of forest conservancy in case the final protection grant doesn’t pass.

References

Axelrod, J. (2017, October 10). Indigenous Communities Lead Way to Boreal Forest Protection [Web log post]. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://www.nrdc.org/experts/josh-axelrod/indigenous-communities-lead-way-boreal-forest-protection.

Bernstien, J. (206, January 26). Waswanipi Cree demand virgin forest, caribou be protected from logging. CBC News. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/waswanipi-forest-roads-threaten-caribou-1.3418531.

Bulkan, J. (2017, September 13). Affected and Interested Stakeholders [PDF Document]. Retrieved from https://canvas.ubc.ca/courses/1012/files?preview=128813

Cheveau, M., Imbeau, L., Drapeau, P., & Belanger, L. (2008). Current status and future directions of traditional ecological knowledge in forest management: a review (2nd ed., Vol. 84, pp. 231-243, Tech.). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Science Publishing. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://pubs.cif-ifc.org/doi/pdf/10.5558/tfc84231-2.

Council of the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi. (2016, February). Brief from the Council of the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi presented to COMEX for the public hearing on the proposed construction of two forest access roads in sections H west and I on Waswanipi Territory. Retrieved from http://comexqc.ca/wp-content/uploads/Brief-to-COMEX_Feb26__FINAL.pdf

Cree Cultural Institute. (n.d.). Waswanipi. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://www.creeculture.ca/content/waswanipi-0.

Emmett, B. (2006). Canadian Model Forest Network Achievements (pp. 1-28) (Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service). Ottawa, ON: Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://www.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/pubwarehouse/pdfs/26261_e.pdf.

Happyjack, M. (2016, January 19). Cree First Nation of Waswanipi. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://www.waswanipi.com/en/.

Jacqumain, H., Dussault, C., Courtois, R., & Bélanger, L. (2008). Moose–habitat relationships: integrating local Cree native knowledge and scientific findings in northern Quebec (12th ed., Vol. 38, pp. 3120-3132, Tech.). Canadian Journal of Forest Research. doi:https://doi.org/10.1139/X08-128.

Moas, A. (n.d.). Intact but Not Untouched: What I Learned From an Indigenous Community’s Fight to Save Canada’s Boreal Forest (Rep.). Washington,D.C.: Greenpeace. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/stories/what-i-learned-from-an-indigenous-communitys-fight-to-save-canadas-boreal-forest/.

Mulvihill, K., & Preuss, E. (Producers). (2017, January 31). The Call to Protect One of the Last Untouched Stretches of the Boreal Forest [Video file]. Retrieved November 1, 2017, from https://www.nrdc.org/stories/call-protect-one-last-untouched-stretches-boreal-forest.

Parsons, R., & Prest, G. (2004). Aboriginal forestry in Canada (4th ed., Vol. 79, pp. 779-784, Rep.). The Forestry Chronicle. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://pubs.cif-ifc.org/doi/pdf/10.5558/tfc79779-4.

Perreaux, L. (2017, April 7). Quebec Cree's campaign to save ancestral forest goes global. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/quebec-crees-campaign-to-save-pristine-forest-goes-global/article34640944/?ref=http://www.theglobeandmail.com&.

Roberts, Gautum, & Pelletier. (2008). Waswinipi Cree Model Forest, Quebec, Canada. In People and Biodiversity Policies - Impacts, Issues, and Strategies for Policy Action (pp. 213-214). Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://books.google.ca/books?id=CMzVAgAAQBAJ&lpg=PA213&ots=yG_8abP7Oc&dq=waswanipi%20cree%20community%20forestry&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=waswanipi%20cree%20community%20forestry&f=false.


Seekiefer (Pinus halepensis) 9months-fromtop.jpg
This conservation resource was created by Elliot Bellis.