Assessing the management of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) forests by collective economic organizations in Linan, Zhejiang Province, China.
Since the reform in property rights and opening up in 1980, Linan City has chosen to vigorously develop the bamboo industry from the very beginning to promote the transformation, development, and upgrading of the bamboo industry in the 21st century. After more than 30 years of development and with the help of government and non-governmental organizations, the bamboo industry has been transformed from a pure resource-based focus to the identification of profitable forest-based commodities, from low yield to high yield, from low efficiency to high efficiency. But in terms of the unique policy structure of China, the Linan county government cannot simply copy the successful model from other places. To consider more about the future, those authorities in Linan county need to find an approach that can be adapted to their environment as appropriate.
Linan is one of 10 counties known as “bamboo counties” and is located in Zhejiang Province. Linan city is located in the northwest of Zhejiang province, east longitude 118° 51 '~119° 52' n latitude 29° 56 '~30° 23'. It is 100 kilometers from east to west and 50 kilometers from north to south, with a land area of 3,124 square kilometers and jurisdiction over 26 townships (town) streets.
The climate is subtropical humid monsoon area, warm and humid, sufficient light, abundant rainfall, four distinct seasons. The average annual precipitation is 1613.9 mm, with 158 precipitation days, and the average annual frost-free period is 237 days. The territory is dominated by hills and mountains, the terrain from the west to the southeast tilt.
The tenure development of Linan city was the same as the history of tenure in China. In the 1950s, China started the collectivization; the villages of China owned all the natural resources and land by themselves, and the government governed on their behalf until the 1980s. After that, the forest tenure reform has been implemented under the “ household responsibility system.” As a result, individual households have obtained the use and management rights of collective-owned forests for 50-70 years.
|1981-1982||"Three-fix" Policy||The pilot project of “Three-fix” in forestry to stabilize the ownership of mountains and forests, delimit the private ownership of mountains by members, and implement the responsibility system for forestry production, kicked off the reform of collective forest ownership system|
|1990||Improve the mountain forest responsibility system||In succession, the government has implemented a relatively large scale mountain forest contract to households and stable and improved the mountain forest responsibility system, to achieve mountain demarcation, forest rights, human centering, and mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers in the county.|
|2001||Extend the contract period of the forest, issued "forest warrant" work||This is the provincial initiative to improve the reform of the forest rights system, played a significant role in increasing agricultural efficiency, farmer's income, rural stability.|
|2008||A new round of forest tenure reform||Linan officially implemented a new round of reform with a bright property right as the core, standardized circulation as the focus, and forest right mortgage loan as the breakthrough.|
Since the beginning of the 21st century, Linan has made remarkable achievements in the reform of forestry property right system, mainly in the following three aspects：
The structure of Linan Model Forest is similar to most other Model Forests, with a volunteer board of Directors representing the partners, and two secretariats overseeing the daily operations of the Model Forest.
There are four executive members in the steering committee. the chair, the vice-chair the Linan secretariat, and the assistant secretariat. The China Model Forest Network Secretariat in Beijing is the ultimate authority in the Linan Model Forest organization. The Beijing Secretariat consists of five employees and one Director; these are the only paid positions in the Linan Model Forest organization. The CMFNS works to establish Model Forests in China, coordinate conferences and communication among other Model Forests, and compile the Linan Model Forest management plan.
The Linan Model Forest Partnership Cooperation Committee is dominated by government agencies. Representation of NGOs and private interests is limited, while other groups, such as women’s organizations and environmental interest groups are conspicuously absent. To a large extent, this is due to the nature of China’s current government structure. “Private” and non-government, independent organizations have only recently been recognized and encouraged. As over 80% of Linan residents live in rural regions, farmer participation is key to equal representation. According to the Model Forest Chair, one third of the participants are farmers. However, these farmers include, among others, the Linglongshan forest farm manager and the Baisha village Communist Party leader.
These principles summarize the requirements and purpose of sustainable co-management which are scattered and embodied in this case study.
An affected stakeholder is defined as any person, group of persons or entity that is subject to the effects of the activities in a locally customarily-claimed forest area.
|Affected Stakeholders||Relative Objectives||Power&Interests|
|Local farmers||gaining higher, more diverse incomes
utilizing and protecting natural resources efficiently
high interests, medium power
|Linan Model Forest Partnership Cooperation Committee||unifying the management right
organizing the farmers to sell the bamboo with suitable price
|high interests, high power|
An interested stakeholder refers to any person, group of persons, or entity that has shown an interest, or is known to have an interest in the activities of a forest area.
|Interested Stakeholders||Relative Objectives||Power&Interests|
|Zhejiang A&F University||giving the technology support to the local residents to maintain a sustainable situation
getting a long term opportunity to do scientific research in the Bamboo forest
|convening agency; Forestry professor is Model Forest Assistant Secretariat.
high interested, low power
|Linan county government||supporting the establishment of cooperation, assist the ongoing projects in the Bamboo forest
to make the farmers richer and the mountains greener
|frames the political context for the Model Forest.
high interests, high power
|Governments of Japan and Canada||buying the raw material and processed productions from Linan, this big bamboo production output area. But they can choose another provider.||medium interests, low power|
|Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
& International network for Bamboo and Rattan (NGOs)
|giving money and technology to the local residents, guarantee to help the local farmers to maintain the sustainable management plan.||high interests, low power|
|Qingfong Bamboo Products, Ltd||
international links to improve the business;
Model Forest as a lobbying agency
|manager is Model Forest Committee member.
high interests, medium power
|Linan Forestry Bureau||commitment to participatory process; SFM with emphasis on farmers’ income||convening agency; Model Forest Chair and secretariat are LFB staff members.
high interests, high power
Since the reform and opening up, Linan government has firmly chosen the bamboo industry as the main development direction of the local government. After years of development, the bamboo industry has been developed into the economic pillar industry of Linan. The bamboo industry has helped local villagers in Linan increase their incomes to the greatest extent.
The area of bamboo forest increased, the quantity of bamboo increased, and the processing scale of bamboo products increased. Led by low carbon ecological consumption, bamboo products become more abundant. The main products of bamboo are bamboo flooring, bamboo curtain, bamboo carpet, bamboo daily necessities, bamboo crafts, bamboo rubber board, bamboo furniture, bamboo shoots, bamboo charcoal, bamboo fiber textile, and other products, which can be applied to almost every aspect of life.
As the development of market economy, consumers have higher requirements for the quality of bamboo shoots. But the processing technology of bamboo shoots is still at the 1994 level.
The majority of bamboo shoot market is still limited in the Hangzhou, Shanghai and Jiangsu area. The limited market cannot contain the massive output, which lead to the situation of supply exceeds demand. 
Because of the small size of enterprises, which have backward approaches to get the information about the current market. At this condition, the last year’s experience become the main factor which influences local villagers to make their decision about how the scale of bamboo shoot productions.
Organizing a consortia between those private workshops and factories, to make the competition more orderly. Firstly, giving the equally instant information about the market to the members. Secondly, coordinate the relationship between members and banks to get more financial support. Thirdly, reach an orderly competition contract that all members must abide.
Promoting more output to America and Europe. Not only sale of those bamboo shot products, but also teach the local residents how to cook those bamboo shoots.
Advising domestic forestry departments to investigate more into the research about bamboo shot production. Training more forestry experts to learn about the processing knowledge.
It is true that the LInan villagers, government, and other non-governmental organization did a very great job during the whole developing period. But because of the large population base and unique political structure, there are some drawbacks that appeared in this period.
Aiming at the current state of governance, some recommendations for Linan government and Linan villagers.
|This conservation resource was created by Weijun Li & Pinyi Fu. It has been viewed over 41 times. It is shared under a CC-BY 4.0 International License.|