Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry

the study of carbom compounds which are important because all living things on Earth are based on carbon compounds. Each carbon atom can form up to frou bonds in a compound; the type of bonding that exist in organic compounds is almost always covalent with little polarity. That is, organic compounds are much more soluble in non polar solvent than in polar solvents. Ge, the larger and more complicated the molecules of an organic substance, the higher its boiling and melting points will be.

Hydrocarbons

hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen

Alkanes

Alkanes are hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also known as saturated

Alkenes

Alkene are hydrocarbons that contain double bonds. They are examples of unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Alkynese

alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain triple bonds. They are also examples of unsaturated.

Some Functional Groups

Alcohols

alcohols are organic compounds in which a hydrogen has been replaced with a hydroxyl group (OH). The hydroxyl group makes alcohols polar and able to form hydrogen bonds, which means that alcohols are more soluble in water than most organic compounds.

Organic Acids

Organic acids are organic compounds in which a hydrogen has been replaced wtih a carboxyl group

Halides

Halids are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogens have been replaced with a ahlide

Amines

IN an amine, a hydrogen atom has been replaced by an amino group (NH3)

Aldehydes

An aldehyde contains a carbonylgroup (C=O) connected to at least one hydrogen atom

ketones

a ketone is similar to an aldehyde in that it also contains a carbonyl group (C=O) but in a ketone the cartoon

Ether

In an ether, an oxygen atom serves a s alink in a hydrocarbon chain. The name of an ether is determined by the lengths of the chains on either side of oxygen

Esters

in an ester, an ester group(Coo) serv es a s a link in a hydrocarbon chain. An ester is formed in a reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid, and its anme is derived from these reactants

Isomers

Among organic compounds, it is common to find two or more molecules with the same molecular formula, but with different arrangements of atoms and different chemical properties. These molecules are called isomers.

Organic Reaction

1. Addition:In addition reaction, a carbon-carbon double bond is broken down into a single bond freeing each of the two carbons to bond with another element. IN the same way, a triple bond can be converted into a double in an addition reaction.

2. Substitution: in a substitution , one atom or group in a compound ins replaced with another atom or group. Typically, a hydrogen atom will be replaced by one of the funtional group in a substitution reaction

3. Polymerization :In polymerization, two smaller compounds, called monomer are joined a much larger third compound. In a condensation polymerization, two monomer are joined to a reaction that produced water as a product

  4. cracking : in cracking, a larger compound is broken down into smaller compounds

5. oxidation: An organic compound can react with oxygen at high temperature to form carbon dioxide at high temperature to form carbon dioxide and water. This reaction should be familiar to you as combustion or burning.  

6. Exterification: in exterification, an organic acid reacts with an alcohol to produce an ester and water

7. Fermentation: in Fermentation, an organic compound reacts in the absence of oxygen to rpoduce an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Wine is produced through fermentation.