Course:KIN366/ConceptLibrary/Physical Literacy

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Movement Experiences for Children
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KIN 366
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Instructor: Dr. Shannon S.D. Bredin
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Physical Literacy

Physical Literacy is the mastering of fundamental movements skills and fundamental sport skills that permit a child to “read” or understand their physical activity environment to make appropriate decisions [1]. Physically literate individuals are able to comprehend, apply, and analyze different forms of movement and demonstrate a variety of movement confidently, competently, and strategically. The development of physical literacy is crucial in maintaining lifelong participation in recreational or competitive physical activity [2].

Developing Physical Literacy

Fundamental Movement Skills

Fundamental Sports Skills are the basic skills and movements that are used in sports. In order for children to have success in sport – either as a recreational activity or in competition, it is important that they learn Fundamental Sport Skills after mastering Fundamental Movement Skills. It is also crucial that Fundamental Sport Skills are learned before being introduced to specific techniques [3]. In the Fundamental Movement Skill stage of catching, children will learn how to catch with both hands together follow by only one hand [4]. During this stage children will develop catching skills by catching different sized balls while standing still or while moving from one place to another [5]. In the Fundamental Sports Skill of catching, children will learn how to catch with sport-specific equipment while in a sports-specific setting [6]. For example, a child will learn how to catch a baseball at different speeds using a baseball glove instead of his or her hands. This change shows that the child have moved from learning a Fundamental Movement Skills to learning a Fundamental Sport Skill. Children who have achieved Fundamental Sports Skills will develop physical literacy, which will enable them to participate in a range of sports confidently [7].

Fundamental Sport Skills

Fundamental Sports Skills are the basic skills and movements that are used in sports. In order for children to have success in sport – either as a recreational activity or in competition, it is important that they learn Fundamental Sport Skills after mastering Fundamental Movement Skills. It is also crucial that Fundamental Sport Skills are learned before being introduced to specific techniques [8]. In the Fundamental Movement Skill stage of catching, children will learn how to catch with both hands together follow by only one hand [9]. During this stage children will develop catching skills by catching different sized balls while standing still or while moving from one place to another [10]. In the Fundamental Sports Skill of catching, children will learn how to catch with sport-specific equipment while in a sports-specific setting [11]. For example, a child will learn how to catch a baseball at different speeds using a baseball glove instead of his or her hands. This change shows that the child have moved from learning a Fundamental Movement Skills to learning a Fundamental Sport Skill. Children who have achieved Fundamental Sports Skills will develop physical literacy, which will enable them to participate in a range of sports confidently [12].

Basic Environments

In order to achieve physical literacy, children should learn Fundamental Movement Skills and Fundamental Sports Skills in four basic environments: ground, water, ice, and air. Learning these skills on the ground is important because most physical activities such as soccer and dance are completed on the ground [13]. Fundamental Movement Skills and Fundamental Sports Skills should also be learned in the water as the basis for all aquatic activities such as water polo and rowing. Another environment that is crucial to developing the two skills is on the ice or snow because many winter activities such as skating and skiing are completed in that setting. The last environment is in the air because it serves as the foundation for aerial activities such as gymnastics and diving [14]. Developing skills in these four environments for children will allow for greater abilities to be established and more opportunity to participate in games and sports throughout their lifetime [15].

Factors Influencing Physical Literacy

Physical Education & Physical Activity Educators

Physical education and physical activity educators plays a key role in supporting the development of physical literacy in children. Well-planned physical education programs from physical activity educators will develop the basic skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary for achieving physical literacy [16]. By following the acronym ‘EDUCATION’, developed by PHE Canada, physical educators are able to provide quality physical education programs that will create a positive learning environment to support the development of physical literacy. The acronym ‘EDUCATION’ stands for Enjoyment, Diverse, Understanding, Character, Ability, Totality, Imagination, Ongoing and Nurturing. Each letter within this acronym provides the standards needed in in physical education classes in order to achieve physical literacy [17].

Parents & Caregivers

Parents and/or caregivers have the choice to provide their child with the optimum learning environment or opportunities in order to ensure their child achieves physical literacy through community recreational programs [18].By allowing your child to participate in sports camps or physical activity classes such as dance, it will give them a chance to develop physical literacy through an educator.

Potential Benefits

Active for Life

The Canadian Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model shows that staying active for life is a result of lifelong participation in competitive or recreational physical activity which developed from being physical literate [19]. There are a total of seven stages in the LTAD model and the first three stages (Active Start, FUNdamental, and Learn to Train) shows that the development of physical literacy before puberty will give children the basic skills to be active for life.

Potential Issues

Consequences

If children do not achieve physical literacy before puberty, around ages 8 to 13 in girls and 9 o 15 in boys, they will “limit their choice of life-long health-promoting activities and restrict opportunities for sport excellence” [20]. For example, if a child can’t run, he or she will not be able to take part in soccer, basketball, volleyball, badminton, rugby, and other physical activities that involves running. If a child can’t throw, he or she will not be able to take part in baseball, softball, bowling, football and other activities that involves throwing. If a child can’t swim, he or she will not be able to take part in diving, water polo, sailing, kayaking, and surfing. The consequences of not developing physical literacy are detrimental [21].

References

  1. Developing Physical Literacy. (2011). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/sites/default/files/resources/Developing Physical Literacy.pdf
  2. What is Physical Literacy? (2008). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.phecanada.ca/programs/physical-literacy/what-physical-literacy
  3. Physical Literacy Concept Paper. (2007, January 1). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/sites/default/files/resources/Physical Literacy Concept Paper.pdf
  4. What is Physical Literacy? (2014). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.physicalliteracy.ca/what-is-physical-literacy
  5. What is Physical Literacy? (2014). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.physicalliteracy.ca/what-is-physical-literacy
  6. What is Physical Literacy? (2014). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.physicalliteracy.ca/what-is-physical-literacy
  7. Fundamental Motor Skills. (1996). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/fmsteachermanual09.pdf
  8. Physical Literacy Concept Paper. (2007, January 1). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/sites/default/files/resources/Physical Literacy Concept Paper.pdf
  9. What is Physical Literacy? (2014). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.physicalliteracy.ca/what-is-physical-literacy
  10. What is Physical Literacy? (2014). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.physicalliteracy.ca/what-is-physical-literacy
  11. What is Physical Literacy? (2014). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.physicalliteracy.ca/what-is-physical-literacy
  12. Fundamental Motor Skills. (1996). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/fmsteachermanual09.pdf
  13. Active for Life. (2001). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/learn-about-canadian-sport-life/physical-literacy
  14. Active for Life. (2001). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/learn-about-canadian-sport-life/physical-literacy
  15. Physical Literacy Concept Paper. (2007, January 1). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/sites/default/files/resources/Physical Literacy Concept Paper.pdf
  16. What is the Relationship Between Physical Education and Physical Literacy? (2006). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.phecanada.ca/sites/default/files/Physical_Literacy_Brochure_2010.pdf
  17. What is Physical Literacy? (2008). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.phecanada.ca/programs/physical-literacy/what-physical-literacy
  18. Active for Life. (2001). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/learn-about-canadian-sport-life/physical-literacy
  19. LTAD Stages. (2005). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/learn-about-canadian-sport-life/ltad-stages
  20. Developing Physical Literacy. (2011). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/sites/default/files/resources/Developing Physical Literacy.pdf
  21. Developing Physical Literacy. (2011). Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://canadiansportforlife.ca/sites/default/files/resources/Developing Physical Literacy.pdf