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Exploring our Foods
FNH200 Cover.jpg
Course Info
Instructor: Judy Chan
Class Time: Summer: T Th 4-7pm
Classroom: MacMillan 166
Office Hours: By Appointment
Virtual Office: Office on Mon, Thur
Facebook Gp: UBC FNH 200 Judy's
Course Syllabus: FNH 200 942 Course Syllabus 2017S
Past Projects: Team Projects 2011-16.
Course Lessons
2017 Summer (July - Aug)
2015 Winter (2016 Jan to April)
2014 Winter (2015 Jan to April)
2013 Winter (2014 Jan to April)
2012 Winter (2013 Jan to April)
2011 Winter (2012 Jan to April)
2010 Winter (2011 Jan to April)

2015W Team Project Guideline is now ready: File:FNH 200 102 Team Project Guideline 2015W.pdf

Evaluation rubrics of the different components of the project can be found on pages 6, 7, and 8 of the guide.

First Few Steps:

  1. Register for a Wikipedia account, if you don't have one yet:
    1. Go to:
    2. Go to 'Create Account' on the top right corner
  2. Check your team number in your Connect Grade Book
  3. Depending on your team number, enroll in the different sections of FNH 200 102 on Wikipedia:
    1. Teams 01 to 08
    2. Teams 09 to 16
    3. Teams 17 to 24

Start Exploring:

  • Information on the wikipedia pages should align with those on the Guideline (PDF file) posted above. If you notice any discrepancy, please kindly let me know.
  • You may start with the 'Timeline' on Wikipedia
  • You may want to explore potential project ideas

Project Ideas

We will have a theme on traditional and cultural foods again this year. Some traditional and cultural foods I can think of are listed below. However, please feel free to introduce your traditional foods to me through this team project.

Canadian: (Indigenous North American) (in poutine)



I stopped listing here because I had so much fun looking up these Wikipedia entries. I spent a long evening to come up with this list whlie being distracted by many other interesting food-related Wikipedia articles. Feel free to explore other traditional foods from your own culture.

Past Projects

Past projects can be viewed here. Please keep in mind that different evaluation were used in the past. Projects in the past may not have all the components required in 2015W.

Team projects from 2014W:

Team projects from 2013W:

Team projects from 2011W and 2012W:

Poster projects from 2010w can be accessed here:

2015W Project - By Team

Team 01, Potential Exam Question

Team 01 Smoked Salmon
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) (A group reflection describing what you experienced and learned as a team at the beginning, development and completion of the project. Did you accomplish what you wanted to do at the beginning? Is there something else that you wanted to learn, but hadn’t? How did the team function together? What would you have done differently?)

This project gave us the chance to explore one of Canada’s traditional foods – smoked salmon. It was interesting learning about different types of smoked salmon packaging especially after the discussion of processing and packaging methods in class. It was also remarkable that there are many grades of salmon. Working on this project together raised our awareness and interest on the foods that we consume in our daily lives.

During the project, we tried contacting some local smoked salmon packagers so that we can get more first-hand information; however, due to the shortage of time, we did not follow-up with them. It would really enhance our understanding on smoked salmon packaging if we had the chance to gain more knowledge from them since information online is limited.

The greatest challenge working as a team was finding time to meet up since everyone was very busy with school and work. Team days during class were great opportunities for us to sit together and plan for the project. We did most of the work distributing and outline planning in class so we could work independently at home. Everyone was responsible and completed their part on time so that the development of the project ran smoothly. It would be nice if we had more time to come together to work on the project and to get to know each other better. We managed to cooperate with each other using Google docs and staying active on online chats to discuss details about the project.

This project was a very fun and valuable experience for us, as we learn about food around is and experiment with Wikipedia.

Link to a Video (14% of Project) (It is simplest to upload your video to Youtube or Vimeo, then embed it here. See or to find out how to embed a video. If you create your video elsewhere on the web, a direct link will be fine.)

Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Judy's Note: Please study all parts of the exam question and answers to prepare for the final.

What are the advantages of packaging smoked salmon using retort pouches over cans?

1. Thinner packages of retort pouches allow more efficient heat transfer, minimizing energy usage and cost during heat processing while the thicker metal cans impede heat transfer. (Processing of late-run chum salmon in retortable pouches resulted in 48% reduction in processing time.)

2. Heating time can also be shortened due to the thinner packaging and flat shape of the package leading to less nutrient loss and textual damage caused by thermal processing. On the other hand, cylindrical shape of cans have a cold spot deep in the middle of the can, so longer heating time is necessary for the heat to reach the coldest spot in the can. (In fact, pouch-packed salmon had firmer, more fibrous, drier and chewier texture than that product in a can of equal fill weight.)

3. Retort pouches are easier and safer to open than cans as cuts can result from careless handling.

Team 02

Team 02 Sea Salt
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) At the beginning of this project, we felt a little confused what we were going to do, mainly because most of us were new to the use of wiki editing. However, we worked out as a team and helped each other. On our first group meeting outside of the classroom, we planned to meet at the Granville Island Market to look for different kind of sea salts. This visit had some difficulties, because not everyone was there on time and we also had to walk half an hour in the rain because of a miscalculation of the distance between the market and the place we were going to make salt. Also, our work was very inefficient, mainly because we didn’t divide tasks before meeting up. From then, we realised that we had an issue on how to work efficiently and therefore, we decided to split our force and time to finish different parts of this project. The second time that we planed to meet up was much more efficient, as people who were responsible in making videos met up on time and well prepared.

Through this project, we’ve realised how important it is to work efficiently as a team. Most of time, our group communicated online via Facebook. As a team we concluded that we could improve on our communication, try to help each other out instead of just finishing our part of the project. Overall, using a wiki page has been one of our biggest issues, because there’s either too little or too much information online regarding on how to use wiki editing. Furthermore, using the wiki page as a new form of online studying has been a unique experience.

By doing this project, we have realised that salt as a common ingredient in our daily life/use seems so simple, but it is also such a great topic. When we did the tasting and smelling experiment, these salts showed different characteristics in taste and odour. Over all, our project only scratched the surface of the knowledge of salt, more research needs to be done to make a persuasive statement about salt. Moreover, this discovery makes us think about other small things in life, maybe they also have more interesting facts that we have not thought about before

Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) In Canadian Labelling, "sea salt" refers to a mixture of sodium chloride and mineral salt. (True or False)

The answer is False. The singular term, "sea salt" refers to any processed salt harvested from an existing sea and must meet the prescribed standards for salts in Canada. Whereas the plural term, "sea salts" refers to a mixture of sodium chloride and other trace minerals or mineral salts. Unlike "sea salt," "sea salts" do not have to have to meet a standard for salts (such as being iodized). Both "sea salt" and "sea salts" must come from seawater and not from mining.

Team 03, Potential Exam Question

Team 03 Miso
Link to Wikipedia,_Process,_Benefits,_and_Kinds_of_Miso
Link to Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) At the beginning of the project, our group set out to learn about an interesting topic while having an enjoyable time, which we achieved. We decided on miso relatively quickly after brainstorming a couple different options, and all agreed that it would be a great food to learn about. We also set out to create easy-to-read, visually appealing, and informative content about miso! Miso has a rich, complex history with many various forms and processes, so while we wanted to learn more about it, there would have been far too much information. There were many chemical reactions and microorganisms that affect the miso quality which we couldn’t go into detail with. We already had a tough enough time condensing the information we thought was necessary! One specific question is since miso is a wartime food, could it be used a medicinal paste? However, despite some unanswered inquiries, the group accomplished what we set out to do from the beginning in terms of how the project actually turned out both visually and educationally, and we had a great time working together to learn about such a culturally significant product. We all worked very effectively and efficiently together, and learned a lot as a whole. Our team was very functional, after first having a few communication issues we pulled together and had a very enjoyable experience completing this project. We especially enjoyed making the video, which, while we felt was a little awkward to do at first, became a really great experience, as well as a very informative one in that we each got to hear information about miso from the other group members that we had maybe not known before. One thing that could have done differently, however, was that it would have been nice to have a better knowledge of how to use Wikipedia earlier on, especially because the only true difficulties we had during the project were with the technological aspect of it. Maybe a detailed tutorial would have helped, or being given the project outline at the very beginning of the term so we would have more time. Another thing we could have changed is if we set actual deadlines on when to get certain parts of the project done, just for some clearer coordination, but overall we all did our part evenly, equally, in a timely manner. We also all got along, contributed equally, and were respectful of each other's ideas, which made for a great working environment. We worked well together and completed tasks at a team-set deadline so that we wouldn’t need to rush in the end. We supported each other and gave constructive criticism when needed which resulted in a project we are all proud of.
Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Judy's Notes: Please study all part of the question, choices, and explanation to prepare for the final exam.

What factors could have an effect on the enzymatic and microbial activity of Miso during the fermentation process?

A) Humidity and Atmospheric Pressure
B) Temperature and Atmospheric pressure
C) Humidity and Temperature
D) Atmospheric pressure and Oxygen content
E) None of the Above

The answer is C because the water content of a food is translated to the equilibrium relative humidity on a percentage scale, and water content and activity can facilitate growth of microorganisms; hence humidity has an effect on microbial growth. Temperature also has an effect on microbial activity because different bacteria, moulds, and yeast grow at different rates depending on temperature. While oxygen content also plays a role in affecting the enzymatic activity during fermentation, atmospheric pressure does not, and so answers A, B, D, and E are wrong.

Team 04

Team 04 Tequila
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) At the beginning of the project we all had great ideas of what topics we wanted to do to make our project interesting and informative at the same time. We came up with many ideas but at the end of our discussions we decided to go with tequila and we were all happy with the chosen topic. As a team, we decided the best way to start the project was for each of us to find information that we would like to further study. On the first few group days, we presented our ideas and sifted through all of them and chose the best ones that would be suitable for the project. From there, we each chose the topic we would each like to further research about and worked individually on each of our parts and coordinating with each other the information we found so that everyone in the group was informed of what was happening. As well, we decided as a team to set up a facebook page so that it would be easy for all of us to contact each other if needed. We found this way of communicating to be the easiest because all of us had facebook and it was a good way to relay information so that everyone knew what was going on if a change was made or if there was information that everyone in the group needed to know. Throughout the project we learned that the amount of processing and production used to create this popular beverage is quite elaborate and far more complex that what we have imagined. By the end of the project we learnt to appreciate the drink far more than just an alcoholic beverage, due to the amount of aging and processing tequila can go through just to obtain that distinct flavour. We found that the different tactics we used throughout the project was very efficient because it allowed us to communicate and finish with ease without having causing too much stress on ourselves. One thing we could have done differently was to do more research and putting information we had in class so that we didn’t have to do that much at home. Overall, we did accomplish our goals from the beginning to the end and we were all very satisfied with the outcomes.
Link to a Video (14% of Project) Removed
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Which tequila is the "purest form of tequila"?

a) Gold Tequila b)Rested Tequila c)White Tequila d)Anejo Tequila

Answer-White tequila. Explanation-This is the purest form of tequila because it hasn't been aged at all or only to a very small extent. It is the liquid obtained straight from the distillation process which implies no further aging and if one were to consume white tequila they would obtain the full flavour from the agave plant.

Team 05

Team 05 Balut
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) To begin, our group met up and listed out the different types of components of the project and had the outline planned out quite a while before the deadline. We managed to pace ourselves well, and did not feel too rushed at any point throughout the project. Our group managed to stick to our timeline for the most part and everyone’s work was submitted on time after making clear deadlines. Everyone selected their own sections to research for the Wikipedia page and did the respected work for each one. We definitely learned a lot about our team and our ability to solve problems and overcome speed bumps when it came to scheduling or deadline issues. Something that could have worked better is maybe if we talked a little bit more before we jumped into the project. While doing our own separate sections allowed us each to specialize in different areas, it also lead to some overlapping ideas, and a lot of editing at the end, which could have possibly been avoided by planning, sharing and collaborating throughout. Overall, the challenges we faced was the lack of information and studies done on Balut in terms of the chemistry behind the food. Although there was a lack of information on the physical chemical composition or changes of Balut, it was easy to relate the chemical aspects of Balut and Balut production to FNH 200. It just seemed as though there was not a lot of outside research on this topic of chemistry within Balut, or that the papers or research was inaccessible. However, we made the most of it and still managed to pull together a great Wikipedia page with an huge amount of scientific knowledge. We did so by discussing different dispersion methods that can be considered in Balut, such as a protein gel also seen in a fried chicken egg. The science of Balut is still something that is mostly unexplored, so finding sources of information was difficult. Some things that were very interesting regarding Balut was how it was studied at UBC by Dr. Kim to try to distinguish between different textures or flavors produced by different preservation, storage and cooking conditions. As well, it was interesting to see controversies on Balut, how common it is in China and the Philippines, but how it was a big problem for some people at one point in New York. Many people still believe that Balut is horrible, inhumane and should be stopped, while others see it as a tradition and a great way to get a lot of protein, calcium and other essential nutrients to keep our bodies strong and healthy.
Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project)

As little as the Balut egg may seem, it is known for its high nutrient value in order to benefit the human body. It has a higher source of nutrients compared to a regular egg such as:

a.) Calcium, Iron, Protein, and Sodium

b.) Calcium, Protein, Calories, and Iron

c.) Calcium, Iron, Zinc, and Vitamin D

d.) Calcium, Protein, Vitamin D, and Iron

e.) None of the above

Answer: B - Balut is high on calories, and can be seen as an energy source or booster. Balut has a high source of protein which helps repair and build the tissues in the human body. Balut contains iron, which helps the human body’s circulation.There is around 100 milligrams of calcium which helps strengthen your bones and teeth. Balut does not contain an excess amount of sodium, compared to a regular egg. As well, Balut does not contain a lot of Vitamin D compared to a regular egg. Vitamin D is found in only a few foods and most commonly synthesized in our skin from the sun.

An emulsion is a suspension of liquid droplets (fat or water) within a liquid solution (fat or water). Which part of the egg is known to be the dispersion?

a.) egg yolk

b.) embryo

c.) broth

d.) egg shell

e.) all of the above

Answer: C - The broth can be considered a ‘sol’ dispersion. It is a suspension of large molecules within a liquid, generally water. The liquid inside the egg consist of the broth and embryonic fluid, where as the solid are the parts of the duck within the egg. The egg yolk is not really a suspension, although it has both fat and liquids. The embryo is more of a thick substance and again not really suspended in fat, or water. The egg shell is not a dispersion because it is solid.

There are many chemical changes that occur inside the duck egg as it is being processed, and these changes can vary depending on how or what the duck egg is cooked with. Which ingredient can result to chemical changes?

a.) flour

b.) sugar

c.) yeast

d.) salt

Answer: D - Adding salt during cooking time seems to increase the weight of proportion that is in the egg white within the shell. Adding salt can also increase the hardness of the egg yolk and affect the overall texture and final product of Balut. We also know that salt can act as a preservative in foods, by decreasing the amount of free water available to micro organisms. Salt is often added onto and eaten with cooked Balut, for taste as well as chemical changes.

In order for the embryo to develop normally, what is required during incubation?

a.) cooler temperatures

b.) exposed to heat

c.) stored in room temperature

d.) there is no requirement

Answer: B - It must be exposed to the heat in incubation for a correct period of time. If it is too hot it will harm the eggs and if it is too cold it will prevent growth. Consistent growing temperatures are required to prevent the egg from maturing too much or too little.

Team 06

Team 06 Kombucha
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) We were all excited to learn more about Kombucha especially because most of us drink Kombucha as a beverage.

We accomplished what seems to be a very long path to completion. However, we managed to fully collaborate as a multidisciplinary team through motivation and excitement. It was interesting to hear opinions from each other especially when one of us is an exchange student from Mexico. Not only did we learn about the science behind Kombucha, we also learned more about each other.

Our team worked together mainly through online communication and during team days to allocate what needs to be done. One thing that could have been improved in our collaboration would have been to set a better plan to carry out the tasks. It would have been more helpful to plan out the entire project in the beginning and to set stricter deadlines. Although this could have made the group work more efficiently, we are all happy that we were able to put forward our best efforts.

The most interesting learning experience was discovering how to make Kombucha. For most of us, it was our first time brewing Kombucha. But due to time restraints, we were unable to dig deeper. Specifically, it would have been interesting to add different components in the Kombucha such as chia seeds and seeing how that could have changed the chemical or physical properties of the drink. Without a doubt we wanted to learn more about the tricks and steps to making the best Kombucha possible! The entire Kombucha-making process was very satisfying, especially when a bottle of Kombucha could cost around five dollars at a grocery store, we could make the beverage at home for much cheaper. With the abundance of videos and blog tutorials online, we are sure to make more Kombucha at home rather than buying. Many store-bought bottles come raw and organic, but making it from scratch gave us a better perspective of where ingredients came from while also seeing the process was an added excitement. Overall, it was a successful group collaboration!

Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project)

Question: What are the purpose(s) of having both bacteria and yeast for the process of making Kombucha?

A) To produce acetic acids and ethanol

B) To prevent undesirable microorganisms from surviving

C) The bacteria inhibits the yeast

D) The yeast inhibits the bacteria

E) A and B


E) - A and B


E (Includes explanation for A and B)- Yeast cells convert sucrose into fructose and glucose and produce ethanol. The acetic acid bacteria converts the glucose to gluconic acid and fructose into acetic acid. Acetic acid and ethanol products formed by the yeast and bacteria are natural preservatives to create a favourable environment in the Kombucha tea to block the growth of potential undesirable microorganisms.

C/D – Bacteria and yeast in the SCOBY culture exist as a symbiotic relationship. Both work together and do not inhibit each other during fermentation, but rather facilitate better fermentation.

Team 07

Team 07 Instant Mashed Potatoes
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project)

Overall, we as a group found this to be a helpful learning experience. Aside from learning extensively about our topic, our development of team skills stands out the most. The importance of communication was a reoccurring theme. We were able to move forward in this project cohesively by working together to delegate and prioritize tasks and setting achievable deadlines. Some of the difficulties that arose seemed to stem from navigating the multiple sources of information presented from the course. Along with the course homepage, individual wiki pages and sandboxes, FNH wiki landing page, as well the UBC connect website made tracking down guidelines difficult at times. Learning to use wikipedia for course work has proven useful for further studies.

Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question

What is the purpose of drum drying in instant mashed potatoes?

Drum dried products could be potentially re-hydrated due to boiling evaporation.

Drum drying could be used when food is in the form of paste - which may be difficult to dry with another methods.

Flexible, suitable for multiple but small quantity products.

Fast drying lowers the risk of disrupting starch cells impacting texture.

High energy efficiency.

During the process of drum drying, food paste is applied to a heated drum in a thin layer to promote rapid drying. As the drum rotates, it picks up a thin film of food material that dries rapidly. The dried food is scraped off the drum near the end of a full rotation of the drum.

Team 08

Team 08 Apple Butter
Link to Wikipedia
Link to Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) Throughout the project we learned that the most efficient way to work on a team project is to make an outline and set due dates. When working as a team it is important to meet in person and that everyone is accountable to show up at the scheduled times when possible. We learnt how important these things were as the project progressed. We managed to accomplish everything we wanted to accomplish for this project as well as we stuck to due dates very well. We learnt everything about apple butter that we set out to learn. Our team functioned very well together. We communicated well for everything from what we wanted to do, to questions that we had, and scheduling. Everyone stuck to the due dates and completed their share of the work in a timely manner. In addition, we would meet frequently to work on parts of the project together and our group was very organized.
Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Question: Which of the following is NOT the purpose of thermal processing in the production of apple butter?
  • a.To help soften the apples to remove air bubbles that may occur while canning
  • b.To eliminate harmful microorganisms in the product
  • c.To allow browning reactions to take place to lower the pH of the product
  • d.To produce flavour characteristic of apple butter

Answer: C

Explanation: Though apples do turn brown during the process of cooking, it does not lower the pH of the product. Vinegar is usually added to bring down the pH level.

Team 09

Team 09 Tortilla Chip
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) As a team, we were interested in using this project as a way to learn how to use Wikipedia and share condensed scientific research in a public sphere. A lot of the information available to us consists of very complicated research that didn’t necessarily pertain to what we were trying to share and was very complicated in material discussed. We worked on simplifying and summarizing scientific jargon into commonly understood language throughout this process. We were able to sift through many articles to find the ones that pertained to our subject matter of interest and communicate the data and information in a comprehensive project that can be applicable to the Wikipedia community.

Through learning about tortilla chips, we’ve developed an interest in understanding how other similar processed foods such as corn chips are produced. This type of knowledge could help us make comparisons between products to create a clearer picture. We also would have liked to have focused more on the marketing aspect of tortilla chips within the commercialized markets in Canada and the United States versus the traditional Latin American industry. It would have been interesting to learn more about how tortilla chips can be paired with other complimenting foods such as salsa or guacamole as well.

At the start of the project, none of us had really used Wikipedia before. Throughout this project we all learned how to use many aspects of it including sandbox, talk pages and proper citations. This assignment helped teach us that we are capable of contributing knowledge to the Wikipedia community. By actually going through this we’ve come to appreciate how much effort goes into creating a Wikipedia article and have come to understand that Wikipedia can be a reliable source; many parameters have been set up to identify and filter out false information.

As a group we functioned well together. We utilized facebook and google drive to communicate and share our ideas collaboratively. By dividing up the project into different components we were able to create manageable due dates to complete sections by for ourselves in order to stay on track. We then looked at each other's work to ensure accuracy and proper criteria was met. It would have been a beneficial idea for us to have pick our topic sooner so we could have started on the project right away. This would have give us more time to take into consideration the feedback and comments from others on the wikipedia talk page. Overall, we all felt that this project was an interesting topic and helped enhance our abilities to communicate complex scientific information in a relevant way.

Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Put the following in order for which they would occur during tortilla chip manufacturing. (Please note NOT all choices may be used)

1) Grind corn into a paste

2) Fry chips

3) Flavour

4) Place into hermetically sealed bag flushed with nitrogen

5) Bake

6) Drum dry masa into flakes

7) Cut into desired shape

8) Increase humidity


A) 1,3,7, 2, 4

B) 1,8, 5, 2, 4

C) 1,7, 5, 2, 3, 4

D) 1, 6, 5, 8, 4

Correct answer: C

Explanation: 1,7, 5, 2, 3, 4 In order to make tortilla chips the corn must first be made into a paste. After this is formed, the chips are shaped and baked. Baking the chips helps reduce the amount of oil they absorb. Then, the tortilla chips are fried and allowed to cool. Flavor can then be added afterwards as desired. The tortilla chips are now ready to be packaged into heat sealed bags and are flushed with nitrogen to preserve the lipid content of the chips and prevent them from breaking.

B and D: Both choices 6 and 8 would not be used during tortilla chip processing. Drum drying would not be a feasible drying technique to form a tortilla chip, it forms tiny flakes instead of larger chips. Increasing the humidity would have a negative effect on the chips, preventing them from becoming crunchy.

A: This choice does not identify that the chips need to be flavored after they are fried and also doesn’t identify baking as a processing method.

Team 10, Potential Exam Question

Team 10 Maple Liqueur
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) As a team project, we found that working together on a Wikipedia page was a very useful skill to learn. Many of our other courses include Wikipedia components to them, so the project provided us with a good amount of practice. Also, not all of us had previous experience editing or working with Wikipedia articles other than reading them so it was a good skill to learn how to properly edit and source a wiki page. For our team, finding history on maple liqueur was very difficult to us. Maple liqueur was more of a “fusion” mixture, with a very vague history. We focused on the components of maple liqueur which have very strong aspects in Canadian culture – the reason itself why maple liqueur is considered a Canadian drink. This meant including information on the sourcing of the liqueur (such as maple syrup production) in order to have a full and complete article. We wished to find more information regarding specifics on history, but it seemed that mixing maple syrup with alcohol was a very common overlooked practice that was undocumented historically. As well, many of the commercial production practices are not detailed anywhere on company websites, where as there is quite a bit of information on how to make maple liqueur at home. The team had a lack of communication and commitment, nevertheless, through the effort of some people, we were able to complete the project! We had a relatively small group size (4), and having the addition of another group member would have been nice, due to the uneven workload distribution. Maple liqueur was originally a blank page, so we feel satisfied to our contribution to the article.
Link to a Video (14% of Project)

Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Judy's Note: Please study all part of the question, answers and explanation to prepare for the final exam.

Question: Which grade of maple syrup is BEST for producing maple liqueurs and why?

  • A. Golden - it is the best grade and therefore will produce the highest quality liqueur
  • B. Amber - has a "rich" taste to it which is ideal in making whiskey's
  • C. Dark - has a fairly strong flavour while still being better quality and therefor better for maple liqueurs
  • D. Very Dark - has the strongest maple flavour and will therefore give the liqueur the most flavour

Answer: D - Very Dark. While all colours of Grade A syrup are safe and suitable for consumption, the darkest maple syrups will have the strongest maple flavours. These dark syrups are produced towards the end of the maple sap season, as syrup gets progressively darker as the season goes on. Because of this they will add more flavour to the whiskey or other liquor when being distilled and produced a more flavourful and full bodied liqueur.

Team 11, Potential Exam Question

Team 11 Ayran
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) There are always challenges when it comes to group work. One challenge we had was finding the best way to divide and conquer work. We tried a lot of different methods and in the end, we each found 2-3 articles and wrote 500 words on what we found and broke that up into different sections. We broke up the work like this to ensure we made the word count. Another difficulty was finding reliable information. Our project was on Ayran which is the national drink of Turkey therefore some of the articles we found were written in Turkish or we would have to rely on google translate to understand the information.

However the negatives, our team learned how to prioritize work as a lot of us were also studying for other midterms. We learned how to effectively use social media and cloud storage to make sure everyone had the information we needed. At first it was a bit uncomfortable to try and meet up with the group to communicate and get work done but we all were very understanding in finding times that everyone could meet. We did not let it slow us down if one person couldn't come as we would communicate with them through Facebook Messenger or directly in our team project Google Doc. In the end, this project was a lot more time consuming than expected but our group managed to make it work and find a lot of information on a very specific cultural drink.

Link to a Video (14% of Project) (It is simplest to upload your video to Youtube or Vimeo, then embed it here. See or to find out how to embed a video. If you create your video elsewhere on the web, a direct link will be fine.)

Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Judy's Note: Please study all parts of the question, answers and explanation to prepare for the final exam.

The traditional fermented Turkish drink Ayran uses hydrocolloids to maintain/improve its texture. Which of the following is/are the properties of hydrocolloids? Choose all that apply.

  • a) provides the viscosity of the end product,
  • b) prevents serum separation,
  • c) provides its unique flavor,
  • d) is used in all kinds of fermentation foods,
  • e) only a and b are correct.

- An answer (about 1%) - E) only A and B are correct.

- An explanation (about 2%) - As stated above, hydrocolloids is used as a stabilizer in milk products like Ayran, therefore (e) is the correct answer because it provides viscosity and prevents serum separation. It does not alter the taste of the product and is mainly used in fermented milk products[1]. In Ayran, locust bean gum was the most suitable hydrocolloid as it prevented serum separation at 0.19 concentration and increased apparent viscosity without effecting the flavor or odour of the ayran.

Team 12

Team 12 Instant Rice
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) Working in a team was difficult because everyone has their own personal schedules so it was hard to coordinate but luckily we had team days instead of lectures for some of our classes which made everything easier. Most of our communication was over a group chat on Facebook. We were able to choose a topic fairly fast but it took a while to get started with the research. Something that could have been done differently is to have planned out timelines right in the beginning of the project for what needed to be completed each week. Overall, working in a group showed us what it may be like in the real world and taught us skills about time management and teamwork.
Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Please include:

Which of the following is not necessary for the production of instant rice?

  • Dehydration
  • Retrogradation
  • Freezing
  • Gelatinization

Freezing is not necessary for the production of instant rice but it is a step that could make the end product have a higher quality by creating pores in the rice grains. Gelatinization is a necessary step because that occurs when the rice is being cooked. Retrogradation occurs after gelatinization when the water loses heat and water. Dehydration is a necessary step in order to preserve the rice until the consumer is ready to rehydrate it for consumption.

Team 13

Team 13 Gnocchi
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox

Team Reflection (4% of Project)

In the beginning, we had decided to do our project on rice wine and we tried to focus in on one of the more specific kinds. However, it proved to be a difficult topic to choose. There were very few sources in English and even then there seemed to be a lack of wealth in the variety of information, as well as a lack of scientific information that we were curious about. Thus, we changed our topic to gnocchi. As an overall team, only a couple of us had previous knowledge on what gnocchi was and those of us who did only knew a minimal amount of information on the topic. As the project continued each week and we did more and more research on the gnocchi topic we were able to learn a lot. We looked into its packaging, storage life, the origins, its definition and the various types of gnocchi and their ingredients. Our goals at the beginning of this project were to essentially learn as much as we could on the topic of gnocchi. As most of us had only tried gnocchi fresh it was really interesting to learn about the manufacturing and packaging of the industrially manufactured variety. We were all quite surprised to learn that the atmosphere of the packaging is controlled. Additionally, there was an interest in discovering the varieties of gnocchi regionally, and how the ingredients, preparation, and packaging changed from region to region, however there was little information available to us.

Initially, the team functioning was not ideal. There was little communication between us all, especially during the beginning few weeks. As the deadline began to approach sooner and sooner the team as a whole started to work better together in order to accomplish our goals. If we were to do something differently we would have initially found a better communication forum that allowed us to get a better start to the project. Moreover, we all somewhat struggled with the layout of Wikipedia, as none of us had any experience with editing or contributing to Wikipedia prior to this project. It was not the easiest platform available to us and also played into the lack of communication. To elaborate, if this were a group paper then the most preferable method of communication and editing of information would be through Google Documents. However, with a more unfamiliar platform, such as Wikipedia, editing, adding of information and overall communication proved to be slow and difficult. Additionally, it would have been easier for teams, such as ours, to keep on task of where we were supposed to be if we had followed the weekly outline on the UBC Wiki page. Unfortunately, this page is slightly hard to access and we found that there was little emphasis on this feature, thus the ignorance of this feature ensued. On a more positive note, we all found the class time that was allotted to working on our group project extremely helpful. This time allowed us to have face-to-face communicate, talk about our progress and set our deadlines. Overall, as a group we learned a lot and completed all of our goals that we had set. Through this project we not only were we able to learn about gnocchi, but we were also able to learn how to be contributors on Wikipedia and increased our video making abilities.

Link to a Video (14% of Project)

Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project)


Consider a modified atmosphere package (85% N2: 10% H2: 5% CO2) containing gnocchi, a product composed of at least 60% potato and no oil:

  1. What is the reason for this gnocchi be kept in MAP?
  2. Will Clostridium Botulinum, which is primarily found in meat products, grow in this package? Explain.
  3. In order to kill C. Botulinum (F-value = 2.45), manufacturers heat the gnocchi at 80C for 15 minutes. What is this thermal preservation method? What is the possible reason manufacturers use this method?


  1. Because potato (main ingredients of gnocchi) is subject to oxygen enzymatic browning, MAP (no oxygen at all) is used to keep the appearance and flavor of the product. (No oxidative rancidity because no oil in gnocchi).
  2. (Both answers are acceptable. Explanation matters the most here.)
    • Yes. Since C. Botulinum is anaerobic and mesophilic, when the package is stored above 10C and below 45C, the lack of oxygen in the package will allow this bacteria to grow.
    • No. Since C. Botulinum is anaerobic and mesophilic, when the package is stored below 10C (or above 45C), the lack of suitable temperature will prevent the growth of this bacteria.
  3. Pasteurization. Since the F-value of C. Botulinum is 2.45, it takes 2.45 minutes to completely inactivate the spores at 121C. Therefore, sterilization can potentially evaporate the water content in the potato in gnocchi, reducing its quality. In addition, blanching would have just cooked the gnocchi.

Team 14

Team 14 Fermented Bean Curd
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) As a team, we were efficient in choosing a topic and completing our video in a timely manner. We successfully delegated different sections of the project to team members and completely them on an individual basis to produce one coherent final product. Through the project,we connected the real product to our class context such as fermentation. Since the topic is traditional product, we felt difficultly to select information especially from reliable source. If we were to improve upon our past experiences, we would suggest starting the project a bit earlier to provide more time for research and editing.
Link to a Video (14% of Project) (It is simplest to upload your video to Youtube or Vimeo, then embed it here. See or to find out how to embed a video. If you create your video elsewhere on the web, a direct link will be fine.)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Please include:

Question What are the key nutritional benefits of fermented bean curd compared to regular tofu?

  • a) Fermentation breaks down large molecules into smaller molecules by hydrolysis, increasing availability of key nutrients in the digestion process
  • b) Fermentation provides added sodium to absorb additional water in the body
  • c) Fermentation preserves tofu and increases the shelf life
  • d) Eating fermented bean curd helps increase the body's metabolic rate


  • a) is correct
  • b) this is a false statement because fermentation does not provide added sodium to the product, the salting process does
  • c) although correct, this is not a nutritional benefit
  • d) this is an incorrect statement and not mentioned in our WikiPage or video as a nutritional benefit

Team 15, Potential Exam Question

Team 15 Peanut Butter
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) As a group, we learned quite a bit from the beginning of the project to the completion of the project. It was difficult trying to address everyone’s needs in choosing a topic, because each individual had a different idea of what was traditional to them. From the start, we changed our topic multiple times. We initially were interested in researching the product, ‘Vegemite,’ which is a traditional Australian spread, but after going through the UBC library, there was not sufficient information about the product, and thus had to change our topic. After changing our topic once again, we finally decided upon peanut butter, as it accommodated everyone’s interests. A big challenge to the project however was figuring out how each role would be distributed to each team member as it was hard to figure out what would be considered equal. Ultimately, the biggest problem we encountered would have been being able to work around everyone’s schedule when their was many other priorities and commitments to consider as well.

We ended up accomplishing what we wanted from the beginning, as there was sufficient information in scholarly articles about our topic. Additionally, we felt there was nothing else we wanted to learn, as almost everything that we were interested in learning was provided for us in various articles.

As a team we functioned fairly well together, but had to contribute to each part individually, as opposed to together, because meeting up as a group was difficult. Although there was significant class time devoted to the project, there were so many components to this project that our use of class time was not very efficient.

One thing that we would have done differently was using our class time more efficiently by preparing in advance what we should try to accomplish during that time. In addition to using class time more wisely, we would start working on the project a few weeks earlier than we did, as everyone’s busy schedules made it a challenge to finish the project in a short time.

Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Judy's Note: Please study all parts of the question, answers, and explanation to prepare for the final exam.

What food preservation method is most suited for natural peanut butter that prevents oxidation and is cost effective?

  • Liquid Nitrogen
  • Vacuum Packaging
  • Canning
  • Spray Drying
  • None of the Above

Answer: The answer is vacuum packaging as it is a cheaper alternative than using liquid nitrogen (also used as a food preservation method for peanut butter but is expensive and not always available) and prevents oxidation from occurring.

Team 16, Potential Exam Question

Team 16 Indian Ice Cream
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) Group Reflection

Our group found this project to be a challenge for two major reasons. First, there was very little published literature about Indian ice cream for us to draw on. One reason for this is that there is no commercial production of Indian ice cream and very little awareness of it in the general population. As a result, there has not been very much research done on the product. Additionally, in contrast to other cultures, First Nations knowledge has traditionally been passed generation to generation through verbal accounts, which means that there were far fewer written sources of First Nations traditions for us to find. The second major challenge is that, without any commercial production and the late summer ripening schedule of soapberries, it was very difficult to obtain any aspect of the product we were researching.

We recognized these challenges at the beginning of this project and feel proud of how we overcame them. Anticipating a lack of scholarly references from traditional information sources, we turned to the UBC Xwi7xwa (Longhouse) library to find First Nations cookbooks and records of cultural traditions. We even sought out a leader in the local First Nations community to help us get a sense of how the First Nations people consume Indian ice cream. Our sources may be less scientific than most of the other projects in this course and other articles on Wikipedia, but in the case of Indian Ice Cream, scientists are not the experts. The First Nations peoples know more about this subject than anybody else on earth and their insights are the most credible sources, even if they aren't peer reviewed.

Our team took full advantage of these challenges, turning them into opportunities to become intimately familiar with the Xwi7xwa (Longhouse) library and supporting our cultural sources by diving deep into the food science of surfactants, interfacial tension and the physics of foams.

Our biggest regret is that we still have not been able to taste Indian ice cream. But, with our new-found awareness of the product, we will look to find some when the berries begin to ripen toward the end of the summer.

The team functioned together well, with each of us bringing our own unique skills to bear on the different aspects of the project. Video editing, writing, research, acting, community connections and organization were required and each of us took the lead in one of those areas.

Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Exam question: What property of the saponins found in soapberries promotes the foaming of an aqueous solution?

a. Saponins reduce interfacial tension b. Saponins denature proteins c. Saponin molecules are non-polar d. Saponin molecules contain mostly oxygen

Interfacial or surface tension leads foam micelles to rupture. Saponins reduce interfacial tension which stabilizes the foam.

Team 17

Team 17 Salami
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox -
Team Reflection (4% of Project) The project began by proposing a topic and developing an outline. In this phase, we learned the importance of picking a specific topic. Our original idea for the project was lunch meat, but that topic was too broad to find academic sources; by narrowing our topic to salami, we were able to find supporting literature. We also learned what qualifies as proper kinds of sources for a Wikipedia article. Developing our outline taught us how to break a large topic into components. As a group, we also gained experience in sharing and dividing responsibilities.

During the development of the project, we learned how to edit Wikipedia, including adding links and citations in our article. As we read through sources, we tested our ability to identify key points of information. Writing the article gave us practice writing in an unbiased, factual manner, rather than in the argumentative style that essay writing often requires.

In the final phase of the project, we assembled our video presentation; this taught us some video and sound editing skills and gave us experience in dissecting a factual article and using its information to make an engaging video. We also tested our time-management skills, as we continued to divide responsibilities so that the project would be completed on time.

Our original goal was learning more about deli meat. Since that topic was too broad, we focused on salami; since we found out a wide variety of facts about salami, we consider our goal accomplished.

As a group, we would have liked to learn more specific information about the nutritional value of salami. It is likely that we had difficulty finding this information because of how varied salami can be as a product: the differences in regional production styles and ingredients, especially the animal the salami is made from, makes it difficult to identify consistent properties, such as the proportions of saturated and unsaturated fat in the final product. We would also still like to learn about other deli meats, as it would be interesting to compare their methods of production to those of salami.

The group was very pleased with how we worked as a team. We collaborated effectively and divided responsibility easily, and we all agree that the work load was shared equally. Everyone treated each other respectfully, and we developed a good rapport. The group also started our work early, so we never felt pressured by deadlines.

While we were pleased with how the project went, in hindsight, we would have spent more time figuring out how to use Wikipedia before beginning our work.

Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Exam Question Which one of the following is not a health concern of salami?

A. High saturated fat that could cause higher risk of heart disease.

B. Penicillium is an allergen to some people.

C. Presence of disease-causing bacteria.

D. Slow acidification that causes protein denaturation.

D is the correct answer because slow acidification is a necessary step in meat fermentation. It can actually helps increase the shelf life of the meat products.

A is one of the health concern of salami and people are trying to replace saturated fats with other unsaturated fatty acids to make it healthier.

B is also a health concern of salami since some mold that grow on the surface salami contain penicillium mold species which is an allergen to some people.

C could cause serious diseases and is one of the risks that salami can bring to consumers.

Team 18: Team of Two

Team 18 Brie Cheese
Link to Wikipedia (Please contact me)
Link to the Sandbox (Please contact me)
Team Reflection (4% of Project) Overall as a group, we feel we have successfully accomplished what we set out to do with this research project. We learned more about Brie cheese in the past few weeks than we ever would have imagined to learn in a lifetime. It was surprising what a precise science cheese-making consists of. It was also interesting to learn the orderly and pivotal steps that are required in order to produce the perfect consistency, flavour, and appearance of Brie cheese that we as consumers are so accustomed to. Throughout our experience in FNH 200 and group work we not only learned a lot about the science and art of making cheese but also about overcoming challenges. We learned how to take on a leadership role when necessary and how to communicate effectively in challenging situations. We also learned what it means to come together as a group and to work hard to overcome challenges. Overall we feel that this group became stronger through the challenges that were faced and produced some high quality work. Furthermore, we discovered that we both have always been hesitant to approach a professor or ask too many questions. This experience really helped us overcome that apprehension and we will go into future tasks with more confidence in our abilities to produce quality and thorough work in an individual and/or group situation.
Link to a Video (14% of Project) (It is simplest to upload your video to Youtube or Vimeo, then embed it here. See or to find out how to embed a video. If you create your video elsewhere on the web, a direct link will be fine.)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project)
  • A question: What is NOT a characteristic of non-stabilized Brie cheese? a) more complex flavor. b) brown surface. c) fully matured. d) longer shelf life
  • The answer: d) longer shelf life
  • An explanation: True French Brie from France is non-stabilized and the flavor is more complex. The surface is allowed to turn slightly brown. When the cheese is still pure-white, as we see here in Canada, it is not actually fully matured. Exported Brie to Canada, however, is stabilized and never fully matures. Stabilized Brie has a much longer shelf life and is not susceptible to bacteriological infections.

Team 18: Team of Three

Team 18 Brie Cheese
Link to Wikipedia (Please contact me)
Link to the Sandbox (Please contact me)
Team Reflection (4% of Project) (A group reflection describing what you experienced and learned as a team at the beginning, development and completion of the project. Did you accomplish what you wanted to do at the beginning? Is there something else that you wanted to learn, but hadn’t? How did the team function together? What would you have done differently?)
Link to a Video (14% of Project) (It is simplest to upload your video to Youtube or Vimeo, then embed it here. See or to find out how to embed a video. If you create your video elsewhere on the web, a direct link will be fine.)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Please include:
  • A question (about 1%)
  • The answer (about 1 %) - if this is a multiple choice question, please include distractors.)
  • An explanation (about 2%) - You may not have an explanation if you decide to have a long answer question. Then, I expect a good answer above.

Team 19

Team 19 Mochi
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) At the start of the project, we learned that efficient organization of group meetings was possible when voluntary sacrifices were made by individuals despite their full agendas. Throughout the development of the project, we learned that creating an outline of tasks and within-group deadlines were important in order to keep members organized and on track of their contributions. At completion, it was clear that getting along with your teammates and getting to know them contributed to the overall cohesive unit that makes working is a group a much easier process. In the end we also learned how to use and navigate Wikipedia in order to improve articles, giving us a sense about how important a community is in order to generate and distribute knowledge.

Although we wished that we could have had more time to use a better program with more detail and animations for our video portion, we did complete each of the categories that we aimed to cover for the main body of our project. We are still very interested in knowing more about the packaging and manufacturing practices that are used in relation to mochi production, as we did not come across abundant sources of information regarding this topic. We believe that we functioned very well together due to overall each member's cooperation while also staying on top of our contributions to the project. This allowed us to complete the project a few days in advance, which provided extra time to edit. If we were to do something differently, we would have potentially chosen a food with more sources to allow group members to find relevant and more in-depth information in an easier and time-sensitive manner.

Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Mochi, or Japanese rice cake, is best preserved in a freezer. You freeze an half-finished packet of mochi, unsealed for a long time. What might happen to the mochi?

A. Loss of flavour B. Loss of softness C. Experience freezer burn D. All of above Answer. D

Explanation: We learned in lesson 9 that when freezing improperly packaged foods it can cause quality deterioration. Large ice crystals may grow in improperly packaged foods, damaging the flavour compounds in the food. These large crystals can cause water in the mochi to migrate from one side to resulting in freezer burn. The surface of the mochi may become white and tough. Starch granules can also undergo retrogradation and as water is squeezed from the starch, the structure collapses and results a gritty texture.

Team 20

Team 20 Golden Rice
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox (Please insert link to the sandbox here. This link will be removed from UBC Wiki once the project is graded.)
Team Reflection (4% of Project) (A group reflection describing what you experienced and learned as a team at the beginning, development and completion of the project. Did you accomplish what you wanted to do at the beginning? Is there something else that you wanted to learn, but hadn’t? How did the team function together? What would you have done differently?)
Link to a Video (14% of Project) (It is simplest to upload your video to Youtube or Vimeo, then embed it here. See or to find out how to embed a video. If you create your video elsewhere on the web, a direct link will be fine.)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Please include:
  • A question (about 1%)
  • The answer (about 1 %) - if this is a multiple choice question, please include distractors.)
  • An explanation (about 2%) - You may not have an explanation if you decide to have a long answer question. Then, I expect a good answer above.

Team 21

Team 21 Instant Oatmeal
Link to Wikipedia
Link to the Sandbox
Team Reflection (4% of Project) We learned that working as a team requires commitment from all members. As we all have lives outside of the classroom, we realized that it does take everyone’s contribution to complete the project. It was difficult at the beginning, especially to find a topic we all agreed on but as soon as we found our topic and assigned every member to a specific section of the report it became a lot easier. It took some push from everyone in the group to get motivated, however, we were able to get together and finish the wikipedia page. We also learned that our topic, instant oatmeal, was a lot more of a difficult food to research than we anticipated. There was not too much general information on the food science of instant oatmeal, as oatmeal has been around for many years and processing techniques are not very advanced or well documented. As well as, whole grain oats used in instant oatmeal do not differ extensively from traditional oats. It would have been interesting to further look into the nutrient profiles between instant and traditional oatmeal and to see any there are any noticeable differences between protein and antioxidant levels. Although we were able to complete the project, we would have liked to have better communication, as we were confused quite a bit of the time what we were doing and who was doing what. Communication is key to a cohesive, well-run team. Altogether, this project was a great learning experience in how to time manage and work well in a group setting.
Link to a Video (14% of Project)
Potential Final Exam Question (4% of Project) Exam question for 250

Assuming you bought whole grain rolled oats and cinnamon flavoured instant oatmeal (which has a significantly higher sugar content), which would be the healthier breakfast choice? Why? -Answer: Whole grain rolled oats, because the added sugar in the flavoured instant oatmeal causes a dramatic boost in blood glucose level and increases the risk of diabetes. Moreover, the high amount of sugar increases the chances of tooth decay by exposing the enamel to acid produced by bacteria in the mouth.

Exam question for FNH 200

In the ingredients section of instant oatmeal, should it say refined oats or whole grain oats? Why? -Answer: Even though the oats are processed more, it can still say whole grain oats. This is because oats contain the bran, germ and endosperm. However, if the oats were further processed and only contained the oat bran, it would not be a whole grain.

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