Course:EDCP333/2012Groups/Globalization

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Globalization

text
Felix Baumgartner's View from Space

Group Members: Jeff Morgan, Stacey Cassidy, Perry Harder, John Gullane



'Globalization has changed us into a company that searches the world, not just to sell or to source, but to find intellectual capital - the world's best talents and greatest ideas.' - Jack Welch -


Introduction & Purpose of this WIKI

The term Globalization, can be defined as many things which pays tribute to its ever changing nature. As our world becomes increasingly globalized, we continually gain greater understandings of what globalization means, and more importantly, what this looks like. For a brief video introduction into globalization, please click on the link below: Intro to Globalization

The purpose of this wiki:

This wiki is designed to provide resources for teachers in an attempt to educate students on globalization.  The information provided here can be used as background information, complimentary materials to lessons as well as full lesson plans designed to work in accordance with the BC Ministry Education prescribed learning outcomes.  

A framework to consider before getting started:

The term Globalization is often loosely applied in a variety of settings, many which are often applicable.  As a term, globalization is often used to describe the ways in which certain things are interconnected on a global scale. In many ways, the issues regarding globalization cannot be separated simply due to the nature of the concept. However, in order to provide clarity as well as consistency, this wiki has been designed to highlight four major themes: social, economic, political and environmental.  These themes or issues of globalization are presented in a way that they can be explored separately within the classroom or together as one large unit.  Currently there is no clear cut unit within the BC education on globalization; that being said, as Social Studies teachers this is a topic that is not only relevant and significant, but it can be implemented within many of the grade levels in a variety of units and lessons.

What you will find:

This wiki has been divided into 4 themes concerning globalization: social, economic, political and environmental. Within each of these sections you will find resources providing background information on the topic, resources that can be used within the class and lesson plans that incorporate elements of globalization based on learning outcomes prescribed by the BC Ministry of Education. 

Happy Teaching :) 


Unit Plan

With the rapid growth of technology, an increase in population and the world achieving the ultimate level of interconnectedness through the World Wide Web, globalization has become a trending topic in the media and should also become a focus within education. This unit is designed to take place within a Geography 12 course but has a wide variety of applications that can even extend into Social Studies 11, Social Justice and IB Geography 11 courses. This unit overview provides eight individual lessons, each with a central theme that becomes the framework for the learning objectives. As a topic, globalization has quickly become a hot and trending “buzz” word that can often be used as a default to describe specific issues impacting the social, economic, political and environmental institutions around the globe. This unit attempts to highlight the big issues within these guiding themes and encourages students to fully comprehend what globalization is, its level of impact and influence as well as identify and assess the areas that demand a greater focus. Globalization is often presented in larger than life topic, with far too many avenues of discussion to bring into the classroom.

[1]

Social/Cultural Aspects of Globalization


This section of the wiki looks at how globalization affects the lives and works of people and the interconnectedness of the global community. Socially and culturally globalization is a driving force shaping and influenceing the way countries, cities and people exchange knowledge, ideas, and even goods. Globalization has become an phenomenon which is constantly inserting itself into the lives of individuals and the entire globe.

Some of the topics suggessted to cover that fall within this framework and could be taught within the classroom are:

  • Media and Advertisements
  • Labour regulations in developing countries
  • Gender and globalization
  • Evolution of Social Media

Within this section of the wiki you can also find additional resources and an exemplary lesson plan to use within the classroom.



Resources to use in the classroom

  • Behind the Swoosh



  • The 100,000 student classroom.


  • The Ad and the Ego Harold Boihem. California Newsreel, 1996. 60 min.

A video which focuses on the realities of advertising and its production as an industry as well as its ability to shape what human beings require as "necessities" for living.




Lesson Plan

Geography 12: Globalization Unit Lesson Title: "Who made that? How much did it cost?" - A Case Study on Nike Sweatshops by Stacey

In this lesson plan students will discuss the realities of how products are made, where they are made as well as the social and cultural implications that result from textile industries being established in developing nations. Students will have the opportunity to watch the brief documentary film, "Nike Sweatshops: Behind the Swoosh," to provide an example of the harsh realities and ugly truths associated with sweatshops. From this lesson students will have the opportunity to conduct their own research on products or clothing that they are familar with in order to create a greater understanding of how the production of a pair of shoes impacts the globe.

[2]



Economic


The rapid growth of world economies and the increasing connections between them. As Nation states attempt to grow their individual economies, the current global economic climate increasingly forces them to look internationally in order to spark growth within their own borders.

Noam Chomsky on Globalization (Political + Economic)

Background Information

A great intro article for information on the new world economy

Article: Intriligator, Michael D., “Globalization of the world economy: potential benefits and costs and a net assessment.” January 2003, No.33, Milken Institute.

Summary and Response

The linked article is a great article in terms of an introduction and assessment regarding the growth of a new world economy. The article explores the various aspects of economic globalization and some factors that the author feels instigated this development. The author provides a nice step by step outline as to the development of the globalized economy. In regards to factors leading to the development of a globalized economy, the author provides five forces that contributed to its immergence. The five forces that he outlines goes as follows: 1) The development of technology, 2) The liberalization of trade and economic policy, 3) The growth of and changes to corporate institutions through the development of technology, 4) The increased world wide belief in market economies and free trade, and 5) The homogenization of media, arts, pop culture, and the increased used of English worldwide. He then proceeds to explore the pros and cons of the effects related to a new world economy. The author confronts issues regarding a globalized economy as also examines an array of benefits that come as a result of the new globalized economy. In the final portion of the article Michael D. Intriligator, provides what he feels would be the best way to utilize the new world economy to create a more stable form of world cooperation. The model he presents puts forth a vision for increased global institutions where a group of representatives from a variety of countries act as a world moderator that seeks to promote increased economic equality. Intriligator believes that such institutions would also act to ensure that international economic conflicts do not escalate into military or politically involved disagreements. Whether you agree or not with his eventual proposal for the growth of international institutions, Intriligator presents an extensive model that provides students with major factors that lead to a globalized economy. This is a great resource to familiarize oneself with the foundations of our current world economy that allows for great discussion in this subject.


BBC Article on World Food Crisis

The following link from the BBC provides a great discussion on the effects of food droughts on world crop prices. The link provides information as well as graphs displaying the largest producers of rice, soyabeans, maize, wheat, sugar cane, and potatoes.

BBC News- Food price crisis: What crisis?

Teaching Tools & Lesson Plans

The link below is a resource that provides potential activities for teaching the concept of globalization as well as activities specifically for economic globalization.

"International Trade: Competition and Cooperation in a Globalized World" The Choices Program


Sample Lesson #1

An Introduction to US trade

In this activity, students examine where the clothes they are wearing were made. After identifying where their clothes came from, students map out these locations in order to visualize the extent and reach of US trading around the world. This activity could similarly be done from Canada where students examine the links between their city and where their clothing came from. The sequential lesson might include the effects of the globalized economy on national markets and producers.

The next part of the lesson could be a case study of what the effects of global trade can do to local markets. One could conduct a case study on the sale and trade of Corn. Some of the dialogue for a mini lecture for students could look somewhat like the text below:

"......So when we think about the trade of corn as a source for ethanol fuel, what could some of the other consequences be?

(Cleaner fuel for burning. Better for the environment.)

Yes this is true! Burn ethanol fuel may be cleaner and it is also a renewable fuel source that we could draw from. What other effects could there be? Possibly negative effects? How come the price of fuel is expensive for people right now?

(Because there is a high demand)

"That is right! Now what would happen to the price of corn if the production of ethanol became a major source of fuel for the world?" ...." Would it matter if the price of corn went way up if we now have a renewable energy source and its cleaner?" What about all those people who live off of corn to survive? If the price was driven up by demand, those struggling to survive wouldn't be able to afford their main source of food because the demand has driven the price skyward!"

Essentially the lesson breakdown could go as follows:

Intro Activity: Clothing Activity

Interactive lecture: Corn prices case study

Closure: Class reflection and exit slip



Sample Lesson #2

Government & Economics: The Ties That Bind

In this lesson, students will have completed units on government as well as economics. The purpose of this lesson is for students to understand the link between these two concepts. The goals is also for students to be able to identify how these two concepts are constantly changing and are constantly interconnected. The lesson also seeks to find ways to connect these two concepts to the government and economy that the students experience and interact with everyday.

Over the course of the unit tying governments to economies, students will be assigned chapters from the text provided by the teacher for this unit. The students will work in groups to present the concepts and ideas in the text to the class until all the groups have had a chance to present. This lesson is to be done over the course of several classes not one or two periods. By the end of the presentations and reviews, students will have a greater understanding of the links between government and economics as outlined in the objectives of the lesson.

To connect to the lesson, follow the link below: Government & Economics: The Ties That Bind


Sample Research Project #1

Economies of the world Case Study - Possible project for Grades 10-12

After introducing your classes to the concepts regarding globalization and the effects of an increasing global economy, students will have the opportunity to examine a country's economy and its role in the world economy. In this project, students will have the ability to choose a country of their choice and examine several aspects of their economy. Some of the criteria that students will face when confronting their projects may include:

In this project, you will choose to examine the economy of a country of your choice and compile the information into a written project, powerpoint presentation or slide show. Some factors that you will investigate surrounding your country's economy will include:

1. Country Name

2. List several of your country's major natural resources

3. Find out what your country's largest exports are per year

4. Examine and list which countries are the largest consumers of your country's exports

5. Investigate which products your country imports the most

6. Examine which countries your economy buys the most goods from yearly

7. If you are able to access enough information, find out whether or not your country has any trade agreements with any other countries around the world.

Some valuable websites to recommend to students for completing this project:

CIA - The World Factbook

Import Export Guide, Trade Contracts and Resources- Exportfocus.com

Country Rankings: Foreign Trade Exports Imports Globalization Population Currencies


By performing this project, students will gather a more tactful understanding of how economies work and how they continue to connect around the world. By examining one countries economy, they have will the chance to see first hand how diverse most countries are in terms of who they export to and where their imported goods come from.

Political


This sub-section of globalization emphasizes the reduction of state barriers and the phasing out of the nation-state system. We also look to comprehend the emergence of transnational bureaucrats and their associated governing bodies (UN, NATO) as global actors.

Kofi Annan meets with Syria's Bashar al Assad


'Neoliberalism' can be described as the contemporary emergence of a political-economic system that places a significant emphasis on 'capital formation' as the most important asset to state power & consolidation. The capacity of the state to act as a global financial actor has therefore been limited. Private business and Multi- National Corporations (MNCs) ultimately dictate where capital flows by investing in states with the least barriers to trade (low tariff rates, devaluation of currency etc). At the same time, states have become 'hyper-protective' agents in protecting their own political boundaries. Ironically, in this 'globalized' era that should be emphasizing 'openness' and 'transmission', states in more economically developed countries restrict migratory access unless a traveler has a 'Visa' and adheres to 'biometric scanning' (eye scan, finger print). There are two clear-cut political processes that are a reaction to globalization:



Process of 'De-territorialisation': Political Economy

Governments are less able to control the activities of mobile businesses than in the past, while corporations and finance are in a better position to dictate how national governments operate.

Process to 'Territorialize': The Worried State

The 'state' tends to like things that are fixed and static. Crossing borders have tended to worry the nation-state historically. Therefore, the rise of national border control has resulted in response to Globalization. Physically and territorially, there is an emphasis on:

A) Surveillance of external border (frontier that cannot be controlled, so it is surveilled)

B) Controlled border points (airports - biometrics, travel documents needed)


Sample Lesson #1

Politics and Issues of Migration Using Political Cartoons (SS11, His12, Geo12)

Objectives:

1. Allow students to engage with political texts in a critical manner

2. Connect past and present issues about immigration

3. Understand how cartoons use irony and caricature to make a political statement


Introduction

'Hook' students in by facilitating a classroom discussion on border control. Have they travelled through to the US? On a plane? Why may there be so much heightened security at State Borders. Show AlJazeera Youtube clip (3min) titled, "Migrant families divided at Mexican Border"


Body

Collaborative groupwork (3-4 students). Create a simple worksheet with questions that facilitates discussion among students. The Anti-Chinese Wall political cartoon (March 9, 1882) with excerpt from Chinese Exclusion Act, which became a law in Canada in May of 1882. How may this discrimination affect immigration to Canada? Can it still be seen today? Guide students on Irony & Caricature found within the image.


Conclusion

Connect these historical notions of discrimination to present debates. There are many political cartoons on migrant work / cheap labour which results from Globalization. Create a second worksheet, facilitate more discussion among students. Tie it together by going over both worksheets on an overhead.


In-Class Activity: Analyzing contemporary/past immigration policies using editorial cartoons.[[3]]



Sample Lesson #2

International Conflict: Darfur and the Global Humanitarian Crisis (Geo12)

Objectives

1. Get students thinking about how interconnected our world has become concerning international aid

2. Effectively work in groups to disseminate information on a particular political topic.

3. Work on presentation skills, public thinking, and 'thinking on your feet' when presenting group facts to class.


A by-product of globalization is a growing awareness of conflicts around the globe that infringe on issues of human rights. NGO's often act as intermediaries to help aid those in need. Funds for these international actors come from all over the globe to support a humanitarian crisis.


Introduction

Facilitate classroom discussion by asking the class what type of international conflicts they know of. Were there NGOs or humanitarian aid involved? Also prod into natural disasters that also need international aid for recovery.


Body

Book a computer lab for this lesson and split the class into four groups for an online collaborative activity. each of the four groups need to find a sufficient amount of information on the topic to present to the class at the end.

1. The Janjaweed

BBC: Sudan's Shadowy Militia Who are the Janjaweed?

2. Illness among the people of Darfur

Unicef Statistics Malnutrition and Food Emergency

3. The Impact on Chad and Other Neighboring Countries (Refugee Push)

Darfur's refugees in Chad

4. International response to crisis in Darfur International Crisis Group: Darfur


Conclusion

Following extensive research during class time, get students to present their findings on the four aspects of the crisis in Darfur and how it has a global dimension. Conflicts are no longer confined to aggressors/defenders; the world becomes aware through media.




Environmental


The result of the increasing connections between manufacturing/resource extraction, the environment and the growth of protection agencies (IPCC, Greenpeace)

An excellent, yet long, video documenting the ever changing earth as a result of Globalization:

How Globalization can be Detrimental to the Environment

This is often the more popular view of globalization and the environment: that The increasing interconnectedness between nations and multi-national corporations is leading to the destruction of and possible exploitation of the environment. While this is not always the case, this often the result of this new linkage. One example presents itself on a very local level for students in British Columbia:

Sample Activity/Lesson #1

Closer to home: Keystone XL and Northern Gateway Pipelines - sample lesson for Grande 11/12 students

This activity allows students to grasp an issue that is very close to their own community. Both the Keystone XL and Northern Gateway pipelines are proposed projects that would aid in the expansion of the Alberta Tar Sands and allow Canada to export more oil than ever before. The following debate activity shows the students both sides of the argument for and against this projects and how more global factors ultimately influence the final decisions on whether or not they become reality.

1) The class is spit in half with one side taking a pro side to building the pipelines and the other arguing against their construction.

2) The students will be given time to research their side of the argument using their smartphones and laptops (the class will be divided so there will be ample resources for both positions)

3) The students will debate using a Lincoln/Douglas style (described to them utilizing a handout). They will alternate and cross examine each other in order to more effectively argue their points.

4) After the debate is over, the students will vote on who was the victor of the debate and write an exit slip on the effects of globalization on the environment both within Canada and in other nations

This activity allows the students to engage with each other in a competition, creating an atmosphere where arguments will be well developed and precise.

How Globalization can be Beneficial to the Environment

The dissemination of "Green" technologies from the developed world. The creation of UN conventions and accords that are designed to lesson human environmental impact. Also, the creation of multinational environmentally minded organizations such as GreenPeace that attempt to halt environmental wrongdoing.

Sample Activity/Lesson #2:

The Kyoto Protocol: Globalization at its Finest? - sample lesson for Grade 11/12 students

This project gives students an opportunity to explore countries other than their own and how they are attempting to make changes for the better of the planet. This involves countries who took part in the Kyoto Accord and how they may or may not be meeting the goals that have been set for them. With this research activity, students can begin to see how multinational organizations, such as the UN, are attempting to aid in the impact of human industry on the planet and reduce the amounts of greenhouse gasses emitted:

1) Students, on their own or in groups, will be asked to pick a country from the list of participating nations Which can be found here on page 23.

2) Research will be done to find what the goals set out by the Kyoto Protocol are for their individual nations.

3) Students will research as to whether or not their country is on goal to meet their goals and what hindering/helping them.

4) Students will be required to write a "report card" on their country complete with letter grade and reasoning behind their evaluation.


Scholarly Articles and Critique

"No Child Left Behind" Globalization, Privatization, and the Politics of Inequality

By Paul Lipman (Citation listed under Readings tab)


When considering the topics regarding the "No Child Left Behind" educational reform discussed in Lipman's article several concepts are necessary for his critique. The major concept necessary for understanding Lipman's protest regarding the educational reform is the concept of Neoliberalism. As Lipman defines it, neoliberalism can best be described as the push for privatization of the public sphere, deregulation of corporations, and global competition for markets. It is within this framework that Lipman places the "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) educational reform project from the United States. One of Lipman's major critiques, which is hard to refute, is that the standardized testing and evaluation of results that are essential to the NCLB program are not only detrimental to student learning especially minority students, it is also a microcosm of neoliberalist ideals breaching into our students education.


Introduction: Education's Iron Cage and Its Dismantling in the New Global Order

By George Martell (Citation listed under Readings tab)

Martell's article can be evaluated as a social commentary about the inhumanity of the world's educational system, especially among the working class and colonized peoples. He clearly articulates how there is an overwhelming neoliberal framework at play in the educational system which is controlled by ruling-class policies.

Martell argues how the focus of the current form of education is to deepen corporate control of the world's working people. The purpose of this 'capitalist assault' in schools is two-fold:

A) To increase profits - outsourcing school services for private profit ('privatization')

B) Intensify production of human capital (workers needed in capitalist system)

The Iron Cage in the article is described as a structure of coercive economic and psychological relationships whose central function is the creation of human capital. Schools are a setting for a 'capitalist fusion' creating workers, citizens, and consumers out of the student politik. Students effectively become extensions of machines. Martell then goes on to assess how this iron cage is slowly disintegrating. There has been a new wave of global resistance to neoliberalism and changes in schools are slowly underway. The metaphor of the iron cage is disintegrating; just as if it was left out in the rain - the elements would turn the iron into rust and it would slowly disintegrate.


Introduction: What is Neoliberalism?

By E. Wayne Ross & Rich Gibson (Citation listed under Readings Tab)

Ross and Gibson's introduction can be seen as a definition of neoliberalism and how it applies to to education. They argue that the ideology of neoliberalism, originating in the United States and being utilized by many corporations and governments, is damaging not only societies but also countries and even schools.

To describe neoliberalim, Ross and Gibson name five points that a government is to realize in order to breed neoliberalism within their borders and within their citizens. They are:

1) Rule of the market: liberating private enterprises from any restrictions imposed by the state

2) Cutting public expenditure for social services

3) Deregulation: Reduction of government regulation that diminish profit

4) Privatization: Selling state-owned enterprises, goods and services to private investors and finally,

5) Elimination of the concept of the public good or community These ideals, while seeming frightening, are some of the pillars that hold up neoliberalism in its purest form.

These five rules have worked their way into American schools and is beginning to find its way into the halls of schools in British Colombia. Through the reduction of school funding and the loss of certain services (libraries, Educational Assistants etc.) and the addition of standardized testing prevents students from becoming critical thinkers. Instead there are students being aught the answers without having to find them on their own; that they no longer their surroundings. This plays into the hands of neoliberalism by creating adults who won't be questioning the status quo; creating people who are satisfied with where and how power is located.


"The New Right Agenda and teacher resistance in Canadian education." by Larry Kuehn

Kuehn's article is written in response to the British Columbia Teacher's Fedearation reaction to the job action strike in Occtober 2005. Kuehn presents his arguement to show the support that BC teachers gained from various teacher unions and organizations throughout the world. This case of solidarity, Kuehn believes, reflects the broad ageneral nature of politics in the era of neo-liberal globalization and how they have undermined public educationand it promise of euqity and democracry. In the article Kuehen presents four concepts that were presented by Mike Apple to the BCTF. These four themes, neo-liberalism, neo-conservatism, authoritarianism and new managerialism describe the alliance of the "new right agenda." Kuehn believes that in order to move forward in the direction that 21st century education demands is to challenge the dominance of the right wing agendas which influence education.


Globalization in the BC Minitry of Education IRP's: Critique.

Readings:


Kuehn, L. (2006, Spring). The New Right agenda and teaching resistance in Canadian education. Our Schools/Our Selves, 15(3), 127-141 [4]


Lipman, P. (2006) No Child Left Behind: Globalization, privatization and the politics of inequality. In E.W. Ross & R. Gibson (Eds.), Neoliberalism and education reform (pp.35-58). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.


Martell, G. (2006). Introduction: Education's iron cage and its dismantling in the new global order. Our Schools/Our Selves, 15(3), 1-13. [5]


Ross, E.W., & Gibson, R. (2007) Introduction: What is Neoliberalism? In E.W. Ross & R. Gibson (Eds.), Neoliberalism and Education Reform (pp.1-14). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. [6]

Websites

globalissues.org "Social, Political, Economic, and Environmental Issues That Effect Us All."

International Trade: Competition and Cooperation in a Globalized World. Choices Program

World Economics- The Journal of Current Economic Analysis and Policy

Lesson Plans and Teaching Strategies

www.foreignaffairs.com Published by the Council on Foreign Relations

Global Envision Website

Rethinking Schools - Globalization

Globalization 101

Additional Resources on Globalization

Lesson Plans


See specific sections for lessons, projects, and activity samples

Globalization 101 Lesson Plan

PBS

Environmental Resources


Five Propositions

Globalization and the Environment

Globalization Plays a Bit Part in Environmental Issues

Why Globalization is (mostly) Green

Globalization and the Environment: Panayotou

Globalization and the Enviroment: Determinants of of Firm Self-Regulation in China

Educator Resources

One Hundred Percent American

Bigelow, B & Peterson, B. (Eds.). (2002). "Rethinking Globalization: Teaching for justice in an unjust world." Wisconsin: Rethinking Schools Press.

Globalization & History: The Evolution of Nineteenth Century Atlantic Economy- By Kevin H. O'Rourke and Jeffrey Gale Villiamson. c.1999 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Behind the Swoosh: The Struggle of Indonesians Making Nike Shoes edited by Jeff Ballinger and Claes Olsson. Upsalla, Sweden: Global Publications Foundation, 1997.